180 relations: Agarose gel electrophoresis, Allele, Amniocentesis, Amplicon, Anaerobic organism, Ancient DNA, Anna Nicole Smith, Antibody, Arithmetic, Asymmetric PCR, Bacteriophage, Base pair, Biotechnology, Bisulfite sequencing, Black Death, Blood type, Buffer solution, California State Route 1, Cetus Corporation, Chain reaction, Chicken, Chorionic villus sampling, Chromosomal crossover, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Combined DNA Index System, Complementarity (molecular biology), Complementary DNA, Condensation reaction, Cosmid, Cystic fibrosis, Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, Digital polymerase chain reaction, Directionality (molecular biology), Divalent, DNA, DNA database, DNA footprinting, DNA paternity testing, DNA polymerase, DNA profiling, DNA replication, DNA sequencing, DNA spiking, DNA–DNA hybridization, DuPont, Earth, Elastics (orthodontics), Emeryville, California, Enzyme, Escherichia coli, ..., Exon, Exponential growth, Fluorophore, Forensic science, Formamide, Gel electrophoresis, Gene, Gene duplication, Gene expression, Gene expression profiling, Genetic carrier, Genetic disorder, Genetic engineering, Genetic linkage, Genome, Genomics, Goose, Har Gobind Khorana, Helicase, Helicase-dependent amplification, HIV, Hoffmann-La Roche, Hot start PCR, Human Genome Project, Hybridization probe, Hydroxy group, In silico PCR, In vitro, Infection, Influenza, Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, Influenza pandemic, Innocence Project, Intron, Inverse polymerase chain reaction, Ion, Jim Herman, Journal of Molecular Biology, Kary Mullis, Leukemia, Litre, Loop-mediated isothermal amplification, Lymphoma, Magnesium, Malignancy, Mammoth, Manganese, Medical diagnosis, Medical laboratory, Meiosis, Michael Smith (chemist), Model organism, Molecular biology, Molecular cloning, Molecular-weight size marker, Monitoring (medicine), Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, Multiplex polymerase chain reaction, Mummy, Mycobacterium, Neanderthal, Nested polymerase chain reaction, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Northern blot, Nucleic acid double helix, Nucleic acid hybridization, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleic acid test, Nucleic acid thermodynamics, Nucleotide, O. J. Simpson murder case, Oligonucleotide, Oncogene, Organ transplantation, Overlap extension polymerase chain reaction, Paleogenetics, Pathogen, Phosphate, Phylogenetic tree, Plasmid, Polony (biology), Polymerase chain reaction, Polymerase cycling assembly, Polymerization, Potassium, Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, Prenatal testing, Primer (molecular biology), Primer walking, Promega, Rapid amplification of cDNA ends, Real-time polymerase chain reaction, Recombinant DNA, Research institute, Restriction digest, Reverse transcriptase, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Richard III of England, RNA, RNase H-dependent PCR, Russia, Science (journal), Scientific American, Sequence-tagged site, Sequencing, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Site-directed mutagenesis, Smithsonian Institution Archives, SNP genotyping, Southern blot, Sputum, Stephen B. Baylin, Taq polymerase, TaqMan, Thermal cycler, Thermoelectric cooling, Thermophile, Thermus aquaticus, Tissue culture, Tissue typing, Touchdown polymerase chain reaction, Transcriptome, Tsar, Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis diagnosis, University of Utah, Viral load, Virus, Yersinia pestis, 16S rRNA. Expand index (130 more) » « Shrink index
Agarose gel electrophoresis is a method of gel electrophoresis used in biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and clinical chemistry to separate a mixed population of macromolecules such as DNA or proteins in a matrix of agarose, one of the two main components of agar.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Amniocentesis (also referred to as amniotic fluid test or AFT) is a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections, and also for sex determination, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and then the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities.
In molecular biology, an amplicon is a piece of DNA or RNA that is the source and/or product of amplification or replication events.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
Ancient DNA (aDNA) is DNA isolated from ancient specimens.
Anna Nicole Smith (born Vickie Lynn Hogan; November 28, 1967 – February 8, 2007) was an American model, actress and television personality.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Asymmetric PCR is a variation of PCR used to preferentially amplify one strand of the original DNA more than the other.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Bisulfite sequencing (also known as bisulphite sequencing) is the use of bisulfite treatment of DNA to determine its pattern of methylation.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).
A buffer solution (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa.
State Route 1 (SR 1) is a major north–south state highway that runs along most of the Pacific coastline of the U.S. state of California.
Cetus Corporation was one of the first biotechnology companies.
A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS), sometimes called "chorionic villous sampling" (as "villous" is the adjectival form of the word "villus"), is a form of prenatal diagnosis to determine chromosomal or genetic disorders in the fetus.
Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction.
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) is a private, non-profit institution with research programs focusing on cancer, neuroscience, plant genetics, genomics, and quantitative biology.
The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) is the United States national DNA database created and maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.
In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a single stranded RNA (e.g., messenger RNA (mRNA) or microRNA) template in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).
A cosmid is a type of hybrid plasmid that contains a Lambda phage cos sequence.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
HIV tests are used to detect the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), in serum, saliva, or urine.
Digital polymerase chain reaction (digital PCR, DigitalPCR, dPCR, or dePCR) is a biotechnological refinement of conventional polymerase chain reaction methods that can be used to directly quantify and clonally amplify nucleic acids strands including DNA, cDNA or RNA.
Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid.
In chemistry, a divalent (sometimes bivalent) element, ion, functional group, or molecule has a valence of two.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A DNA database or DNA databank is a database of DNA profiles which can be used in the analysis of genetic diseases, genetic fingerprinting for criminology, or genetic genealogy.
DNA footprinting is a method of investigating the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins in vitro.
DNA paternity testing is the use of DNA profiling (known as genetic fingerprinting) to determine whether two individuals are biologically parent and child.
DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.
DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
DNA spiking, also known as custom spiking, is the differing ratio of bases at a single degenerate position when synthesizing oligonucleotides.
DNA–DNA hybridization generally refers to a molecular biology technique that measures the degree of genetic similarity between pools of DNA sequences.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Elastics are rubber bands frequently used in the field of orthodontics to correct different type of malocclusions.
Emeryville is a small city located in northwest Alameda County, California, in the United States.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.
Exponential growth is exhibited when the rate of change—the change per instant or unit of time—of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value, resulting in its value at any time being an exponential function of time, i.e., a function in which the time value is the exponent.
A fluorophore (or fluorochrome, similarly to a chromophore) is a fluorescent chemical compound that can re-emit light upon light excitation.
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.
Formamide, also known as methanamide, is an amide derived from formic acid.
Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
In the field of molecular biology, gene expression profiling is the measurement of the activity (the expression) of thousands of genes at once, to create a global picture of cellular function.
A hereditary carrier (or just carrier), is a person or other organism that has inherited a recessive allele for a genetic trait or mutation but usually does not display that trait or show symptoms of the disease.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
Geese are waterfowl of the family Anatidae.
Har Gobind Khorana (9 January 1922 – 9 November 2011) was an Indian American biochemist.
Helicases are a class of enzymes vital to all living organisms.
Helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) is a method for in vitro DNA amplification (like the polymerase chain reaction) that takes place at a constant temperature.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Hot start PCR is a modified form of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which avoids a non-specific amplification of DNA by inactivating the DNA polymerase at lower temperatures.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
In molecular biology, a hybridization probe is a fragment of DNA or RNA of variable length (usually 100–1000 bases long) which can be radioactively labeled.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
In silico PCR refers to computational tools used to calculate theoretical polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results using a given set of primers (probes) to amplify DNA sequences from a sequenced genome or transcriptome.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species.
An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the world population.
The Innocence Project is a non-profit legal organization that is committed to exonerating wrongly convicted people through the use of DNA testing and to reforming the criminal justice system to prevent future injustice.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
Inverse polymerase chain reaction (Inverse PCR) is a variant of the polymerase chain reaction that is used to amplify DNA with only one known sequence.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
James Robert Herman (born November 5, 1977) is an American professional golfer who plays on the PGA Tour.
The Journal of Molecular Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published weekly by Elsevier.
Kary Banks Mullis (born December 28, 1944) is a Nobel Prize-winning American biochemist.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a single tube technique for the amplification of DNA.
Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.
A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are carried out on clinical specimens in order to obtain information about the health of a patient in order to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Michael Smith (April 26, 1932 – October 4, 2000) was a British-born Canadian biochemist and businessman.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.
A molecular-weight size marker, also referred to as a protein ladder, DNA ladder, or RNA ladder, is a set of standards that are used to identify the approximate size of a molecule run on a gel during electrophoresis, using the principle that molecular weight is inversely proportional to migration rate through a gel matrix.
In medicine, monitoring is the observation of a disease, condition or one or several medical parameters over time.
Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a variation of the multiplex polymerase chain reaction that permits amplification of multiple targets with only a single primer pair.
Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Multiplex PCR) refers to the use of polymerase chain reaction to amplify several different DNA sequences simultaneously (as if performing many separate PCR reactions all together in one reaction).
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.
Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
Nested polymerase chain reaction (Nested PCR) is a modification of polymerase chain reaction intended to reduce non-specific binding in products due to the amplification of unexpected primer binding sites.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
The northern blot, or RNA blot,Gilbert, S. F. (2000) Developmental Biology, 6th Ed.
In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.
In molecular biology, hybridization (or hybridisation) is a phenomenon in which single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules anneal to complementary DNA or RNA.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
A nucleic acid test (NAT) or nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) is a technique utilized to detect a particular nucleic acid, virus, or bacteria which acts as a pathogen in blood, tissue, urine, etc.
Nucleic acid thermodynamics is the study of how temperature affects the nucleic acid structure of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA).
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
The O. J. Simpson murder case (officially titled People of the State of California v. Orenthal James Simpson) was a criminal trial held at the Los Angeles County Superior Court in which former National Football League (NFL) player, broadcaster, and actor Orenthal James "O. J." Simpson was tried on two counts of murder for the June 12, 1994, deaths of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ron Goldman.
Oligonucleotides are short DNA or RNA molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, and forensics.
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
The overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (or OE-PCR) is a variant of PCR.
Paleogenetics is the study of the past through the examination of preserved genetic material from the remains of ancient organisms.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Polony is a contraction of "polymerase colony," a small colony of DNA.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Polymerase cycling assembly (or PCA, also known as Assembly PCR) is a method for the assembly of large DNA oligonucleotides from shorter fragments.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD or PIGD) is the genetic profiling of embryos prior to implantation (as a form of embryo profiling), and sometimes even of oocytes prior to fertilization.
Prenatal testing consists of prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis, which are aspects of prenatal care that focus on detecting problems with the pregnancy as early as possible.
A primer is a short strand of RNA or DNA (generally about 18-22 bases) that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis.
Primer walking is a sequencing method of choice for sequencing DNA fragments between 1.3 and 7 kilobases.
Promega Corporation is a manufacturer of enzymes and other products for biotechnology and molecular biology with a portfolio covering the fields of genomics, protein analysis and expression, cellular analysis, drug discovery and genetic identity.
Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) is a technique used in molecular biology to obtain the full length sequence of an RNA transcript found within a cell.
A real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR), also known as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), is a laboratory technique of molecular biology based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
A research institute or research center is an establishment founded for doing research.
A restriction digest is a procedure used in molecular biology to prepare DNA for analysis or other processing.
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a variant of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is a technique commonly used in molecular biology to detect RNA expression.
Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death at the Battle of Bosworth Field.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNase H-dependent PCR (rhPCR) is a modification of the standard PCR technique.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
A sequence-tagged site (or STS) is a short (200 to 500 base pair) DNA sequence that has a single occurrence in the genome and whose location and base sequence are known.
In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (sometimes falsely called primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology method that is used to make specific and intentional changes to the DNA sequence of a gene and any gene products.
The Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA) is the archives of the Smithsonian Institution.
SNP genotyping is the measurement of genetic variations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between members of a species.
A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples.
Sputum is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi).
Stephen Bruce Baylin is the deputy director and associate director for research at the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center and Virginia and D.K. Ludwig Professor for Cancer Research and medicine and chief of cancer biology of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
Taq polymerase is a thermostable DNA polymerase named after the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus from which it was originally isolated by Chien et al.
TaqMan probes are hydrolysis probes that are designed to increase the specificity of quantitative PCR.
The thermal cycler (also known as a thermocycler, PCR machine or DNA amplifier) is a laboratory apparatus most commonly used to amplify segments of DNA via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Thermoelectric cooling uses the Peltier effect to create a heat flux between the junction of two different types of materials.
A thermophile is an organism—a type of extremophile—that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between.
Thermus aquaticus is a species of bacteria that can tolerate high temperatures, one of several thermophilic bacteria that belong to the Deinococcus–Thermus group.
Tissue culture is the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism.
Tissue typing is a procedure in which the tissues of a prospective donor and recipient are tested for compatibility prior to transplantation.
The touchdown polymerase chain reaction or touchdown style polymerase chain reaction is a method of polymerase chain reaction by which primers avoid amplifying nonspecific sequences.
The transcriptome is the set of all RNA molecules in one cell or a population of cells.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tuberculosis is diagnosed by finding Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria in a clinical specimen taken from the patient.
The University of Utah (also referred to as the U, U of U, or Utah) is a public coeducational space-grant research university in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
Viral load, also known as viral burden, viral titre or viral titer, is a numerical expression of the quantity of virus in a given volume.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative, non-motile rod-shaped coccobacillus, with no spores.
16S rRNA may refer to.
Applications of PCR, Applications of pcr, Examples of PCR, Hot-start, Mechanism of PCR, Molecular Xeroxing, Nucleic Acid Amplification, Nucleic acid amplification, P.C.R., PCR, PCR amplification, PCR oil, PCR reaction, Pcr, Pcr test, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymerase chain, Polymerase chain reacton, SSP-PCR, Single Specific Primer-PCR.