177 relations: A. V. Dicey, Adam Smith, African National Congress, American Civil War, American Revolution, Anarchism, Ancient Greek, Ancient warfare, Aristocracy, Aristocracy (class), Aristotle, Australia, Authoritarianism, Autocracy, Bourgeoisie, Christian democracy, Civil libertarianism, Civil liberties, Clan, Classical liberalism, Classless society, Coalition, Columbia University, Communism, Communist society, Company, Confederation, Confucius, Constitution, Constitutional monarchy, Contract, Corruption, Cosmopolitanism, Count, Cronyism, Cuban Missile Crisis, David Hume, David Ricardo, Decision-making, Democracy, Divine right of kings, Duke, Earl, Early Modern English, Economics, Egalitarianism, Election, Embezzlement, English Civil War, Extortion, ..., Fascism, Federation, Force (law), France, Francis Lieber, Free market, Free will, French Revolution, Friedrich Engels, Globalization, Government, Graft (politics), Great Britain, Great power, Harold Lasswell, Hereditary monarchy, History of political thought, House of Lords, Human development (humanity), Human rights, Human trafficking, Ideology, Illegal drug trade, Index of law articles, Index of politics articles, Indian National Congress, Individual, Institute for Humane Studies, International relations, John Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, John Locke, Judiciary, Karl Marx, King, Kleptocracy, L. Susan Brown, Laissez-faire, Latin, Latinisation of names, Law, Left-wing politics, Libertarianism, Limited government, List of political ideologies, List of years in politics, Local government, Lord, Manchester University Press, Middle French, Military service, Modern English, Monarchy, Money laundering, Montesquieu, National Assembly, Natural and legal rights, Nazi Germany, Negotiation, Nepotism, Norberto Bobbio, Nuclear blackmail, Nuclear weapon, Oligarchy, Organized crime, Outline of law, Outline of political science, Party platform, Patronage, Paul James (academic), Peronism, Plato, Police brutality, Polis, Political economy, Political freedom, Political lists, Political organisation, Political party, Political philosophy, Political repression, Political science, Political spectrum, Political system, Politics (Aristotle), Power (social and political), Privy council, Proletariat, Public administration, Regime, Regulated market, Republic, Republic (Plato), Restoration (England), Right to property, Right-wing politics, Rights, Secession, Secularism, Social democracy, Social progress, Social stratification, Society, South Africa, Sovereign state, Sovereignty, Soviet Union, State (polity), Students' union, Terza Posizione, The Communist Manifesto, The Politics of Individualism, Thermonuclear weapon, Thirteen Colonies, Thomas Hobbes, Timocracy, Tory, Totalitarianism, Tradition, Tribe, Tribute, Tyrant, United Nations, University of Chicago Press, Voltaire, War, William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, World War II. Expand index (127 more) » « Shrink index
Albert Venn Dicey, KC, FBA (4 February 1835 – 7 April 1922), usually cited as A. V. Dicey, was a British jurist and constitutional theorist.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
The aristocracy is a social class that a particular society considers its highest order.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Christian democracy is a political ideology that emerged in nineteenth-century Europe under the influence of Catholic social teaching, as well as Neo-Calvinism.
Civil libertarianism is a strain of political thought that supports civil liberties, or which emphasizes the supremacy of individual rights and personal freedoms over and against any kind of authority (such as a state, a corporation, social norms imposed through peer pressure and so on).
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Classless society refers to a society in which no one is born into a social class.
The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more persons, faction, states, political parties, militaries etc.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
In Marxist thought, communist society or the communist system is the type of society and economic system postulated to emerge from technological advances in the productive forces, representing the ultimate goal of the political ideology of Communism.
A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.
A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
Corruption is a form of dishonesty undertaken by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit.
Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality.
Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.
Cronyism is the practice of partiality in awarding jobs and other advantages to friends, family relatives or trusted colleagues, especially in politics and between politicians and supportive organizations.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.
In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
An earl is a member of the nobility.
Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.
Embezzlement is the act of withholding assets for the purpose of conversion (theft) of such assets, by one or more persons to whom the assets were entrusted, either to be held or to be used for specific purposes.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
Extortion (also called shakedown, outwrestling and exaction) is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from an individual or institution, through coercion.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
In law, force means unlawful violence, or lawful compulsion.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis Lieber (March 18, 1798 or 1800 – October 2, 1872), known as Franz Lieber in Germany, was a German-American jurist, gymnast and political philosopher.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
Graft, as understood in American English, is a form of political corruption, being the unscrupulous use of a politician's authority for personal gain.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
Harold Dwight Lasswell (February 13, 1902 – December 18, 1978) was a leading American political scientist and communications theorist.
A hereditary monarchy is a form of government and succession of power in which the throne passes from one member of a royal family to another member of the same family.
The history of political thought dates back to antiquity while the political history of the world and thus the history of political thinking by man stretches up through the Medieval period and the Renaissance.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Human development is the science that seeks to understand how and why the people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
This collection of lists of law topics collects the names of topics related to law.
This is a list of political topics, including political science terms, political philosophies, political issues, etc.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity.
The Institute for Humane Studies (IHS) is a libertarian non-profit organization that engages with students and professors throughout the United States.
International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.
John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, (10 January 1834 – 19 June 1902), was an English Catholic historian, politician, and writer.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
King, or King Regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.
Kleptocracy (from Greek κλέπτης kléptēs, "thief", κλέπτω kléptō, "I steal", and -κρατία -kratía from κράτος krátos, "power, rule") is a government with corrupt leaders (kleptocrats) that use their power to exploit the people and natural resources of their own territory in order to extend their personal wealth and political powers.
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
In political philosophy, limited government is where the government is empowered by law from a starting point of having no power, or where governmental power is restricted by law, usually in a written constitution.
In social studies, a political ideology is a certain set of ethical ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of a social movement, institution, class or large group that explains how society should work and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order.
This page indexes the individual year in politics pages.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler.
Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.
Middle French (le moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries.
Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription).
Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Money laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
National Assembly politically is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Negotiation comes from the Latin neg (no) and otsia (leisure) referring to businessmen who, unlike the patricians, had no leisure time in their industriousness; it held the meaning of business (le négoce in French) until the 17th century when it took on the diplomatic connotation as a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issues.
Nepotism is based on favour granted to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities.
Norberto Bobbio (18 October 1909 – 9 January 2004) was an Italian philosopher of law and political sciences and a historian of political thought.
Nuclear blackmail is a form of nuclear strategy in which an aggressor uses the threat of use of nuclear weapons to force an adversary to perform some action or make some concessions.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to law: Law – is the set of rules and principles (laws) by which a society is governed, through enforcement by governmental authorities.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to politics and political science: Politics – the exercise of power; process by which groups of people make collective decisions.
A political party platform or program is a formal set of principle goals which are supported by a political party or individual candidate, in order to appeal to the general public, for the ultimate purpose of garnering the general public's support and votes about complicated topics or issues.
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
Paul James (born 1958, Melbourne), is Professor of Globalization and Cultural Diversity at Western Sydney University, and Director of the Institute for Culture and Society where he has been since 2014.
Peronism (peronismo) or Justicialism (justicialismo) is an Argentine political movement based on the political ideology and legacy of former President Juan Domingo Perón and his second wife Eva Perón.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Police brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which involves undue violence by police members.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.
Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.
This page is a list of political lists.
A political organisation or political organization is any organization that involves itself in the political process, including political parties, non-governmental organizations, advocacy groups and special interest groups.
A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Political repression is the persecution of an individual or group within society for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of a society thereby reducing their standing among their fellow citizens.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
A political spectrum is a system of classifying different political positions upon one or more geometric axes that symbolize independent political dimensions.
A political system is a system of politics and government.
Politics (Πολιτικά, Politiká) is a work of political philosophy by Aristotle, a 4th-century BC Greek philosopher.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
In politics, a regime (also known as "régime", from the original French spelling) is the form of government or the set of rules, cultural or social norms, etc.
A regulated market (RM) or controlled market is an idealized system where the government controls the forces of supply and demand, such as who is allowed to enter the market and/or what prices may be charged.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.
Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio) is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
Social progress is the idea that societies can or do improve in terms of their social, political, and economic structures.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
A students' union, student government, free student union, student senate, students' association, guild of students, or government of student body is a student organization present in many colleges, universities, and high schools.
The Third Position (Terza Posizione) was a far-right group founded in Rome in 1978 (but already present with the name of Lotta Studentesca from 1976).
The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism, and Anarchism is a 1993 political science book by L. Susan Brown.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
A timocracy (from Greek τιμή timē, "price, worth" and -κρατία -kratia, "rule")in Aristotle's Politics is a state where only property owners may participate in government.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, (15 November 1708 – 11 May 1778) was a British statesman of the Whig group who led the government of Great Britain twice in the middle of the 18th century.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
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