266 relations: ABO blood group system, Acrocephalus (bird), Adalia bipunctata, Adaptation, Africa, Allele, Allen & Unwin, Alligator, Allopatric speciation, American sparrow, Amplified fragment length polymorphism, Ancient Greek, Ant, Aposematism, Apostatic selection, Arctiinae (moth), Aril, Arthur Cain, Asexual reproduction, Assortative mating, August Weismann, Autosome, B chromosome, Balancing selection, Baltimore, Batesian mimicry, Bee, Berkeley, California, Bernard Kettlewell, Binomial nomenclature, Biodiversity, Bird, Blood type, Boston, Botany, Brood parasite, Bumblebee, California, Camouflage, Caucasus, Cell biology, Charles Darwin, Chemokine, Chicago, Chimpanzee, Cholera, Chromatography, Chromosomal inversion, Chromosome, Cline (biology), ..., Cnidaria, Coccinellidae, Columbia University Press, Comfrey, Common cuckoo, Common side-blotched lizard, Convergent evolution, Creationism, Crypsis, Ctenophorus decresii, Ctenophorus pictus, Cultivar, Cyril Clarke, Darwin's finches, David Lack, Dominance (genetics), Drosophila persimilis, Drosophila pseudoobscura, Drosophila robusta, Duffy antigen system, Dunnock, E. B. Ford, Ecological genetics, Ecological niche, Effective fitness, Emberizidae, Epistasis, Española cactus finch, Eukaryote, European robin, Evolution, Evolution of sexual reproduction, Faber and Faber, Fejervarya limnocharis, Flax, Fly, Fondation Jean Dausset-CEPH, Form (botany), Form (zoology), Frequency-dependent selection, G. Evelyn Hutchinson, G. Ledyard Stebbins, Galápagos Islands, Gametic phase, Gardening, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, Gene, Gene family, Genetic diversity, Genetic drift, Genetic linkage, Genetic recombination, Genetic variation, Genome, Genotype, Genovesa Island, Gens (behaviour), George C. Williams (biologist), Grasshopper, Greater Caucasus, Grove snail, Gynoecium, Haplodiploidy, Haplotype, Hardy–Weinberg principle, Harmonia axyridis, Harvard University Press, Hemoglobin, Heritability, Herkogamy, Hermaphrodite, Heterosis, Heterostyly, Heterozygote advantage, Holocene, Hoverfly, Hymenoptera, Imago, Imprinting (psychology), India, Insect migration, Intellectual property, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, J. B. S. Haldane, Jaguar, Jellyfish, John Maynard Smith, Johns Hopkins University, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Judith Hooper, Julian Huxley, Karyotype, Knotted-pile carpet, Lesser Caucasus, Lichen, Lincoln Brower, Linkage disequilibrium, Linum, Litmus, Locus (genetics), Long-legged wood frog, Lythrum, Lythrum salicaria, Major histocompatibility complex, Mallota, Manchester, Mark and recapture, Marsh frog, Mate choice, Meadow pipit, Melanism, Melanism: Evolution in Action, Mesolithic, Metamorphosis, Michael J. D. White, Michael Majerus, Mimicry, MIT Press, Modern synthesis (20th century), Moor frog, Motoo Kimura, Multimodal distribution, Mutation, Mutation rate, Natural selection, Neutral theory of molecular evolution, New York City, Northern cricket frog, Obelia, Of Moths and Men, Opuntia, Orangutan, Oxford, Oxford University Press, Panmixia, Papilio dardanus, Papua New Guinea, Parasitism, Passerine, Peppered moth, Peppered moth evolution, Peter and Rosemary Grant, Phenotype, Phenotypic trait, Phenylthiocarbamide, Philip Sheppard, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Plant variety (law), Plasmodium, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium vivax, Pleiotropy, Ploidy, Polymorphism (biology), Polyphenism, Polytene chromosome, Population, Prey switching, Primula, Primula vulgaris, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Race (human categorization), Receptor (biochemistry), Red blood cell, Redstart, Reindeer, Restriction fragment length polymorphism, Ring species, Ronald Fisher, Scarlet tiger moth, Seta, Sewall Wright, Sex-determination system, Sexual dimorphism, Sexual reproduction, Sickle cell disease, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Song thrush, Speciation, Stamen, Subfossil, Subspecies, Subvariety, Supergene, Sympatric speciation, Sympatry, Taxonomy (biology), Temperate climate, Tennessee, Theodosius Dobzhansky, Thyroid disease, Transferrin, Trimorphism, Trinomial nomenclature, Turkey, University of California Press, University of Chicago Press, Variety (botany), Vespidae, Viticulture, Viviparous lizard, Volucella zonaria, W. D. Hamilton, Wasp, White-lipped snail, White-throated sparrow, Wood frog, Xanthogramma pedissequum, XY sex-determination system, Yellow baboon, Zooid, Zoology, Zygosity. Expand index (216 more) » « Shrink index
The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes.
The Acrocephalus warblers are small, insectivorous passerine birds belonging to the genus Acrocephalus.
Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Allen & Unwin is an Australian independent publishing company, established in Australia in 1976 as a subsidiary of the British firm George Allen & Unwin Ltd., which was founded by Sir Stanley Unwin in August 1914 and went on to become one of the leading publishers of the twentieth century.
An alligator is a crocodilian in the genus Alligator of the family Alligatoridae.
Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.
American sparrows are a group of mainly New World passerine birds, forming part of the family Passerellidae.
AFLP-PCR or just AFLP is a PCR-based tool used in genetics research, DNA fingerprinting, and in the practice of genetic engineering.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
Aposematism (from Greek ἀπό apo away, σῆμα sema sign) is a term coined by Edward Bagnall PoultonPoulton, 1890.
Apostatic selection is a form of negative frequency-dependent selection.
The Arctiinae (formerly called the Arctiidae) are a large and diverse subfamily of moths, with around 11,000 species found all over the world, including 6,000 neotropical species.
An aril (pronounced), also called an arillus, is a specialized outgrowth from a seed that partly or completely covers the seed.
Arthur James Cain FRS (25 July 1921 – 20 August 1999) was a British evolutionary biologist and ecologist.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Assortative mating is a mating pattern and a form of sexual selection in which individuals with similar phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected under a random mating pattern.
August Friedrich Leopold Weismann (17 January 1834 – 5 November 1914) was a German evolutionary biologist.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
In addition to the normal karyotype, wild populations of many animal, plant, and fungi species contain B chromosomes (also known as supernumerary, accessory, (conditionally-)dispensable, or lineage-specific chromosomes).
Balancing selection refers to a number of selective processes by which multiple alleles (different versions of a gene) are actively maintained in the gene pool of a population at frequencies larger than expected from genetic drift alone.
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
Batesian mimicry is a form of mimicry where a harmless species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a predator of them both.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California.
Henry Bernard Davis Kettlewell (24 February 1907 – 11 May 1979) was a British geneticist, lepidopterist and medical doctor, who performed research on the influence of industrial melanism on peppered moth (Biston betularia) coloration, showing why moths are darker in polluted areas.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
Brood parasites are organisms that rely on others to raise their young.
A bumblebee (or bumble bee, bumble-bee or humble-bee) is any of over 250 species in the genus Bombus, part of Apidae, one of the bee families.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.
An inversion is a chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
In biology, a cline (from the Greek “klinein”, meaning “to lean”) is a measurable gradient in a single character (or biological trait) of a species across its geographical range.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
Coccinellidae is a widespread family of small beetles ranging in size from 0.8 to 18 mm (0.03 to 0.71 inches).
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
Comfrey (also comphrey) is a common name for plants in the genus Symphytum.
The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, Cuculiformes, which includes the roadrunners, the anis and the coucals.
The common side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana) is a species of side-blotched lizard found on the Pacific Coast of North America.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
Creationism is the religious belief that the universe and life originated "from specific acts of divine creation",Gunn 2004, p. 9, "The Concise Oxford Dictionary says that creationism is 'the belief that the universe and living organisms originated from specific acts of divine creation.'" as opposed to the scientific conclusion that they came about through natural processes.
In ecology, crypsis is the ability of an animal to avoid observation or detection by other animals.
Ctenophorus decresii, also known commonly as the tawny crevice-dragon or the tawny dragon, is a species of lizard in the family Agamidae.
Ctenophorus pictus, commonly known as the painted dragon,Waite ER (Editor).
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
Sir Cyril Astley Clarke KBE, FRCP, FRCOG, (Hon) FRC Path, FRS (22 August 1907 – 21 November 2000) was a British physician, geneticist and lepidopterist.
Darwin's finches (also known as the Galápagos finches) are a group of about fifteen species of passerine birds.
David Lambert Lack FRS (16 July 1910 – 12 March 1973) was a British evolutionary biologist who made contributions to ornithology, ecology and ethology.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Drosophila persimilis is a species of fruit fly that is a sister species to D. pseudoobscura, and was one of 12 fruitfly genomes sequenced for a large comparative study.
Drosophila pseudoobscura is a species of fruit fly, used extensively in lab studies of speciation.
Drosophila robusta is a fly species in the genus Drosophila, first described by Alfred Sturtevant in 1916.
Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor (DARC), also known as Fy glycoprotein (FY) or CD234 (Cluster of Differentiation 234), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DARC gene.
The dunnock (Prunella modularis) is a small passerine, or perching bird, found throughout temperate Europe and into Asia.
Edmund Brisco "Henry" Ford (23 April 1901 – 2 January 1988) was a British ecological geneticist.
Ecological genetics is the study of genetics in natural populations.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
In natural evolution and artificial evolution (e.g. artificial life and evolutionary computation) the fitness (or performance or objective measure) of a schema is rescaled to give its effective fitness which takes into account crossover and mutation.
Emberizidae is a family of seed-eating passerine birds with distinctively finch-like bills.
Epistasis is the phenomenon where the effect of one gene (locus) is dependent on the presence of one or more 'modifier genes', i.e. the genetic background.
The Española cactus finch (Geospiza conirostris), is a species of bird in the tanager family Thraupidae.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
The European robin (Erithacus rubecula), known simply as the robin or robin redbreast in the British Isles, is a small insectivorous passerine bird, specifically a chat, that was formerly classified as a member of the thrush family (Turdidae) but is now considered to be an Old World flycatcher.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolution of sexual reproduction describes how sexually reproducing animals, plants, fungi and protists evolved from a common ancestor that was a single celled eukaryotic species.
Faber and Faber Limited, often abbreviated to Faber, is an independent publishing house in the United Kingdom.
Fejervarya limnocharis is a species of frog found widely distributed in South Asia.
Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".
The Fondation Jean Dausset-CEPH or CEPH, formerly the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (the Center for the Study of Human Polymorphisms), is an international genetic research center located in Paris, France.
In botanical nomenclature, a form (forma, plural formae) is one of the "secondary" taxonomic ranks, below that of variety, which in turn is below that of species; it is an infraspecific taxon.
In zoology, the word "form" or forma (literally Latin for form) is a strictly informal term that is sometimes used to describe organisms.
Frequency-dependent selection is an evolutionary process by which the fitness of a phenotype depends on its frequency relative to other phenotypes in a given population.
George Evelyn Hutchinson (January 30, 1903 – May 17, 1991), was a British ecologist sometimes described as the "father of modern ecology." He contributed for more than sixty years to the fields of limnology, systems ecology, radiation ecology, entomology, genetics, biogeochemistry, a mathematical theory of population growth, art history, philosophy, religion, and anthropology.
George Ledyard Stebbins Jr. (January 6, 1906 – January 19, 2000) was an American botanist and geneticist who is widely regarded as one of the leading evolutionary biologists of the 20th century.
The Galápagos Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, west of continental Ecuador.
In a diploid individual, the gametic phase represents the original allelic combinations that an individual received from its parents.
Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture.
Gatlinburg is a mountain resort city in Sevier County, Tennessee, United States.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A gene family is a set of several similar genes, formed by duplication of a single original gene, and generally with similar biochemical functions.
Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
Genetic variation means that biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
Genovesa Island, named after the Italian city of Genoa, in honor of Christopher Columbus, (referred to in English as Tower Island) is a shield volcano in the Galápagos Islands in the eastern Pacific Ocean.
In animal behaviour, a gens (pl. gentes) or host race is a host-specific lineage of a brood parasite species.
George Christopher Williams (May 12, 1926 – September 8, 2010) was an American evolutionary biologist.
Grasshoppers are insects of the suborder Caelifera within the order Orthoptera, which includes crickets and their allies in the other suborder Ensifera.
Greater Caucasus (Böyük Qafqaz, Бөјүк Гафгаз, بيوک قافقاز; დიდი კავკასიონი, Didi K’avk’asioni; Большой Кавказ, Bolshoy Kavkaz, sometimes translated as "Caucasus Major", "Big Caucasus" or "Large Caucasus") is the major mountain range of the Caucasus Mountains.
The grove snail or brown-lipped snail (Cepaea nemoralis) is a species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusc.
Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.
Haplodiploidy is a sex-determination system in which males develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, and females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid.
A haplotype (haploid genotype) is a group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent.
The Hardy–Weinberg principle, also known as the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, model, theorem, or law, states that allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of other evolutionary influences.
Harmonia axyridis, most commonly known as the harlequin, multicolored Asian, or simply Asian ladybeetle, is a large coccinellid beetle.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.
Herkogamy is a common strategy employed by hermaphroditic angiosperms to reduce sexual interference between male (anthers) and female (stigma) function.
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.
Heterosis, hybrid vigor, or outbreeding enhancement, is the improved or increased function of any biological quality in a hybrid offspring.
Heterostyly is a unique form of polymorphism and herkogamy in flowers.
A heterozygote advantage describes the case in which the heterozygous genotype has a higher relative fitness than either the homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive genotype.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Hoverflies, sometimes called flower flies, or syrphid flies, make up the insect family Syrphidae.
Hymenoptera is a large order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants.
In biology, the imago is the last stage an insect attains during its metamorphosis, its process of growth and development; it also is called the imaginal stage, the stage in which the insect attains maturity.
In psychology and ethology, imprinting is any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behaviour.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Insect migration is the seasonal movement of insects, particularly those by species of dragonflies, beetles, butterflies and moths.
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants".
The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals.
John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (5 November 18921 December 1964) was an English scientist known for his work in the study of physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and in mathematics, where he made innovative contributions to the fields of statistics and biostatistics.
The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
John Maynard Smith (6 January 1920 – 19 April 2004) was a British theoretical and mathematical evolutionary biologist and geneticist.
Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.
The Journal of Theoretical Biology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical biology, as well as mathematical and computational aspects of biology.
Judith Hooper (born April 15, 1949 in San Francisco, California"Judith Hooper". Contemporary Authors Online. Gale. October 19, 2005. Retrieved on August 12, 2008.) is an American journalist.
Sir Julian Sorell Huxley FRS (22 June 1887 – 14 February 1975) was a British evolutionary biologist, eugenicist, and internationalist.
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
A knotted-pile carpet is a carpet containing raised surfaces, or piles, from the cut off ends of knots woven between the warp and woof.
Lesser Caucasus (Փոքր Կովկաս Pʿokʿr Kovkas, Azerbaijani: Kiçik Qafqaz Dağları, მცირე კავკასიონი, Малый Кавказ, Persian: Arankuh, Küçük Kafkasya, sometimes translated as "Caucasus Minor") is second of the two main mountain ranges of Caucasus mountains, of length about.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
Lincoln Pierson Brower (born 1931) is an entomologist and ecologist, known for his work on monarch butterflies through six decades, including on their automimicry, chemical ecology and conservation.
In population genetics, linkage disequilibrium is the non-random association of alleles at different loci in a given population.
Linum (flax) is a genus of approximately 200 species The Jepson Manual.
Litmus is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
The long-legged wood frog, Caucasus frog, or Uludağ frog (Rana macrocnemis) is a species of frog in the Ranidae family found in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey, and Turkmenistan.
Lythrum is a genus of 38 species of flowering plants native to the temperate world.
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrifeFlora of NW Europe) is a flowering plant belonging to the family Lythraceae.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.
Mallota is a widely distributed Holarctic genus of hoverfly (a member of the fly family Syrphidae), well known for their bee-like appearance.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Mark and recapture is a method commonly used in ecology to estimate an animal population's size.
The marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus) is the largest frog native to Europe and belongs to the family of true frogs.
Mate choice, also known as intersexual selection, is an evolutionary process in which selection is dependent on the attractiveness of an individual's phenotypic traits.
The meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis) is a small passerine bird which breeds in much of northwestern Eurasia, from southeastern Greenland and Iceland east to just east of the Ural Mountains in Russia, and south to central France and Romania; there is also an isolated population in the Caucasus Mountains.
Melanism is a development of the dark-colored pigment melanin in the skin or its appendages and is the opposite of albinism.
''Melanism in Action'' Melanism: Evolution in Action is a book by Dr.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
Michael James Denham White FRS (London, 20 August 1910 – Canberra, 16 December 1983) was a zoologist and cytologist.
Michael Eugene Nicolas Majerus (13 February 1954 – 27 January 2009) was a British geneticist and Professor of Evolution at the University of Cambridge.
In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one organism, usually an animal, to another that has evolved because the resemblance is selectively favoured by the behaviour of a shared signal receiver that can respond to both.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
The modern synthesis was the early 20th-century synthesis reconciling Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and Gregor Mendel's ideas on heredity in a joint mathematical framework.
The moor frog (Rana arvalis) is a slim, reddish-brown, semiaquatic amphibian native to Europe and Asia.
(November 13, 1924 – November 13, 1994) was a Japanese biologist best known for introducing the neutral theory of molecular evolution in 1968, in collaboration with Tomoko Ohta.
In statistics, a bimodal distribution is a continuous probability distribution with two different modes.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
In genetics, the mutation rate is the frequency of new mutations in a single gene or organism over time.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
The neutral theory of molecular evolution holds that at the molecular level most evolutionary changes and most of the variation within and between species is not caused by natural selection but by genetic drift of mutant alleles that are neutral.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The northern cricket frog (Acris crepitans) is a species of small hylid frog native to the United States and northeastern Mexico.
Obelia is a genus of hydrozoans, which consists mainly of marine and some freshwater animal species and have both the polyp and medusa stages in their life cycle.
Of Moths and Men is a book by journalist Judith Hooper about the Oxford University ecological genetics school led by E.B. Ford.
Opuntia, commonly called prickly pear, is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae.
The orangutans (also spelled orang-utan, orangutang, or orang-utang) are three extant species of great apes native to Indonesia and Malaysia.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.
Papilio dardanus, the African swallowtail, mocker swallowtail or flying handkerchief, is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae (the swallowtails).
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species.
The peppered moth (Biston betularia) is a temperate species of night-flying moth.
The evolution of the peppered moth is an evolutionary instance of directional colour change in the moth population as a consequence of air pollution during the Industrial Revolution.
Peter Raymond Grant,,, and Barbara Rosemary Grant,,, are a British couple who are evolutionary biologists at Princeton University.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), also known as phenylthiourea (PTU), is an organosulfur thiourea containing a phenyl ring.
Professor Philip MacDonald Sheppard, F.R.S. (27 July 1921 – 17 October 1976) was a British geneticist and lepidopterist.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Plant variety is a legal term, following the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) Convention.
Plasmodium is a genus of unicellular eukaryotes that are obligate parasites of vertebrates and insects.
Plasmodium knowlesi is a primate malaria parasite commonly found in Southeast Asia.
Plasmodium vivax is a protozoal parasite and a human pathogen.
Pleiotropy (from Greek πλείων pleion, "more", and τρόπος tropos, "way") occurs when one gene influences two or more seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
A polyphenic trait is a trait for which multiple, discrete phenotypes can arise from a single genotype as a result of differing environmental conditions.
Polytene chromosomes are large chromosomes which have thousands of DNA strands.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Prey switching is frequency-dependent predation, where the predator preferentially consumes the most common type of prey.
Primula is a genus of mainly herbaceous flowering plants in the family Primulaceae.
Primula vulgaris, the common primrose is a species of flowering plant in the family Primulaceae, native to western and southern Europe (from the Faroe Islands and Norway south to Portugal, and east to Germany, Ukraine, the Crimea, and the Balkans), northwest Africa (Algeria), and southwest Asia (Turkey east to Iran).
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Redstarts are a group of small Old World birds.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
In molecular biology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is a technique that exploits variations in homologous DNA sequences.
In biology, a ring species is a connected series of neighbouring populations, each of which can interbreed with closely sited related populations, but for which there exist at least two "end" populations in the series, which are too distantly related to interbreed, though there is a potential gene flow between each "linked" population.
Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962), who published as R. A. Fisher, was a British statistician and geneticist.
The scarlet tiger moth (Callimorpha dominula, formerly Panaxia dominula) is a colorful moth belonging to the tiger moth subfamily, Arctiinae.
In biology, setae (singular seta; from the Latin word for "bristle") are any of a number of different bristle- or hair-like structures on living organisms.
Sewall Green Wright (December 21, 1889March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory and also for his work on path analysis.
A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
The song thrush (Turdus philomelos) is a thrush that breeds across much of Eurasia.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.
A subfossil (as opposed to a fossil) is a bone or other part of an organism that has not fully fossilized.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.
A subvariety (Latin: subvarietas) in botanical nomenclature is a taxonomic rank.
A supergene is a group of neighbouring genes on a chromosome which are inherited together because of close genetic linkage and are functionally related in an evolutionary sense, although they are rarely co-regulated genetically.
Sympatric speciation is the process through which new species evolve from a single ancestral species while inhabiting the same geographic region.
In biology, two species or populations are considered sympatric when they exist in the same geographic area and thus frequently encounter one another.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
Theodosius Grygorovych Dobzhansky (Теодо́сій Григо́рович Добжа́нський; Феодо́сий Григо́рьевич Добржа́нский; January 25, 1900 – December 18, 1975) was a prominent Ukrainian-American geneticist and evolutionary biologist, and a central figure in the field of evolutionary biology for his work in shaping the modern synthesis.
Thyroid disease is a medical condition that affects the function of the thyroid gland (the endocrine organ found at the front of the neck that produces thyroid hormones).
Transferrins are iron-binding blood plasma glycoproteins that control the level of free iron (Fe) in biological fluids.
In biology, trimorphism is the existence in certain plants and animals of three distinct forms, especially in connection with the reproductive organs.
In biology, trinomial nomenclature refers to names for taxa below the rank of species.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
In botanical nomenclature, variety (abbreviated var.; in varietas) is a taxonomic rank below that of species and subspecies but above that of form.
The Vespidae are a large (nearly 5000 species), diverse, cosmopolitan family of wasps, including nearly all the known eusocial wasps (such as Polistes fuscatus, Vespa orientalis, and Vespula germanica) and many solitary wasps.
Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production, and study of grapes.
The viviparous lizard or common lizard, Zootoca vivipara (formerly Lacerta vivipara), is a Eurasian lizard.
Volucella zonaria, the hornet mimic hoverfly, is a species of hoverfly.
William Donald Hamilton, FRS (1 August 1936 – 7 March 2000) was an English evolutionary biologist, widely recognised as one of the most significant evolutionary theorists of the 20th century.
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.
The white-lipped snail or garden banded snail, scientific name Cepaea hortensis, is a medium-sized species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusc in the family Helicidae.
The white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) is a passerine bird of the American sparrow family Passerellidae.
The wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus or Rana sylvatica) has a broad distribution over North America, extending from the Boreal forest of Canada and Alaska to the southern Appalachians, with several notable disjunct populations including lowland eastern North Carolina.
Xanthogramma pedissequum is a species of hoverfly.
The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila), some snakes, and some plants (Ginkgo).
The yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus) is a baboon in the family of Old World monkeys.
A zooid or zoöid is a single animal that is part of a colonial animal.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
Biological diamorphism, Biological polymorphism, Color morph, Color phase, Coloration morph, Colour morph, Colour morphs, Colour phase, Genetic alterations, Genetic polymorphism, Genetic polymorphisms, Individual variation, Monomorphism (biology), Morph (biology), Morph (zoology), Morphotype, Polymorphic variant, Polymorphism (DNA), Polymorphism (genetics), Sequence polymorphism, Variant (zoology).