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Polygraph

Index Polygraph

A polygraph, popularly referred to as a lie detector, measures and records several physiological indices such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and skin conductivity while a person is asked and answers a series of questions. [1]

169 relations: ABC News, Aldrich Ames, American Polygraph Association, Ana Montes, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Arizona Daily Star, Arousal, Arpanet (The Americans), Asp (reptile), August Vollmer, Background check, Berkeley Police Department, Berkeley, California, Bill Dedman, Blood pressure, Bogus pipeline, Brain Electrical Oscillation Signature Profiling, Brain mapping, Breathing, Central Intelligence Agency, Cesare Lombroso, Child abuse, Christian Bale, Cleopatra, Cleve Backster, Confession (law), Congressional Research Service, Countermeasure, Crime, Criminal defense lawyer, Daubert standard, Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Daytime television, Defense Intelligence Agency, Defense Security Service, Delaware, Dennis Rader, Double agent, Ecological fallacy, Edward Lee Howard, Electrodermal activity, Elizabeth Holloway Marston, Employee Polygraph Protection Act, Encyclopædia Britannica, Espionage, Europe, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Frye standard, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, ..., Gary Ridgway, Gillette, Harold James Nicholson, Harsh Times, Harvard Law School, Hearing (law), Hearsay, Heart rate, High Court of Australia, Infidelity, Interrogation, Iowa, Japan, Jeff Gannon, Jeremy Kyle, John Anthony Walker, John Augustus Larson, Jonathan Pollard, Jury, Karl Koecher, KGB, Kidnapping, Larry Wu-Tai Chin, Law enforcement agency, Law enforcement in the United States, Lawyer, Leandro Aragoncillo, Leonarde Keeler, Lie, Lie Detector (TV series), List of federal agencies in the United States, Los Angeles Police Department, MacGyver (1985 TV series), Marcia Clark, Mark Fuhrman, Maryland, Massachusetts, Maury Povich, McClatchy, Melvin Belli, Mental chronometry, Ministry of Labour (Ontario), Motion (legal), Moynihan Commission on Government Secrecy, MSNBC, Murder, Murder of Danielle van Dam, MythBusters, Nada Nadim Prouty, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academies Press, National Academy of Sciences, National Reconnaissance Office, National security, National Security Agency, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, North Carolina State University, Ocean's Thirteen, Office of Technology Assessment, Oregon, Orwellian, Paul Crouch, Paula Jones, Plea bargain, Posterior cingulate cortex, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Prefrontal cortex, Probation, Profit (TV series), Prosecutor, Pseudoscience, Pulse, R v Béland, Ralph Andrews, Reason (magazine), Respiration (physiology), Richard Helms, Richard Miller (agent), Right to silence, Robert Hanssen, Ronald Pelton, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Russia, Salon (website), San Diego, Science (journal), Scientific community, Silent Talker Lie Detector, Soviet Union, Sphygmomanometer, Steve Blinkhorn, Steve Wilkos, Supreme Court of Canada, Supreme Court of India, Supreme Court of Israel, Supreme Court of the United States, Swift Vets and POWs for Truth, The Americans (2013 TV series), The Hill (newspaper), The McClatchy Company, The Moment of Truth (U.S. game show), The Seattle Times, The Washington Post, Theft, Torture, Trial, Truth serum, United States Congress, United States v. Scheffer, University of California, University of California, Berkeley, University of Minnesota, Vittorio Benussi, Voice stress analysis, Wichita, Kansas, William Moulton Marston, Wonder Woman. Expand index (119 more) »

ABC News

ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.

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Aldrich Ames

Aldrich Hazen Ames (born May 26, 1941) is a former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) officer turned KGB mole, who was convicted of espionage in 1994.

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American Polygraph Association

The American Polygraph Association (APA) is a professional association of polygraph examiners.

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Ana Montes

Ana Belén Montes (born February 28, 1957) is a former American senior analyst at the Defense Intelligence Agency in the United States and a convicted spy.

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Anxiety

Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.

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Arizona Daily Star

The Arizona Daily Star is the major morning daily newspaper that serves Tucson and surrounding districts of southern Arizona in the United States.

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Arousal

Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception.

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Arpanet (The Americans)

"Arpanet" is the seventh episode of the second season of the American television drama series The Americans, and the 20th overall episode of the series.

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Asp (reptile)

"Asp" is the modern Anglicisation of the word "aspis," which in antiquity referred to any one of several venomous snake species found in the Nile region.

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August Vollmer

August "Gus" Vollmer (March 7, 1876 – November 4, 1955) was the first police chief of Berkeley, California and a leading figure in the development of the field of criminal justice in the United States in the early 20th century.

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Background check

A background check or background investigation is the process of looking up and compiling criminal records, commercial records, and financial records of an individual or an organization.

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Berkeley Police Department

The Berkeley Police Department (BPD) is the municipal police department for the city of Berkeley, California, USA.

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Berkeley, California

Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California.

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Bill Dedman

Bill Dedman (born 1960) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American journalist, an investigative reporter for Newsday, and co-author of the biography of reclusive heiress Huguette Clark, Empty Mansions: The Mysterious Life of Huguette Clark and the Spending of a Great American Fortune.

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Blood pressure

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.

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Bogus pipeline

The bogus pipeline is a fake polygraph used to get participants to truthfully respond to emotional/affective questions in survey.

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Brain Electrical Oscillation Signature Profiling

Brain Electrical Oscillation Signature Profiling (BEOSP or BEOS) is a technique by which a suspect's participation in a crime is detected by eliciting electrophysiological impulses.

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Brain mapping

Brain mapping is a set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps.

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Breathing

Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Cesare Lombroso

Cesare Lombroso (born Ezechia Marco Lombroso; 6 November 1835 – 19 October 1909), was an Italian criminologist and physician, founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology.

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Child abuse

Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.

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Christian Bale

Christian Charles Philip Bale (born 30 January 1974) is an English actor and producer.

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Cleopatra

Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.

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Cleve Backster

Grover Cleveland "Cleve" Backster, Jr. (February 27, 1924 – June 24, 2013) was an interrogation specialist for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), best known for his experiments with plants using a polygraph instrument in the 1960s which led to his theory of "primary perception" where he claimed that plants "feel pain" and have extrasensory perception (ESP), which was widely reported in the media but was rejected by the scientific community.

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Confession (law)

In the law of criminal evidence, a confession is a statement by a suspect in crime which is adverse to that person.

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Congressional Research Service

The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.

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Countermeasure

A countermeasure is a measure or action taken to counter or offset another one.

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Crime

In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

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Criminal defense lawyer

A criminal defense lawyer is a lawyer (mostly barristers) specializing in the defense of individuals and companies charged with criminal activity.

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Daubert standard

In United States federal law, the Daubert standard is a rule of evidence regarding the admissibility of expert witnesses' testimony.

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Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, is a United States Supreme Court case determining the standard for admitting expert testimony in federal courts.

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Daytime television

Daytime television is a television genre which features television programming traditionally produced and scheduled to air between the hours of 9 a.m. (at the end of morning show-type programming) and 8 p.m. (when local news and the early fringe of primetime begins).

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Defense Intelligence Agency

The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) is an external intelligence service of the United States federal government specializing in defense and military intelligence.

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Defense Security Service

The Defense Security Service (DSS) is a federal security agency of the United States Department of Defense (DoD).

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Delaware

Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.

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Dennis Rader

Dennis Lynn Rader (born March 9, 1945) is an American serial killer known as the BTK Killer or the BTK Strangler.

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Double agent

In the field of counterintelligence, a double agent (also double secret agent) is an employee of a secret intelligence service for one country, whose primary purpose is to spy on a target organization of another country, but who, in fact, has been discovered by the target organization and is now spying on their own country's organization for the target organization.

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Ecological fallacy

An ecological fallacy (or ecological inference fallacy) is a formal fallacy in the interpretation of statistical data where inferences about the nature of individuals are deduced from inference for the group to which those individuals belong.

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Edward Lee Howard

Edward Lee Victor Howard (27 October 1951 – 12 July 2002) was a CIA case officer who defected to the Soviet Union.

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Electrodermal activity

Electrodermal activity (EDA) is the property of the human body that causes continuous variation in the electrical characteristics of the skin.

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Elizabeth Holloway Marston

Elizabeth Holloway Marston (February 20, 1893 – March 27, 1993) was an American attorney and psychologist.

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Employee Polygraph Protection Act

The Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 (EPPA) is a United States federal law that generally prevents employers from using polygraph (lie detector) tests, either for pre-employment screening or during the course of employment, with certain exemptions.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Espionage

Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.

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Frye standard

The Frye standard, Frye test, or general acceptance test is a test to determine the admissibility of scientific evidence.

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

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Gary Ridgway

Gary Leon Ridgway (born February 18, 1949), also known as the Green River Killer, is an American serial killer.

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Gillette

Gillette is a brand of men's and women's safety razors and other personal care products including shaving supplies, owned by the multi-national corporation Procter & Gamble (P&G).

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Harold James Nicholson

Harold James "Jim" Nicholson (born November 17, 1950) is a former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) officer and a twice-convicted spy for Russia's Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR).

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Harsh Times

Harsh Times is a 2005 American crime film set in South Central Los Angeles.

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Harvard Law School

Harvard Law School (also known as Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Hearing (law)

In law, a hearing is a proceeding before a court or other decision-making body or officer, such as a government agency or a Parliamentary committee.

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Hearsay

Hearsay evidence is "an out-of-court statement offered to prove the truth of matter asserted".

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Heart rate

Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).

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High Court of Australia

The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia.

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Infidelity

Infidelity (synonyms include: cheating, adultery (when married), netorare (NTR), being unfaithful, or having an affair) is a violation of a couple's assumed or stated contract regarding emotional and/or sexual exclusivity.

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Interrogation

Interrogation (also called questioning) is interviewing as commonly employed by law enforcement officers, military personnel, and intelligence agencies with the goal of eliciting useful information.

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Iowa

Iowa is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers to the west.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jeff Gannon

James Dale Guckert (born May 22, 1957) is an American conservative columnist better known by the pseudonym Jeff Gannon.

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Jeremy Kyle

Jeremy Kyle (born 7 July 1965), also referred to as Jezza, is an English television and radio presenter, best known for hosting the tabloid talk show The Jeremy Kyle Show on ITV since 2005.

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John Anthony Walker

John Anthony Walker Jr. (July 28, 1937 – August 28, 2014) was a United States Navy Chief Warrant Officer and communications specialist convicted of spying for the Soviet Union from 1968 to 1985.

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John Augustus Larson

John Augustus Larson (11 December 1892 – 1 October 1965) was a Police Officer for Berkeley, California, United States, and famous for his invention of modern polygraph used in forensic investigations.

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Jonathan Pollard

Jonathan Jay Pollard (born August 7, 1954) is a former intelligence analyst for the United States government.

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Jury

A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.

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Karl Koecher

Karel František Koecher (21 September 1934 in Bratislava) is a mole known to have penetrated the CIA.

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KGB

The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.

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Kidnapping

In criminal law, kidnapping is the unlawful carrying away (asportation) and confinement of a person against his or her will.

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Larry Wu-Tai Chin

Larry Wu-tai Chin (1922 – February 22, 1986) was a Chinese language translator working for the CIA's Foreign Broadcast Information Service.

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Law enforcement agency

A law enforcement agency (LEA), in North American English, is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws.

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Law enforcement in the United States

Law enforcement in the United States is one of three major components of the criminal justice system of the United States, along with courts and corrections.

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Lawyer

A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.

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Leandro Aragoncillo

Leandro Aragoncillo (born 1960) is a former FBI intelligence analyst and a retired United States Marine Corps gunnery-sergeant who was convicted of spying against the United States Government in 2007.

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Leonarde Keeler

Leonarde Keeler (1903–1949) was the co-inventor of the polygraph.

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Lie

A lie is a statement used intentionally for the purpose of deception.

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Lie Detector (TV series)

Lie Detector is a television series broadcast in 2005 on Pax TV.

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List of federal agencies in the United States

This is a list of agencies of the United States federal government.

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Los Angeles Police Department

The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), officially the City of Los Angeles Police Department, is the police department of Los Angeles.

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MacGyver (1985 TV series)

MacGyver is an American action-adventure television series created by Lee David Zlotoff and starring Richard Dean Anderson as the title character.

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Marcia Clark

Marcia Rachel Clark (born Marcia Rachel Kleks; August 31, 1953) is an American prosecutor, author, and television correspondent.

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Mark Fuhrman

Mark Fuhrman (born February 5, 1952) is a former detective of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD).

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Maryland

Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.

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Massachusetts

Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Maury Povich

Maurice Richard "Maury" Povich (born January 17, 1939) is an American television presenter, best known for hosting the tabloid talk show Maury.

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McClatchy

McClatchy is a surname.

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Melvin Belli

Melvin Mouron Belli (July 29, 1907 – July 9, 1996) was a prominent American lawyer known as "The King of Torts" and by insurance companies as "Melvin Bellicose." He had many celebrity clients, including Zsa Zsa Gabor, Errol Flynn, Chuck Berry, Muhammad Ali, The Rolling Stones, Jim Bakker and Tammy Faye Bakker, Martha Mitchell, Maureen Connolly, Lana Turner, Tony Curtis, and Mae West.

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Mental chronometry

Mental chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations.

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Ministry of Labour (Ontario)

The Ministry of Labour is responsible for labour issues in the Canadian province of Ontario.

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Motion (legal)

In United States law, a motion is a procedural device to bring a limited, contested issue before a court for decision.

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Moynihan Commission on Government Secrecy

The Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy, also called the Moynihan Commission, after its chairman, U.S. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, was a bipartisan statutory commission in the United States.

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MSNBC

MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.

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Murder

Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.

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Murder of Danielle van Dam

Danielle Nicole van Dam (September 22, 1994 &ndash) was an American girl from the Sabre Springs neighborhood of San Diego, California, who disappeared from her bedroom during the night of February 1–2, 2002.

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MythBusters

MythBusters is an Australian-American science entertainment television program created by Peter Rees and produced by Australia's Beyond Television Productions.

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Nada Nadim Prouty

Nada Nadim Prouty, née Al-Aouar (born c. 1970) is an American former intelligence professional of Lebanese descent who worked in counter-terrorism with the FBI and CIA.

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National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.

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National Academies Press

The National Academies Press (NAP) was created to publish the reports issued by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Medicine, and the National Research Council.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National Reconnaissance Office

The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) is a member of the United States Intelligence Community and an agency of the United States Department of Defense.

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National security

National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.

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National Security Agency

The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.

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New Jersey

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.

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New Mexico

New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.

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New South Wales

New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.

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North Carolina State University

North Carolina State University (also referred to as NCSU, NC State, or just State) is a public research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States.

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Ocean's Thirteen

Ocean's Thirteen (also written as Ocean's 13) is a 2007 American heist film directed by Steven Soderbergh and starring an ensemble cast.

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Office of Technology Assessment

The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) was an office of the United States Congress from 1972 to 1995.

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Oregon

Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.

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Orwellian

"Orwellian" is an adjective describing a situation, idea, or societal condition that George Orwell identified as being destructive to the welfare of a free and open society.

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Paul Crouch

Paul Franklin Crouch (March 30, 1934 – November 30, 2013) was an American television evangelist.

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Paula Jones

Paula Corbin Jones (born Paula Rosalee Corbin; September 17, 1966) is a former Arkansas state employee who sued U.S. President Bill Clinton for sexual harassment.

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Plea bargain

The plea bargain (also plea agreement, plea deal, copping a plea, or plea in mitigation) is any agreement in a criminal case between the prosecutor and defendant whereby the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a particular charge in return for some concession from the prosecutor.

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Posterior cingulate cortex

The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is the caudal part of the cingulate cortex, located posterior to the anterior cingulate cortex.

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Posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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Probation

Probation in criminal law is a period of supervision over an offender, ordered by the court instead of serving time in prison.

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Profit (TV series)

Profit is an American television drama series that originally aired in 1996 on the Fox Broadcasting Company (Mondays at 9:00 p.m. EST).

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Prosecutor

A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.

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Pseudoscience

Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.

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Pulse

In medicine, a pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips.

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R v Béland

R v Béland 2 S.C.R. 398 is a leading Supreme Court of Canada decision where the Court rejected the use of polygraph results as evidence in court.

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Ralph Andrews

Ralph Herrick Andrews (December 17, 1927 – October 16, 2015) was an American television producer best known for producing the 1960s game show You Don't Say!, the 1970s game show Celebrity Sweepstakes, and the original 1987 version of Lingo.

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Reason (magazine)

Reason is an American libertarian monthly magazine published by the Reason Foundation.

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Respiration (physiology)

In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.

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Richard Helms

Richard McGarrah Helms (March 30, 1913 – October 23, 2002) served as the United States Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) from June 1966 to February 1973.

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Richard Miller (agent)

Richard W. Miller (born 1937) was the first member of the FBI to be indicted for espionage.

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Right to silence

The right to silence is a legal principle which guarantees any individual the right to refuse to answer questions from law enforcement officers or court officials.

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Robert Hanssen

Robert Philip Hanssen (born April 18, 1944) is a former Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agent who spied for Soviet and Russian intelligence services against the United States from 1979 to 2001.

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Ronald Pelton

Ronald William Pelton (born November 18, 1941) is a former National Security Agency (NSA) intelligence analyst who was convicted in 1986 of spying for and selling secrets to the Soviet Union.

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Royal Canadian Mounted Police

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; Gendarmerie royale du Canada (GRC), "Royal Gendarmerie of Canada"; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as "the Force") is the federal and national police force of Canada.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Salon (website)

Salon is an American news and opinion website, created by David Talbot in 1995 and currently owned by the Salon Media Group.

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San Diego

San Diego (Spanish for 'Saint Didacus') is a major city in California, United States.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Scientific community

The scientific community is a diverse network of interacting scientists.

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Silent Talker Lie Detector

The Silent Talker Psychological Profiler is a camera system which observes and analyses non-verbal behaviour in the form of micro-gestures while a subject is being interviewed, for the claimed purpose of credibility assessment.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Sphygmomanometer

A sphygmomanometer, also known as a blood pressure meter, blood pressure monitor, or blood pressure gauge, is a device used to measure blood pressure, composed of an inflatable cuff to collapse and then release the artery under the cuff in a controlled manner, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure.

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Steve Blinkhorn

Stephen F. Blinkhorn, CPsychol, FBPsS (born 1949) is a British occupational psychologist and psychometrician (based in Hertfordshire), who continues to contribute to psychology and psychometric testing.

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Steve Wilkos

Steven John Wilkos (born March 9, 1964) is an American television personality, a veteran of the United States Marine Corps and a former law enforcement officer with the Chicago Police Department.

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Supreme Court of Canada

The Supreme Court of Canada (Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system.

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Supreme Court of India

The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review.

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Supreme Court of Israel

The Supreme Court (בית המשפט העליון, Beit HaMishpat HaElyon) is the highest court in Israel.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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Swift Vets and POWs for Truth

Swift Vets and POWs for Truth, formerly known as the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth (SBVT), was a political group (527 group) of United States Swift boat veterans and former prisoners of war of the Vietnam War, formed during the 2004 presidential election campaign for the purpose of opposing John Kerry's candidacy for the presidency.

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The Americans (2013 TV series)

The Americans is an American period drama television series created by Joe Weisberg for the FX television network.

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The Hill (newspaper)

The Hill is an American political newspaper and website published in Washington, D.C. since 1994.

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The McClatchy Company

The McClatchy Company is a publicly traded American publishing company based in Sacramento, California.

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The Moment of Truth (U.S. game show)

The Moment of Truth is an American game show based on the Colombian Nada más que la verdad format ("Nothing but the Truth").

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The Seattle Times

The Seattle Times is a daily newspaper serving Seattle, Washington, United States.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Theft

In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it.

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Torture

Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.

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Trial

In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information (in the form of evidence) in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes.

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Truth serum

"Truth serum" is a colloquial name for any of a range of psychoactive drugs used in an effort to obtain information from subjects who are unable or unwilling to provide it otherwise.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States v. Scheffer

United States v. Scheffer,, was the first case in which the Supreme Court issued a ruling with regard to the highly controversial matter of polygraph, or "lie-detector," testing.

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University of California

The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.

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University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.

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University of Minnesota

The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (often referred to as the University of Minnesota, Minnesota, the U of M, UMN, or simply the U) is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota.

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Vittorio Benussi

Vittorio Benussi (January 17, 1878 – November 24, 1927) was an Italian psychologist.

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Voice stress analysis

Voice stress analysis (VSA) and computer voice stress analysis (CVSA) are collectively a pseudoscientific technology that aims to infer deception from stress measured in the voice.

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Wichita, Kansas

Wichita is the largest city in the U.S. state of Kansas.

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William Moulton Marston

William Moulton Marston (May 9, 1893 – May 2, 1947), also known by the pen name Charles Moulton, was an American psychologist, inventor of an early prototype of the lie detector, self-help author, and comic book writer who created the character Wonder Woman.

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Wonder Woman

Wonder Woman is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics.

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Redirects here:

Lie Detector, Lie detector, Lie-detector, PCASS, Polygraph examination, Polygraph examiner, Polygraph machine, Polygraph test, Polygrapher, Polygraphs, Polygraphy, Psychophysiological detection of deception.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygraph

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