242 relations: Acid hydrolysis, Amber, American Chemical Society, Amide, Amino acid, Aquamelt, Atom, Ångström, Bakelite, Biodegradation, Biophysics, Biopolymer, Black ice, Branching (polymer chemistry), Carbamate, Carbon, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Carbonyl group, Catalysis, Cellulose, Chain scission, Chain-growth polymerization, Chemical bond, Chemical compound, Chemical substance, Chirality (chemistry), Chlorine, Coil–globule transition, Color, Compatibilization, Conjugated microporous polymer, Copolymer, Covalent bond, Cross-link, Crystal, Crystallization of polymers, Crystallography, Degree of polymerization, Dendrimer, Dendronized polymer, Depolymerization, Dictionary.com, Diesel fuel, Differential scanning calorimetry, Dipole, Dispersity, DNA, DNA condensation, DNA polymerase, Durabis, ..., Dynamic mechanical analysis, Elasticity (physics), Elastomer, Electroactive polymers, Emulsion dispersion, Emulsion polymerization, Entropy, Ethylene, Ethylene glycol, Ethylene-vinyl acetate, Extrusion, F. J. Duarte, Ferroelectric polymers, Forensic polymer engineering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Fuel line, Galvanic corrosion, Gasoline, Gel, Gel permeation chromatography, Glass, Glass transition, Glycosidic bond, Graft polymer, Heat, Hermann Staudinger, Hydrogen bond, Hydrolysis, Hysteresis, Ideal chain, Injection moulding, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ionic bonding, Ionomer, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Kevlar, Ladder polymer, Laser dye, Laser linewidth, Latex, Light, Lignin, List of synthetic polymers, Living polymerization, Lower critical solution temperature, Macromolecule, Maleic anhydride, Maleimide, Medical device, Melanin, Melting point, Microstructure, Miscibility, Modeling of polymer crystals, Molar mass distribution, Molecular design software, Molecular mass, Molecule, Monomer, Natural rubber, Neoprene, Nitrile rubber, Nitrocellulose, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nucleic acid, Nucleotide, Nylon, Nylon 6, Nylon 66, Organic laser, Organic photonics, Oxygen, Ozone, Ozone cracking, Ozonolysis, Paul Flory, Peptide, Peptide synthesis, Persistence length, Pervaded volume, Petrochemical industry, Phenol formaldehyde resin, Phosphodiester bond, Plasma polymerization, Plastic, Plasticizer, Pollution, Poly(methyl methacrylate), Polyacrylonitrile, Polyanhydrides, Polybutylene, Polydimethylsiloxane, Polyelectrolyte, Polyester, Polyethylene, Polyethylene glycol, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polyglycolide, Polyimide, Polyisoprene, Polylactic acid, Polymer adsorption, Polymer brush, Polymer chemistry, Polymer classes, Polymer clay, Polymer engineering, Polymer Journal, Polymer physics, Polymer science, Polymerization, Polymersome, Polynucleotide, Polyoxymethylene, Polypropylene, Polysaccharide, Polystyrene, Polyvinyl butyral, Polyvinyl chloride, Post-translational modification, Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Pyrolysis, Radius of gyration, Raman spectroscopy, Random coil, Reactive compatibilization, Recycling, Redox, Repeat unit, Reptation, Resin identification code, Rheology, RNA, Safety-critical system, Saturated and unsaturated compounds, Separator (electricity), Sequence-controlled polymer, Shape-memory polymer, Shellac, Silicone, Silk, Silly Putty, Small molecule, Small-angle neutron scattering, Small-angle X-ray scattering, Smart inorganic polymers, Smart material, Society of the Plastics Industry, Sol–gel process, Solid, Solid-state dye lasers, Star-shaped polymer, Statistics, Step-growth polymerization, Stereochemistry, Stress concentration, Styrene, Styrofoam, Suberin, Sulfur, Supramolecular polymers, Synthetic rubber, Tacticity, Terephthalic acid, TheFreeDictionary.com, Thermal cleaning, Thermal diffusivity, Thermogravimetric analysis, Thermoplastic, Thermosetting polymer, Theta solvent, Toughness, Transcription (biology), Translation (biology), Triazine, Twaron, Two-dimensional polymer, Ultimate tensile strength, Upper critical solution temperature, Urea, UV degradation, Van der Waals force, Vinyl acetate, Vinyl chloride, Viscoelasticity, Viscosity, Vulcanization, Wide-angle X-ray scattering, Wool, X-ray crystallography, Young's modulus. Expand index (192 more) » « Shrink index
In organic chemistry, acid hydrolysis is a process in which a protic acid is used to catalyze the cleavage of a chemical bond via a nucleophilic substitution reaction, with the addition of the elements of water (H2O).
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An aquamelt is a naturally hydrated polymeric material that is able to solidify at environmental temperatures through a controlled stress input (be it mechanical or chemical).
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
Bakelite (sometimes spelled Baekelite), or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, is the first plastic made from synthetic components.
Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.
Black ice, sometimes called clear ice, is a thin coating of glaze ice on a surface, especially on roads.
In polymer chemistry, branching occurs by the replacement of a substituent, e.g., a hydrogen atom, on a monomer subunit, by another covalently bonded chain of that polymer; or, in the case of a graft copolymer, by a chain of another type.
A carbamate is an organic compound derived from carbamic acid (NH2COOH).
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Chain scission is a term used in polymer chemistry describing the degradation of a polymer main chain.
Chain-growth polymerization or chain polymerization (IUPAC recommended term) is a polymerization mechanism in which monomer molecules add onto the active site of a growing polymer chain one at a time.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
In polymer physics, the coil–globule transition is the collapse of a macromolecule from an expanded coil state through an ideal coil state to a collapsed globule state, or vice versa.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
Compatibilization in polymer chemistry is the addition of a substance to an immiscible blend of polymers that will increase their stability.
Conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) are a sub-class of porous materials that are related to structures such as zeolites, metal-organic frameworks, and covalent organic frameworks, but are amorphous in nature, rather than crystalline.
When two or more different monomers unite together to polymerize, the product is called a copolymer and the process is called copolymerization.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
A cross-link is a bond that links one polymer chain to another.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Crystallization of polymers is a process associated with partial alignment of their molecular chains.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
The degree of polymerization, or DP, is the number of monomeric units in a macromolecule or polymer or oligomer molecule.
Dendrimers are repetitively branched molecules.
Dendronized polymers (or dendronised polymers) are linear polymers to every repeat unit of which dendrons are attached.
Depolymerization (or depolymerisation) is the process of converting a polymer into a monomer or a mixture of monomers.
Dictionary.com is an online dictionary whose domain was first registered on May 14, 1995.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Differential scanning calorimetry, or DSC, is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature.
In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.
A monodisperse, or uniform, polymer is composed of molecules of the same mass.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo.
DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.
Durabis (Latin for "you will last") is a brand name for a clear polymer coating developed by the TDK Corporation.
Dynamic mechanical analysis (abbreviated DMA, also known as dynamic mechanical spectroscopy) is a technique used to study and characterize materials.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
An elastomer is a polymer with viscoelasticity (i. e., both viscosity and elasticity) and very weak intermolecular forces, and generally low Young's modulus and high failure strain compared with other materials.
Electroactive polymers, or EAPs, are polymers that exhibit a change in size or shape when stimulated by an electric field.
An emulsion dispersion is thermoplastics or elastomers suspended in a waterphase with help of emulsifiers.
Emulsion polymerization is a type of radical polymerization that usually starts with an emulsion incorporating water, monomer, and surfactant.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2.
Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), also known as poly (ethylene-vinyl acetate) (PEVA), is the copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate.
Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile.
Francisco Javier "Frank" Duarte (born c. 1954) is a laser physicist and author/editor of several well-known books on tunable lasers and quantum optics.
Ferroelectric polymers are a group of crystalline polar polymers that are also ferroelectric, meaning that they maintain a permanent electric polarization that can be reversed, or switched, in an external electric field.
Forensic polymer engineering is the study of failure in polymeric products.
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a technique used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption or emission of a solid, liquid or gas.
A fuel line is a hose used to bring fuel from one point in a vehicle to another or from a storage tank to a vehicle.
Galvanic corrosion (also called bimetallic corrosion) is an electrochemical process in which one metal corrodes preferentially when it is in electrical contact with another, in the presence of an electrolyte.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
A gel is a solid jelly-like material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough.
Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) is a type of size exclusion chromatography (SEC), that separates analytes on the basis of size.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The glass–liquid transition, or glass transition, is the gradual and reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials), from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased.
In chemistry, a glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.
Graft polymers are segmented copolymers with a linear backbone of one composite and randomly distributed branches of another composite.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Hermann Staudinger (23 March 1881 – 8 September 1965) was a German organic chemist who demonstrated the existence of macromolecules, which he characterized as polymers.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hysteresis is the dependence of the state of a system on its history.
An ideal chain (or freely-jointed chain) is the simplest model to describe polymers, such as nucleic acids and proteins.
Injection moulding (British English) or injection molding (American English) is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting molten material into a mould.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
An ionomer (iono- + -mer) is a polymer that comprises repeat units of both electrically neutral repeating units and a fraction of ionized units (usually no more than 15 mole percent) covalently bonded to the polymer backbone as pendant group moieties.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
Kevlar is a heat-resistant and strong synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora.
In chemistry, a ladder polymer is a type of double stranded polymer with the connectivity of a ladder.
Laser dyes are large organic molecules with molecular weights of a few hundred mu.
Laser linewidth is the spectral linewidth of a laser beam.
Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion) of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
Synthetic polymers are human-made polymers.
In polymer chemistry, living polymerization is a form of chain growth polymerization where the ability of a growing polymer chain to terminate has been removed.
The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) or lower consolute temperature is the critical temperature below which the components of a mixture are miscible for all compositions.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Maleic anhydride is an organic compound with the formula C2H2(CO)2O.
Maleimide is a chemical compound with the formula H2C2(CO)2NH (see diagram).
A medical device is any apparatus, appliance, software, material, or other article—whether used alone or in combination, including the software intended by its manufacturer to be used specifically for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes and necessary for its proper application—intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for the purpose of.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Microstructure is the very small scale structure of a material, defined as the structure of a prepared surface of material as revealed by a microscope above 25× magnification.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
Polymer crystals have different properties than simple atomic crystals.
In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value.
Molecular design software is software for molecular modeling, that provides special support for developing molecular models de novo.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
Neoprene (also polychloroprene or pc-rubber) is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene.
Nitrile rubber, also known as NBR, Buna-N, and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, is a synthetic rubber copolymer of acrylonitrile (ACN) and butadiene.
Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
Nylon 6 or polycaprolactam is a polymer developed by Paul Schlack at IG Farben to reproduce the properties of nylon 6,6 without violating the patent on its production.
Nylon 66 (nylon 6-6, nylon 6/6 or nylon 6,6) is a type of polyamide or nylon.
Organic lasers use an organic (carbon based) material as the gain medium.
Organic photonics includes the generation, emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, and detection/sensing of light, using organic optical materials.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Cracks can be formed in many different elastomers by ozone attack, and the characteristic form of attack of vulnerable rubbers is known as ozone cracking.
Ozonolysis is an organic reaction where the unsaturated bonds of alkenes, alkynes, or azo compounds are cleaved with ozone.
Paul John Flory (June 19, 1910 – September 9, 1985) was an American chemist and Nobel laureate who was known for his work in the field of polymers, or macromolecules.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
In organic chemistry, peptide synthesis is the production of peptides, compounds where multiple amino acids are linked via amide bonds, also known as peptide bonds.
The persistence length is a basic mechanical property quantifying the stiffness of a polymer.
Pervaded volume is a measure of the size of a polymer chain in space.
The petrochemical industry is concerned with the production and trade of petrochemicals.
Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde.
A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds.
Plasma polymerization (or glow discharge polymerization) uses plasma sources to generate a gas discharge that provides energy to activate or fragment gaseous or liquid monomer, often containing a vinyl group, in order to initiate polymerization.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Plasticizers (UK: plasticisers) or dispersants are additives that increase the plasticity or decrease the viscosity of a material.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic or acrylic glass as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Lucite, and Perspex among several others (see below), is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass.
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), also known as Creslan 61, is a synthetic, semicrystalline organic polymer resin, with the linear formula (C3H3N)n.
Polyanhydrides are a class of biodegradable polymers characterized by anhydride bonds that connect repeat units of the polymer backbone chain.
Polybutylene (polybutene-1, poly(1-butene), PB-1) is a polyolefin or saturated polymer with the chemical formula (C4H8)n.
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) belongs to a group of polymeric organosilicon compounds that are commonly referred to as silicones.
Polyelectrolytes are polymers whose repeating units bear an electrolyte group.
Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.
Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.
Polyglycolide or poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), also spelled as polyglycolic acid, is a biodegradable, thermoplastic polymer and the simplest linear, aliphatic polyester.
Polyimide (sometimes abbreviated PI) is a polymer of imide monomers.
Polyisoprene is a collective name for polymers that are produced by polymerization of isoprene.
Poly(lactic acid) or polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable and bioactive thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the United States and Canada), cassava roots, chips or starch (mostly in Asia), or sugarcane (in the rest of the world).
Adsorption is the adhesion of ions or molecules onto the surface of another phase.
A polymer brush is the name given to a surface coating consisting of polymers tethered to a surface.
Polymer chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline that deals with the structures, chemical synthesis and properties of polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers.
Polymer classes include.
Polymer clay is a type of hardenable modeling clay based on the polymer polyvinyl chloride (PVC).
Polymer engineering is generally an engineering field that designs, analyses, or modifies polymer materials.
Polymer Journal is the official journal of the Society of Polymer Science, Japan (SPSJ) and publishes original articles, notes, short communications and reviews on developments in macromolecule research.
Polymer physics is the field of physics that studies polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerisation of polymers and monomers respectively.
Polymer science or macromolecular science is a subfield of materials science concerned with polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
In biotechnology, polymersomesDischer B M; Won Y Y; Ege D S; Lee J C; Bates F S; Discher D E; Hammer D A Science (1999), 284(5417), 1143-6.
A polynucleotide molecule is a biopolymer composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers covalently bonded in a chain.
Polyoxymethylene (POM), also known as acetal, polyacetal, and polyformaldehyde, is an engineering thermoplastic used in precision parts requiring high stiffness, low friction, and excellent dimensional stability.
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.
Polyvinyl butyral (or PVB) is a resin mostly used for applications that require strong binding, optical clarity, adhesion to many surfaces, toughness and flexibility.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Radius of gyration or gyradius of a body about an axis of rotation is defined as the radial distance of a point from the axis of rotation at which, if whole mass of the body is assumed to be concentrated, its moment of inertia about the given axis would be the same as with its actual distribution of mass.
Raman spectroscopy (named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.
A random coil is a polymer conformation where the monomer subunits are oriented randomly while still being bonded to adjacent units.
Reactive compatibilization is the process of modifying a mixed immiscible blend of polymers to arrest phase separation and allow for the formation of a stable, long-term continuous phase.
Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A repeat unit or repeating unit is a part of a polymer whose repetition would produce the complete polymer chain (except for the end-groups) by linking the repeat units together successively along the chain, like the beads of a necklace.
Reptation is the thermal motion of very long linear, entangled macromolecules in polymer melts or concentrated polymer solutions.
The ASTM International Resin Identification Coding System, often abbreviated as the RIC, is a set of symbols appearing on plastic products that identify the plastic resin out of which the product is made.
Rheology (from Greek ῥέω rhéō, "flow" and -λoγία, -logia, "study of") is the study of the flow of matter, primarily in a liquid state, but also as "soft solids" or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
A safety-critical system or life-critical system is a system whose failure or malfunction may result in one (or more) of the following outcomes.
In organic chemistry, a saturated compound is a chemical compound that has single bonds.
A separator is a permeable membrane placed between a battery's anode and cathode.
A sequence-controlled polymer is a macromolecule, in which the sequence of monomers is controlled to some degree.
Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are polymeric smart materials that have the ability to return from a deformed state (temporary shape) to their original (permanent) shape induced by an external stimulus (trigger), such as temperature change.
Shellac is a resin secreted by the female lac bug, on trees in the forests of India and Thailand.
Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
Silly Putty is a toy based on silicone polymers that have unusual physical properties.
Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.
Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is an experimental technique that uses elastic neutron scattering at small scattering angles to investigate the structure of various substances at a mesoscopic scale of about 1–100 nm.
Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a small-angle scattering technique by which nanoscale density differences in a sample can be quantified.
Smart Inorganic Polymers (SIPs) are inorganic polymers with tunable (smart) properties such as stimuli responsive physical properties (shape, conductivity, rheology).
Smart materials, called also intelligent or responsive materials, are designed materials that have one or more properties that can be significantly changed in a controlled fashion by external stimuli, such as stress, temperature, moisture, pH, electric or magnetic fields, light, or chemical compounds.
Founded in 1937, the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. was a professional society representing individuals in the plastics industry.
In materials science, the sol–gel process is a method for producing solid materials from small molecules.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Solid-state dye lasers (SSDL) were introduced in 1967 by Soffer and McFarland.
Star-shaped polymers are the simplest class of branched polymers with a general structure consisting of several (more than three) linear chains connected to a central core.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
Step-growth polymerization refers to a type of polymerization mechanism in which bi-functional or multifunctional monomers react to form first dimers, then trimers, longer oligomers and eventually long chain polymers.
Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation.
A stress concentration (often called stress raisers or stress risers) is a location in an object where stress is concentrated.
Styrene, also known as ethenylbenzene, vinylbenzene, and phenylethene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH.
Styrofoam is a trademarked brand of closed-cell extruded polystyrene foam (XPS), commonly called "Blue Board" manufactured as foam continuous building insulation board used in walls, roofs, and foundations as thermal insulation and water barrier.
Suberin, cutin and lignins are complex, higher plant epidermis and periderm cell-wall macromolecules, forming a protective barrier.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Supramolecular polymers are a kind of polymers whose monomeric units hold together via highly directional and reversible non-covalent interactions.
A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer.
Tacticity (from Greek τακτικός taktikos "of or relating to arrangement or order") is the relative stereochemistry of adjacent chiral centers within a macromolecule.
Terephthalic acid is an organic compound with formula C6H4(CO2H)2.
TheFreeDictionary.com is an American online dictionary and encyclopedia that gathers information from a variety of sources.
Thermal cleaning is a combined process involving pyrolysis and oxidation.
In heat transfer analysis, thermal diffusivity is the thermal conductivity divided by density and specific heat capacity at constant pressure.
Thermogravimetric analysis or thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) is a method of thermal analysis in which the mass of a sample is measured over time as the temperature changes.
A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.
A thermoset, also called a thermosetting plastic, is a plastic that is irreversibly cured from a soft solid or viscous liquid, prepolymer or resin.
In a polymer solution, a theta solvent (or θ solvent) is a solvent in which polymer coils act like ideal chains, assuming exactly their random walk coil dimensions.
In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
A triazine is class of nitrogen-containing heterocycles.
Twaron (a brand name of Teijin Aramid) is a para-aramid.
A two-dimensional polymer (2DP) is a sheet-like monomolecular macromolecule consisting of laterally connected repeat units with end groups along all edges.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
The upper critical solution temperature (UCST) or upper consolute temperature is the critical temperature above which the components of a mixture are miscible in all proportions.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Many natural and synthetic polymers are attacked by ultraviolet radiation, and products using these materials may crack or disintegrate if they are not UV-stable.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
Vinyl acetate is an organic compound with the formula CH3CO2CH.
Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C.
Viscoelasticity is the property of materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Vulcanization or vulcanisation is a chemical process for converting natural rubber or related polymers into more durable materials by heating them with sulfur or other equivalent curatives or accelerators.
Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) or wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) is an X-ray-diffraction technique that is often used to determine the crystalline structure of polymers.
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Young's modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material.
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