123 relations: Acetaldehyde, Aggregate (composite), Amorphous solid, Antimony, Antimony trioxide, Arene substitution pattern, Ars Technica, Base (chemistry), Bioplastic, Bis(2-Hydroxyethyl) terephthalate, Blister pack, Blow molding, Bond cleavage, BoPET, Calico Printers' Association, Carbonation, Catalysis, Celsius, Charpy impact test, Chemical decomposition, Condensation polymer, Copolymer, Cross-link, Crystallite, Crystallization of polymers, Cyclohexanedimethanol, Daily Mail, Desiccant, Diethylene glycol, Diffusion, Dimethyl terephthalate, Disinfectant, Drawing (manufacturing), DuPont, Elastic modulus, Endocrine disruptor, Engineering plastic, Environmental Health Perspectives, Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, Ester, Esterase, Ethylene glycol, Evaporation, Federal Office of Public Health, Fibre-reinforced plastic, Gas cylinder, Geocaching, Glass transition, Hydrolysis, Hygroscopy, ..., Ideonella sakaiensis, Incineration, Intellectual Property Office (United Kingdom), International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Intrinsic viscosity, Isophthalic acid, John Rex Whinfield, Joule, Litre, Magnetic tape, Manchester, Metallised film, Metalloid, Methanol, Micrometre, Mohawk Industries, Monomer, Nanometre, Nathaniel Wyeth (inventor), Nocardia, Nonwoven fabric, Nucleation, Packaging and labeling, Pascal (unit), PET bottle recycling, Phosphite anion, Phthalate, Plastic, Plastic recycling, Plasticizer, Polycyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate, Polyester, Polyethylene, Polylactic acid, Polymer, Polyolefin, Polypropylene, Polyvinyl acetate, Polyvinyl alcohol, Polyvinyl chloride, Post-consumer waste, Pressure-sensitive tape, Protein, Purified water, Recrystallization (chemistry), Resin, Resin identification code, Russian Academy of Sciences, Single crystal, Soft drink, Solar water disinfection, Space blanket, Spherulite (polymer physics), Staple (wool), Sunlight, Synthetic fiber, Tap water, Terephthalic acid, Thermal expansion, Thermal insulation, Thermoforming, Thermoplastic, Thin film, Tire, Tolerable daily intake, Toughness, Transesterification, TV dinner, Ultimate tensile strength, Vial of Life, Vicat softening point, World Health Organization, Young's modulus. Expand index (73 more) » « Shrink index
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
Aggregate is the component of a composite material that resists compressive stress and provides bulk to the composite material.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Antimony(III) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Sb2O3.
Arene substitution patterns are part of organic chemistry IUPAC nomenclature and pinpoint the position of substituents other than hydrogen in relation to each other on an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Ars Technica (a Latin-derived term that the site translates as the "art of technology") is a website covering news and opinions in technology, science, politics, and society, created by Ken Fisher and Jon Stokes in 1998.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Bioplastics are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, or microbiota.
Bis(2-Hydroxyethyl) terephthalate is an organic compound; it is the ester of ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid.
Blister pack is a term for several types of pre-formed plastic packaging used for small consumer goods, foods, and for pharmaceuticals.
Blow molding (BrE moulding) is a specific manufacturing process by which hollow plastic parts are formed and can be joined together: It is also used for forming glass bottles or other hollow shapes.
Bond cleavage, or scission, is the splitting of chemical bonds.
BoPET (biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate) is a polyester film made from stretched polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and is used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, reflectivity, gas and aroma barrier properties, and electrical insulation.
The Calico Printers' Association Ltd was a British textile company founded in 1899, from the amalgamation of 46 textile printing companies and 13 textile merchants.
Carbonation refers to reactions of carbon dioxide to give carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
The, also known as the Charpy V-notch test, is a standardized high strain-rate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture.
Chemical decomposition, analysis or breakdown is the separation of a single chemical compound into its two or more elemental parts or to simpler compounds.
Condensation polymers are any kind of polymers formed through a condensation reaction—where molecules join together—losing small molecules as byproducts such as water or methanol.
When two or more different monomers unite together to polymerize, the product is called a copolymer and the process is called copolymerization.
A cross-link is a bond that links one polymer chain to another.
A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.
Crystallization of polymers is a process associated with partial alignment of their molecular chains.
Cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM) is a mixture of isomeric organic compounds with formula C6H10(CH2OH)2.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its vicinity; it is the opposite of a humectant.
Diethylene glycol (DEG) is an organic compound with the formula (HOCH2CH2)2O.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO2CH3)2.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
Drawing is a metalworking process which uses tensile forces to stretch metal or glass.
An elastic modulus (also known as modulus of elasticity) is a quantity that measures an object or substance's resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a stress is applied to it.
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.
Engineering plastics are a group of plastic materials that have better mechanical and/or thermal properties than the more widely used commodity plastics (such as polystyrene, PVC, polypropylene and polyethylene).
Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is a peer-reviewed journal published monthly with support from the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).
Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of environmental science.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
An esterase is a hydrolase enzyme that splits esters into an acid and an alcohol in a chemical reaction with water called hydrolysis.
Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
The Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH) is the Swiss federal government’s centre for public health and a part of the Swiss Federal Department of Home Affairs.
Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) (also called fiber-reinforced polymer, or fiber-reinforced plastic) is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres.
A gas cylinder or tank is a pressure vessel used to store gases at above atmospheric pressure.
Geocaching is an outdoor recreational activity, in which participants use a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver or mobile device and other navigational techniques to hide and seek containers, called "geocaches" or "caches", at specific locations marked by coordinates all over the world.
The glass–liquid transition, or glass transition, is the gradual and reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials), from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
Ideonella sakaiensis is a bacterium from the genus Ideonella and family Comamonadaceae capable of breaking down PET plastic which was isolated from outside a plastic bottle recycling facility.
Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.
The Intellectual Property Office of the United Kingdom (often The IPO) is, since 2 April 2007, the operating name of The Patent Office.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
Intrinsic viscosity \left is a measure of a solute's contribution to the viscosity \eta of a solution.
Isophthalic acid is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO2H)2.
John Rex Whinfield CBE (16 February 1901 in Sutton, Surrey, England – 6 July 1966 in Dorking, Surrey) was a British chemist who, together with James Tennant Dickson investigated polyesters and in 1941 produced and patented the first polyester fibre which they named Terylene, also known as Dacron, equal to or surpassing nylon in toughness and resilience.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
Magnetic tape is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Metallised films (or metalized films) are polymer films coated with a thin layer of metal, usually aluminium.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
Mohawk Industries is an American flooring manufacturer based in Calhoun, Georgia, United States.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nathaniel C. Wyeth (October 24, 1911 – July 4, 1990) was an American mechanical engineer and inventor.
Nocardia is a genus of weakly staining Gram-positive, catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria.
Nonwoven fabric is a fabric-like material made from staple fiber (short) and long fibers (continuous long), bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment.
Nucleation is the first step in the formation of either a new thermodynamic phase or a new structure via self-assembly or self-organization.
Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, sometimes PETE) can be used to make lower grade products, such as carpets.
A phosphite anion or 'phosphite in inorganic chemistry usually refers to 2− but includes − (−).
Phthalates, or phthalate esters, are esters of phthalic acid.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products.
Plasticizers (UK: plasticisers) or dispersants are additives that increase the plasticity or decrease the viscosity of a material.
Polycyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate (PCT) is a thermoplastic polyester formed from the polycondensation of terephthalic acid and cyclohexanedimethanol.
Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
Poly(lactic acid) or polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable and bioactive thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the United States and Canada), cassava roots, chips or starch (mostly in Asia), or sugarcane (in the rest of the world).
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
A polyolefin is any of a class of polymers produced from a simple olefin (also called an alkene with the general formula CnH2n) as a monomer.
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.
Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVA, PVAc, poly(ethenyl ethanoate): commonly referred to as wood glue, white glue, carpenter's glue, school glue, Elmer's glue in the US, or PVA glue) is an aliphatic rubbery synthetic polymer with the formula (C4H6O2)n.
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH, PVA, or PVAl) is a water-soluble synthetic polymer.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Post-consumer waste is a waste type produced by the end consumer of a material stream; that is, where the waste-producing use did not involve the production of another product.
Pressure-sensitive tape, known also in various countries as PSA tape, adhesive tape, self-stick tape, sticky tape, or just tape, is an adhesive tape that will stick with application of pressure, without the need for a solvent (such as water) or heat for activation.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Purified water is water that has been mechanically filtered or processed to remove impurities and make it suitable for use.
In chemistry, recrystallization is a technique used to purify chemicals.
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
The ASTM International Resin Identification Coding System, often abbreviated as the RIC, is a set of symbols appearing on plastic products that identify the plastic resin out of which the product is made.
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.
A single crystal or monocrystalline solid is a material in which the crystal lattice of the entire sample is continuous and unbroken to the edges of the sample, with no grain boundaries.
A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.
Solar water disinfection (SoDis) is a type of portable water purification that uses solar energy to make biologically-contaminated (e.g. bacteria, viruses, protozoa and worms) water safe to drink.
A space blanket (depending on the function, also known as a Mylar blanket, emergency blanket, first aid blanket, safety blanket, thermal blanket, weather blanket, heat sheet, or commonly referred to as shock blankets) is an especially low-weight, low-bulk blanket made of heat-reflective thin plastic sheeting.
In polymer physics, spherulites (from Greek sphaira.
A wool staple is a naturally formed cluster or lock of wool fibres and not a single fibre.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Synthetic fibers (British English: synthetic fibres) are fibers made by humans with chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that humans get from living organisms with little or no chemical changes.
Tap water (running water, city water, town water, municipal water, etc.) is water supplied to a tap (valve).
Terephthalic acid is an organic compound with formula C6H4(CO2H)2.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (i.e. the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.
Thermoforming is a manufacturing process where a plastic sheet is heated to a pliable forming temperature, formed to a specific shape in a mold, and trimmed to create a usable product.
A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.
A thin film is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer (monolayer) to several micrometers in thickness.
A tire (American English) or tyre (British English; see spelling differences) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over.
Tolerable daily intake (TDI) refers to the daily amount of a chemical that has been assessed safe for human being on long-term basis (usually whole lifetime).
In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing.
In organic chemistry, transesterfication is the process of exchanging the organic group R″ of an ester with the organic group R′ of an alcohol.
A TV dinner (also called prepackaged meal, ready-made meal, ready meal, frozen dinner, frozen meal and microwave meal) is a pre-packaged frozen or chilled meal that usually comes as an individual portion.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
The Vial of Life (aka Vial of L.I.F.E (Lifesaving Information for Emergencies)) is a program that allows individuals to have their complete medical information ready in their home for emergency personnel to reference during an emergency.
Vicat softening temperature or Vicat hardness is the determination of the softening point for materials that have no definite melting point, such as plastics.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Young's modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material.
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