323 relations: Absorbed dose, Acid rain, Actinides in the environment, Activated sludge, Aerated lagoon, Agbogbloshie, Air pollution, Air pollution in India, Air pollution in the United States, Aircraft noise, Allelopathy, Alpha particle, Amoco Cadiz, Anthropocene, API oil–water separator, Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants, Arsenic, Artisanal mining, Astronomy, Atmospheric chemistry observational databases, Atomic physics, August Bebel, Australia, Aviation fuel, Baffle spray scrubber, Benzene, Berlin, Bhopal disaster, Billboard, Bioaccumulation, Biodiversity, Biofilter, Biological hazard, Biomagnification, Birth defect, Boat, Brittany, Brownfield land, C. Arden Pope, Cadmium, Canada, Cancer, Car, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon tax, Carcinogen, Cardiovascular disease, Chemical hazard, Chemical industry, ..., Chemical plant, Chemical substance, Chernobyl, Chicago, China, Chlorine, Chlorofluorocarbon, Chromium, Cincinnati, Citarum River, Clean Air Act (United States), Clean Air Act 1956, Clean Water Act, Climate change, Coal, Cold War, Competition (biology), Compost, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Constructed wetland, Contamination, Contamination control, Cyclonic separation, Cyclonic spray scrubber, Dangerous goods, Debris, Demand, Developing country, Developmental disorder, Dissolved air flotation, Donora, Pennsylvania, Dust collector, Dyeing, Dzerzhinsk, Russia, Earth Day, Edward I of England, Effluent, Ejector venturi scrubber, Electric power transmission, Electrostatic precipitator, Emission standard, Emissions trading, Energy, Environment (biophysical), Environmental economics, Environmental health, Environmental impact of shipping, Environmental issues in Russia, Environmental mitigation, Environmental movement, Environmental racism, Environmental resource management, Environmental soil science, Environmentalism, Eutrophication, Exhaust gas, Externality, Externalization, Fateful Harvest, Fertilizer, Fluorocarbon, Food web, Forging, Free market, Gasoline, Genetic pollution, Geography of Mexico, German Empire, Global warming, Great Pacific garbage patch, Great Smog of London, Great Stink, Greenhouse gas, Groundwater pollution, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Hazardous waste, Hazaribagh, Health effects from noise, Hearing loss, Heavy industry, Heavy metals, Herbicide, Hudson River, Human feces, Human impact on the environment, Human skin, Hydrocarbon, Hypertension, Index of waste management articles, India, Industrial park, Industrial Revolution, Industrial waste, Industrial wastewater treatment, Industry, Invasive species, Kabwe, Kalimantan, Lake Karachay, Land development, Landfill, Landform, Lead, Lead poisoning, Lead smelting, Lead–acid battery, Library of Congress Control Number, Light pollution, List of environmental issues, List of glaciers in Greenland, List of solid waste treatment technologies, Litter, London, London sewerage system, Los Angeles, Love Canal, Low-impact development (U.S. and Canada), Manufacturing, Manure, Marginal abatement cost, Marginal cost, Marginal utility, Marina DeBris, Marine debris, Marine pollution, Market failure, Matanza River, Mechanically aided scrubber, Medication, Medicine, Mercury poisoning, Metal toxicity, Methyl tert-butyl ether, Micrometre, Microplastics, Mining, Motor vehicle, Municipal solid waste, Mutagen, Nasal congestion, National Environmental Policy Act, National Institutes of Health, Natural selection, Neurology, Nickel–cadmium battery, Niger Delta, Nitrogen oxide, Noise Control Act, Noise pollution, Nonpoint source pollution, Norilsk, North Pacific Gyre, Nuclear power, Nuclear weapon, Occupational noise, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Ocean acidification, Oil platform, Oil refinery, Oil tanker, Open defecation, Organism, Organochloride, Over illumination, Overconsumption, Oxygen, Ozone, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Paint, Particulates, Permissible exposure limit, Persistent organic pollutant, Pesticide, Petrochemical, PH, Photosynthesis, Phytoremediation, Pit latrine, Plastic pollution, Point source pollution, Pollutant, Pollution haven hypothesis, Pollution in China, Pollution prevention, Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, Polyvinyl chloride, Population growth, Powdered activated carbon treatment, Power station, Prehistory, Progressive Era, Public security, Pure Earth, Radioactive contamination, Radioactive decay, Radioactive waste, Rash, Recycling, Regulation of greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act, Respiratory disease, Reuse, River Thames, Roadway noise, Science (journal), Scrubber, Sedimentation (water treatment), Septic tank, Sewage, Sewage treatment, Sewerage, Sleep disorder, Smog, Social cost, Soil, Soil contamination, Sonar, Soot, Soviet Union, Space debris, Spray tower, Stormwater, Stress (biology), Sulfur dioxide, Superfund, Superfund Research Program, Surface mining, Surface runoff, Surface water, Tanning (leather), Tariff, Temperature, The Guardian, Thermal oxidizer, Thermal pollution, Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station, Throat, Times Internet, Toxicology, Toxics Release Inventory, TOXMAP, Trophic level, Tropical cyclone, Tropospheric ozone, Ultrafiltration, United States Department of the Interior, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States National Library of Medicine, Urban planning, Urban runoff, USA Today, Utility, Valley of the Drums, Vapor recovery, Vehicle emissions control, Visual pollution, Waste, Waste management, Waste minimisation, Wastewater, Wastewater quality indicators, Water pollution, Water quality, Welfare, Wet scrubber, Wheelbarrow, World Health Organization, World population, Worldwatch Institute, Zinc, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, 5 Gyres. 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Absorbed dose is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionizing radiation.
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
Actinides in the environment refer to the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of actinides in Earth's environment.
The activated sludge process is a type of wastewater treatment process for treating sewage or industrial wastewaters using aeration and a biological floc composed of bacteria and protozoa.
An aerated lagoon (or aerated pond) is a simple wastewater treatment system consisting of a pond with artificial aeration to promote the biological oxidation of wastewaters.
Agbogbloshie is a nickname of a commercial district on the Korle Lagoon of the Odaw River, near the center of Accra, Ghana's capital city.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Air pollution in India is a serious issue with the major sources being fuelwood and biomass burning, fuel adulteration, vehicle emission and traffic congestion.
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere.
Aircraft noise is noise pollution produced by aircraft during the various phases of a flight.
Allelopathy is a biological phenomenon by which an organism produces one or more biochemicals that influence the germination, growth, survival, and reproduction of other organisms.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Amoco Cadiz was a very large crude carrier (VLCC) under the Liberian flag of convenience owned by Amoco and transporting crude oil for Shell.
The Anthropocene is a proposed epoch dating from the commencement of significant human impact on the Earth's geology and ecosystems, including, but not limited to, anthropogenic climate change.
An API oil–water separator is a device designed to separate gross amounts of oil and suspended solids from the wastewater effluents of oil refineries, petrochemical plants, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants and other industrial oily water sources.
Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants is a book about the composition and treatment of the various wastewater streams produced in the hydrocarbon processing industries (i.e., oil refineries, petrochemical plants and natural gas processing plants).
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Artisanal and Small Scale Mining (ASM) is emerging as an important socio-economic sector for the rural poor in many developing nations.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Over the last two centuries many environmental chemical observations have been made from a variety of ground-based, airborne, and orbital platforms and deposited in databases.
Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus.
Ferdinand August Bebel (22 February 1840 – 13 August 1913) was a German socialist politician, writer, and orator.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Aviation fuel is a specialized type of petroleum-based fuel used to power aircraft.
Baffle spray scrubbers are a technology for air pollution control.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Bhopal disaster, also referred to as the Bhopal gas tragedy, was a gas leak incident on the night of 2–3 December 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
A billboard (also called a hoarding in the UK and many other parts of the world) is a large outdoor advertising structure (a billing board), typically found in high-traffic areas such as alongside busy roads.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Biofiltration is a pollution control technique using a bioreactor containing living material to capture and biologically degrade pollutants.
Biological hazards, also known as biohazards, refer to biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, primarily that of humans.
Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification or biological magnification, is the increasing concentration of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of tolerant organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
A boat is a watercraft of a large range of type and size.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Brownfield land is a term used in urban planning to describe any previously developed land that is not currently in use, whether contaminated or not or, in North America, more specifically to describe land previously used for industrial or commercial purposes with known or suspected pollution including soil contamination due to hazardous waste.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
A chemical hazard is a type of occupational hazard caused by exposure to chemicals in the workplace.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
A chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures (or otherwise processes) chemicals, usually on a large scale.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chernobyl or Chornobyl (Chornobyl′,;; Charnobyl′) is a city in the restricted Chernobyl Exclusion Zone situated in the Ivankiv Raion of northern Kiev Oblast, near Ukraine's border with Belarus.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Citarum (Walungan Citarum) is the longest and largest river in West Java, Indonesia.
The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C.) is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level.
The Clean Air Act 1956 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in response to London's Great Smog of 1952.
The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Competition is an interaction between organisms or species in which both the organisms or species are harmed.
Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed in a process called composting.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty that bans all nuclear explosions, for both civilian and military purposes, in all environments.
A constructed wetland (CW) is an artificial wetland to treat municipal or industrial wastewater, greywater or stormwater runoff.
Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.
Contamination control is the generic term for all activities aiming to control the existence, growth and proliferation of contamination in certain areas.
A cyclonic separation is a method of removing particulates from an air, gas or liquid stream, without the use of filters, through vortex separation.
Cyclonic spray scrubbers are an air pollution control technology.
Dangerous goods or hazardous goods are solids, liquids, or gases that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment.
Debris or débris is rubble, wreckage, ruins, litter and discarded garbage/refuse/trash, scattered remains of something destroyed, discarded, or as in geology, large rock fragments left by a melting glacier etc.
In economics, demand is the quantities of a commodity or a service that people are willing and able to buy at various prices, over a given period of time.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Developmental disorders comprise a group of psychiatric conditions originating in childhood that involve serious impairment in different areas.
Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a water treatment process that clarifies wastewaters (or other waters) by the removal of suspended matter such as oil or solids.
Donora is a borough in Washington County, Pennsylvania, United States, approximately south of Pittsburgh on the Monongahela River.
A dust collector is a system used to enhance the quality of air released from industrial and commercial processes by collecting dust and other impurities from air or gas.
Dyeing is the process of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics.
Dzerzhinsk (p) is a city in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located along the Oka River, about east of Moscow.
Earth Day is an annual event celebrated on April 22.
Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
Effluent is an outflowing of water or gas to natural body of water, or from a manmade structure.
An ejector or venturi scrubber is an industrial pollution control device, usually installed on the exhaust flue gas stacks of large furnaces, but may also be used on any number of other air exhaust systems.
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation.
An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is a filtration device that removes fine particles, like dust and smoke, from a flowing gas using the force of an induced electrostatic charge minimally impeding the flow of gases through the unit.
Emission standards are the legal requirements governing air pollutants released into the atmosphere.
Emissions trading, or cap and trade, is a government, market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Environmental economics is a sub-field of economics that is concerned with environmental issues.
Environmental health is the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health.
The environmental impact of shipping includes greenhouse gas emissions, acoustic, and oil pollution.
Many of the issues have been attributed to policies during the Soviet Union, a time when officials felt that pollution control was an unnecessary hindrance to economic development and industrialization.
Environmental mitigation, compensatory mitigation, or mitigation banking, are terms used primarily by the United States government and the related environmental industry to describe projects or programs intended to offset known impacts to an existing historic or natural resource such as a stream, wetland, endangered species, archeological site, paleontological site or historic structure.
The environmental movement (sometimes referred to as the ecology movement), also including conservation and green politics, is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement for addressing environmental issues.
Environmental racism is a term used to describe environmental injustice within a racialized context.
Environmental resource management is the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment.
Environmental soil science is the study of the interaction of humans with the pedosphere as well as critical aspects of the biosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.
Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.
In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.
In Freudian psychology, externalization (or externalisation) is an unconscious defense mechanism by which an individual "projects" his or her own internal characteristics onto the outside world, particularly onto other people.
Fateful Harvest: The True Story of a Small Town, a Global Industry, and a Toxic Secret is a nonfiction book written by Duff Wilson, a reporter for the Seattle Times at the time.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Fluorocarbons, sometimes referred to as perfluorocarbons or PFCs, are, strictly speaking, organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e. they contain only carbon and fluorine, though the terminology is not strictly followed.
A food web (or food cycle) is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community.
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Genetic pollution is a controversial term for uncontrolled gene flow into wild populations.
The geography of Mexico describes the geographic features of Mexico, a country in the Americas.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The Great Pacific garbage patch, also described as the Pacific trash vortex, is a gyre of marine debris particles in the central North Pacific Ocean discovered between 1985 and 1988.
The Great Smog of London, or Great Smog of 1952, was a severe air-pollution event that affected the British capital of London in early December 1952.
The Great Stink was an event in central London in July and August 1858 during which the hot weather exacerbated the smell of untreated human waste and industrial effluent that was present on the banks of the River Thames.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way down into groundwater.
The Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) is a toxicology database on the U.S. National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET).
Hazardous waste is waste that has substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment.
Hazaribagh (also spelled Hazaribag) is a city and a municipality in Hazaribagh district in the Indian state of Jharkhand.
Noise health effects are the physical and psychological health consequences of regular exposure, to consistent elevated sound levels.
Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.
Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
Human feces (or faeces in British English; fæx) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, but has been rotted down by bacteria in the large intestine.
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Articles related to waste management include.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An industrial park (also known as industrial estate, trading estate) is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Industrial waste is the waste produced by industrial activity which includes any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories, industries, mills, and mining operations.
Industrial wastewater treatment describes the processes used for treating wastewater that is produced by industries as an undesirable by-product.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Kabwe is the capital of the Zambian Central Province with a population estimated at 202,914 at the 2010 census.
Kalimantan is the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo.
Lake Karachay (Карача́й), sometimes spelled Karachai or Karachaj, was a small lake in the southern Ural mountains in central Russia.
Land development is altering the landscape in any number of ways such as.
A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.
A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
Plants for the production of lead are generally referred to as lead smelters.
The lead–acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery.
The Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress in the United States.
Light pollution, also known as photopollution, is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment.
This is an alphabetical list of environmental issues, harmful aspects of human activity on the biophysical environment.
This is a list of glaciers in Greenland.
The following page contains a list of different forms of solid waste treatment technologies and facilities employed in waste management infrastructure.
Litter consists of waste products that have been disposed improperly, without consent, at an inappropriate location.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London sewerage system is part of the water infrastructure serving London, England.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Love Canal is a neighborhood within Niagara Falls, New York.
Low-impact development (LID) is a term used in Canada and the United States to describe a land planning and engineering design approach to manage stormwater runoff as part of green infrastructure.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.
Abatement cost is the cost of reducing environmental negatives such as pollution.
In economics, marginal cost is the change in the opportunity cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented by one unit, that is, it is the cost of producing one more unit of a good.
In economics, utility is the satisfaction or benefit derived by consuming a product; thus the marginal utility of a good or service is the change in the utility from an increase in the consumption of that good or service.
Marina DeBris is the name used by an Australian based artist whose work focuses on reusing trash to raise awareness of ocean and beach pollution.
Marine debris, also known as marine litter, is human-created waste that has deliberately or accidentally been released in a lake, sea, ocean or waterway.
Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural, and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms.
In economics, market failure is a situation in which the allocation of goods and services by a free market is not efficient, often leading to a net social welfare loss.
The Matanza River is known by several names, including, in Spanish, Río de la Matanza ("the slaughter river" in English), Río Matanza ("slaughter river"), Río Mataderos ("slaughterhouses river"), Río de la Manzana ("the apple river") or simply Riachuelo ("little river").
Mechanically aided scrubbers are a form of pollution control technology.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Mercury poisoning is a type of metal poisoning due to mercury exposure.
Metal toxicity or metal poisoning is the toxic effect of certain metals in certain forms and doses on life.
Methyl tert-butyl ether (also known as MTBE and tert-butyl methyl ether) is an organic compound with a structural formula (CH3)3COCH3.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
Microplastics are small pieces of plastic that pollute the environment.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams and used for the transportation of passengers, or passengers and property.
Municipal solid waste (MSW), commonly known as trash or garbage in the United States and rubbish in Britain, is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public.
In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.
Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels.
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is a United States environmental law that promotes the enhancement of the environment and established the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ).
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
The nickel–cadmium battery (NiCd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes.
The Niger Delta is the delta of the Niger River sitting directly on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean in Nigeria.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
The Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972 is a statute of the United States initiating a federal program of regulating noise pollution with the intent of protecting human health and minimizing annoyance of noise to the general public.
Sound pollution, also known as environmental noise or noise pollution, is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life.
Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is a term used to describe pollution resulting from many diffuse sources, in direct contrast to point source pollution which results from a single source.
Norilsk (p) is an industrial city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located above the Arctic Circle, east of the Yenisei River and south of the western Taymyr Peninsula.
The North Pacific Gyre (NPG) or North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), located in the northern Pacific Ocean, is one of the five major oceanic gyres.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Occupational noise is the amount of acoustic energy received by an employee's auditory system when they are working in the industry.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, process petroleum and natural gas which lies in rock formations beneath the seabed.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products.
Open defecation is the human practice of defecating outside (in the open environment) rather than into a toilet.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule.
Over illumination is the presence of lighting intensity higher than that which is appropriate for a specific activity.
Overconsumption is a situation where resource use has outpaced the sustainable capacity of the ecosystem.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Ozyorsk or Ozersk (Озёрск) is a closedLaw #287-ZO specifies that the borders of Ozyorsky Urban Okrug match the borders of the closed administrative-territorial formation of the town of Ozyorsk.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phytoremediation /ˌfaɪtəʊrɪˌmiːdɪˈeɪʃən/ refers to the technologies that use living plants to clean up soil, air, and water contaminated with hazardous contaminants.
A pit latrine or pit toilet is a type of toilet that collects human feces in a hole in the ground.
Plastic pollution is the accumulation of plastic products in the environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat and humans.
A point source of pollution is a single identifiable source of air, water, thermal, noise or light pollution.
A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.
The pollution haven hypothesis posits that, when large industrialized nations seek to set up factories or offices abroad, they will often look for the cheapest option in terms of resources and labor that offers the land and material access they require.
Pollution in China is one aspect of the broader topic of environmental issues in China.
Pollution prevention (P2) reduces the amount of pollution generated by industries, agriculture, or consumers.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers or PBDEs, are organobromine compounds that are used as flame retardant.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), or simply dioxins, are a group of polyhalogenated organic compounds that are significant environmental pollutants.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
Powdered Activated Carbon Treatment (PACT) is a wastewater technology in which powdered activated carbon is added to an anaerobic or aerobic treatment system.
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned from the 1890s to the 1920s.
Public security is the function of governments which ensures the protection of citizens, persons in their territory, organizations, and institutions against threats to their well-being – and to the prosperity of their communities.
Pure Earth, formerly known as the Blacksmith Institute until on 10 March 2015, is a New York City-based international not-for-profit organization founded in 1999 that aims to identify and clean up pollution, focusing primarily on contaminated sites and soil in developing countries.
Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.
Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began regulating greenhouse gases (GHGs) under the Clean Air Act ("CAA" or "Act") from mobile and stationary sources of air pollution for the first time on January 2, 2011.
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
Reuse is the action or practice of using something again, whether for its original purpose (conventional reuse) or to fulfil a different function (creative reuse or repurposing).
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
Roadway noise is the collective sound energy emanating from motor vehicles.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scrubber systems (e.g. chemical scrubbers, gas scrubbers) are a diverse group of air pollution control devices that can be used to remove some particulates and/or gases from industrial exhaust streams.
Sedimentation is a physical water treatment process using gravity to remove suspended solids from water.
A septic tank is a chamber made of concrete, fiberglass, PVC or plastic, through which domestic wastewater (sewage) flows for primary treatment.
Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
Sewerage is the infrastructure that conveys sewage or surface runoff (stormwater, meltwater, rainwater) using sewers.
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
Smog is a type of air pollutant.
Social cost in economics is the sum of the private costs resulting from a transaction and the costs imposed on the consumers as a consequence of being exposed to the md's transaction for which they are not compensated or charged.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.
Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Space debris (also known as space junk, space waste, space trash, space litter or space garbage) is a term for the mass of defunct, artificially created objects in space, most notably in Earth orbit, such as old satellites and spent rocket stages.
A spray tower (or spray column or spray chamber) is gas-liquid contactor used to achieve mass and heat transfer between a continuous gas phase (that can contain dispersed solid particles) and a dispersed liquid phase.
Stormwater, also spelled storm water, is water that originates during precipitation events and snow/ice melt.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Superfund is a United States federal government program designed to fund the cleanup of sites contaminated with hazardous substances and pollutants.
The Superfund Research Program (SRP) was created within the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in 1986 under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA).
Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a river, lake, wetland, or ocean.
Tanned leather in Marrakesh Tanning is the process of treating skins and hides of animals to produce leather.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
A thermal oxidizer (also known as thermal oxidiser, or thermal incinerator) is a process unit for air pollution control in many chemical plants that decomposes hazardous gases at a high temperature and releases them into the atmosphere.
Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature.
Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI) is a nuclear power plant located on Three Mile Island in Londonderry Township, Pennsylvania, on the Susquehanna River just south of Harrisburg.
In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, positioned in front of the vertebra.
Times Internet is an Indian company that owns, operates and invests in various Internet-led products, services and technology.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a publicly available database containing information on toxic chemical releases and other waste management activities in the United States.
TOXMAP is a geographic information system (GIS) from the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) that uses maps of the United States to help users explore data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and Superfund programs with visual projections and maps.
The trophic level of an organism is the position it occupies in a food chain.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
Ozone (O3) is a constituent of the troposphere (it is also an important constituent of some regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the ozone layer).
Ultrafiltration (UF) is a variety of membrane filtration in which forces like pressure or concentration gradients lead to a separation through a semipermeable membrane.
The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
Urban runoff is surface runoff of rainwater created by urbanization.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.
The Valley of the Drums is a 23-acre (9.3 hectare) toxic waste site in northern Bullitt County, Kentucky, near Louisville, named after the waste-containing drums strewn across the area.
Vapor (or vapour) recovery is the process of recovering the vapors of gasoline or other fuels, so that they do not escape into the atmosphere.
Vehicle emissions control is the study of reducing the emissions produced by motor vehicles, especially internal combustion engines.
Visual pollution is an aesthetic issue and refers to the impacts of pollution that impair one's ability to enjoy a vista or view.
Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.
Waste management or waste disposal are all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.
Waste minimisation is a set of processes and practices intended to reduce the amount of waste produced.
Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.
Wastewater quality indicators are laboratory test methodologies to assess suitability of wastewater for disposal or re-use.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water.
Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.
The term wet scrubber describes a variety of devices that remove pollutants from a furnace flue gas or from other gas streams.
A wheelbarrow is a small hand-propelled vehicle, usually with just one wheel, designed to be pushed and guided by a single person using two handles at the rear, or by a sail to push the ancient wheelbarrow by wind.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
The Worldwatch Institute is a globally focused environmental research organization based in Washington, D.C. Worldwatch was named as one of the top ten sustainable development research organizations by Globescan Survey of Sustainability Experts.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a polychlorinated dibenzo''-p-''dioxin (sometimes shortened, though inaccurately, to simply "dioxin") with the chemical formula.
The 5 Gyres Institute is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization that focuses on reducing plastics pollution by focusing on primary research.
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