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Index Polyploid

Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes. [1]

231 relations: Acipenser, Adaptation, Adrenal gland, Algae, Alternation of generations, Alveolate, Ancestor, Andes, Aneuploidy, Animal, AoB Plants, Apomixis, Apple, Arabidopsis thaliana, Archaea, Argentina, Asexual reproduction, Azotobacter vinelandii, Bacteria, Baker, Baker's yeast, Banana, Basidiomycota, Bee, Belle de Boskoop, Betula papyrifera, Biological life cycle, Bivalent (genetics), Brassica, Brassica carinata, Brassica juncea, Brassica nigra, Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Brassicaceae, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Brine shrimp, Canola, Carp, Cell (biology), Cell culture, Cell division, Cell nucleus, Cellular differentiation, Celosia argentea, Chimera (genetics), Chinchilla, Chromosome, Chrysanthemum, Citrus, ..., Cloning, Colchicine, Cotton, Cyathus stercoreus, Cyprinidae, Cytogenetics, Cytopathology, Dahlia, Daylily, Deinococcus radiodurans, Desert, Desiccation, Diatom, Digyny, Diploidization, DNA, DNA replication, DNA sequencing, DNA-binding protein, Durum, Epigenetics, Epulopiscium fishelsoni, Erythranthe peregrina, Eukaryote, Evolution, F1 hybrid, Fern, Fertilisation, Fetus, Fish, Flatworm, Flowering plant, Fragaria, Fucales, Fungus, Gamete, Gametogenesis, Gametophyte, Genetic recombination, Genome, Genomic imprinting, Ginger, Goldfish, Gossypium hirsutum, Grafting, Guinea pig, Halobacterium salinarum, Haplotype, Har Swarup, Heterosis, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Homologous chromosome, Homologous recombination, Homology (biology), Human, Hybrid (biology), Hybrid speciation, Hymenoptera, Hypoplasia, Interploidy hybridization, J. B. S. Haldane, John Gurdon, Jonagold, Kinnow, Kiwifruit, Klepton, Klerokinesis, Leech, Leek, Lilium, Lineage (evolution), Lomatia tasmanica, Macaroni, Mammal, Meiosis, Microbotryum violaceum, Miscarriage, Mitosis, Mitotic inhibitor, Molar pregnancy, Mole salamander, Monocotyledon, Mountain viscacha rat, Muscle, Mutation, Mutsu (apple), Natural selection, Nature (journal), New Phytologist, Nondisjunction, Oat, Octodontidae, Oocyte, Oomycete, Organism, Oryza sativa, Oryzalin, Oxalis tuberosa, Paleopolyploidy, Pamela S. Soltis, Pansy, Paramecium, Parenchyma, Parthenocarpy, Parthenogenesis, Peanut, Pelargonium, Phenotype, Phylum, Phytophthora, Pinophyta, Placenta, Plains viscacha rat, Plant, Ploidy, Polar body, Polyp, Polyploid, Polyploid complex, Polysomy, Polyspermy, Potato, Prenatal development, Prenatal testing, Prokaryote, Rapeseed, Rat, Rhizopus oryzae, Ribston Pippin, Rice, Rodent, Rye, Saccharomyces, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Salamander, Salmon, Salmonidae, Sequoia sempervirens, Shinya Yamanaka, Somatic cell, Somatic fusion, Spartina anglica, Speciation, Species, Spermatophore, Spore, Sporophyte, Sport (botany), Strawberry, Sturgeon, Sugarcane, Sympatric speciation, Sympatry, Synthesis-dependent strand annealing, Tardigrade, Taxon, Teleost, Tobacco, Tolmiea menziesii, Tragopogon, Tragopogon dubius, Tragopogon mirus, Tragopogon miscellus, Tragopogon porrifolius, Tragopogon pratensis, Transcriptome, Transposable element, Triangle of U, Triploid block, Triploid syndrome, Triticale, Tulip, Uganda clawed frog, Vertebrate, Watermelon, Wheat, White sturgeon, X-ray, Xenopus, Zygosity. Expand index (181 more) »


Acipenser is a genus of sturgeons.

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In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.

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Adrenal gland

The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Alternation of generations

Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis) is the type of life cycle that occurs in those plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and the Heterokontophyta that have distinct sexual haploid and asexual diploid stages.

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The alveolates (meaning "with cavities") are a group of protists, considered a major clade and superphylum within Eukarya, and are also called Alveolata.

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An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).

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The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Aneuploidy is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, for example a human cell having 45 or 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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AoB Plants

AoB Plants is a peer-reviewed open-access non-profit scientific journal established in 2009 and published by Oxford University Press.

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In botany, apomixis was defined by Hans Winkler as replacement of the normal sexual reproduction by asexual reproduction, without fertilization.

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An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).

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Arabidopsis thaliana

Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

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Azotobacter vinelandii

Azotobacter vinelandii is Gram-negative diazotroph that can fix nitrogen while grown aerobically.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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A baker is someone who bakes and sometimes sells breads and other products made using an oven or other concentrated heat source.

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Baker's yeast

Baker's yeast is the common name for the strains of yeast commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol.

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A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.

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Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya (often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi.

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Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.

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Belle de Boskoop

Belle de Boskoop is an apple cultivar which, as its name suggests, originated in Boskoop, the Netherlands, where it began as a chance seedling in 1856.

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Betula papyrifera

Betula papyrifera (paper birch, also known as white birch and canoe birch) is a short-lived species of birch native to northern North America.

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Biological life cycle

In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.

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Bivalent (genetics)

A bivalent, sometimes referred to as a tetrad, is the association of a pair of homologous chromosomes physically held together by at least one DNA crossover.

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Brassica is a genus of plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae).

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Brassica carinata

Brassica carinata (Ethiopian rape, Ethiopian mustard, Abyssinian mustard) is a member of the Triangle of U species (U, 1935) in the agriculturally significant genus Brassica.

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Brassica juncea

Brassica juncea, commonly brown mustard, Chinese mustard, Indian mustard, leaf mustard, Oriental mustard and vegetable mustard, is a species of mustard plant.

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Brassica nigra

Brassica nigra, the black mustard, is an annual plant cultivated for its black or dark brown seeds, which are commonly used as a spice.

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Brassica oleracea

Brassica oleracea is a plant species that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, savoy, kohlrabi, and gai lan.

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Brassica rapa

Brassica rapa is a plant consisting of various widely cultivated subspecies including the turnip (a root vegetable); napa cabbage, bomdong, bok choy, and cime di rapa (leaf vegetables); and Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera, an oilseed which has many common names, including turnip rape, field mustard, bird rape, and keblock.

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Brassicaceae or Cruciferae is a medium-sized and economically important family of flowering plants commonly known as the mustards, the crucifers, or the cabbage family.

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Brettanomyces bruxellensis

Brettanomyces bruxellensis (the anamorph of Dekkera bruxellensis) is a yeast associated with and named after, the Senne valley near Brussels, Belgium.

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Brine shrimp

Artemia is a genus of aquatic crustaceans also known as brine shrimp.

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Canola oil, or canola for short, is a vegetable oil derived from rapeseed that is low in erucic acid, as opposed to colza oil.

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Carp are various species of oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell culture

Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.

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Cell division

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cellular differentiation

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.

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Celosia argentea

Celosia argentea, commonly known as the plumed cockscomb or silver cock's comb, is a herbaceous plant of tropical origin, and is known for its very bright colors.

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Chimera (genetics)

A genetic chimerism or chimera (also spelled chimaera) is a single organism composed of cells with distinct genotypes.

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Chinchillas are either of two species of crepuscular rodents of the parvorder Caviomorpha.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Chrysanthemums, sometimes called mums or chrysanths, are flowering plants of the genus Chrysanthemum in the family Asteraceae.

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Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.

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Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.

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Colchicine is a medication most commonly used to treat gout.

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Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

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Cyathus stercoreus

Cyathus stercoreus, commonly known as the dung-loving bird's nest, is a species of fungus in the genus Cyathus, family Nidulariaceae.

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The Cyprinidae are the family of freshwater fishes, collectively called cyprinids, that includes the carps, the true minnows, and their relatives (for example, the barbs and barbels).

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Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with how the chromosomes relate to cell behaviour, particularly to their behaviour during mitosis and meiosis.

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Cytopathology (from Greek κύτος, kytos, "a hollow"; πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level.

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Dahlia is a genus of bushy, tuberous, herbaceous perennial plants native to Mexico.

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A daylily is a flowering plant in the genus Hemerocallis.

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Deinococcus radiodurans

Deinococcus radiodurans is an extremophilic bacterium, one of the most radiation-resistant organisms known.

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A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.

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Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.

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Digyny (also digynia) refers to the process of a diploid ovum becoming fertilized by a monoploid sperm.

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Diploidization is the process of converting a polyploid genome back into a diploid one.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA replication

In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.

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DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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DNA-binding protein

DNA-binding proteins are proteins that have DNA-binding domains and thus have a specific or general affinity for single- or double-stranded DNA.

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Durum wheat, also called pasta wheat or macaroni wheat (Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum subsp. durum), is a tetraploid species of wheat.

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Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.

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Epulopiscium fishelsoni

Epulopiscium fishelsoni, or "epulo" for short, is a species of Gram-positive bacteria that have a symbiotic relationship with surgeonfish.

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Erythranthe peregrina

Erythranthe peregrina is a species of monkeyflower.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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F1 hybrid

An F1 hybrid (or filial 1 hybrid) is the first filial generation of offspring of distinctly different parental types.

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A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.

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Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.

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A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.

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Fragaria is a genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, commonly known as strawberries for their edible fruits.

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The Fucales (fucoids) are an order in the brown algae (class Phaeophyceae).

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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Gametogenesis is a biological process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to form mature haploid gametes.

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A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.

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Genetic recombination

Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Genomic imprinting

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes genes to be expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner.

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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.

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The goldfish (Carassius auratus) is a freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae of order Cypriniformes.

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Gossypium hirsutum

Gossypium hirsutum, also known as upland cotton or Mexican cotton, is the most widely planted species of cotton in the United States, constituting some 95% of all cotton production there.

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Grafting or graftage is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together.

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Guinea pig

The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cavy or domestic cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia.

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Halobacterium salinarum

Halobacterium salinarum is an extremely halophilic marine Gram-negative obligate aerobic archaeon.

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A haplotype (haploid genotype) is a group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent.

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Har Swarup

Har Swarup, FNA (9 December 1922 – 25 April 1981) was vice-chancellor, academician, and scientist in the field of developmental biology and genetic engineering as well as an academician and teacher of molecular biology and biochemistry.

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Heterosis, hybrid vigor, or outbreeding enhancement, is the improved or increased function of any biological quality in a hybrid offspring.

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Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, known colloquially as Chinese hibiscus, China rose, Hawaiian hibiscus,, rose mallow and shoeblackplant, is a species of tropical hibiscus, a flowering plant in the Hibisceae tribe of the family Malvaceae, native to East Asia.

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Homologous chromosome

A couple of homologous chromosomes, or homologs, are a set of one maternal and one paternal chromosome that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis.

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Homologous recombination

Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Hybrid (biology)

In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.

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Hybrid speciation

Hybrid speciation is a form of speciation where hybridization between two different species leads to a new species, reproductively isolated from the parent species.

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Hymenoptera is a large order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants.

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Hypoplasia (from Ancient Greek ὑπo- hypo-, "under" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"; adjective form hypoplastic) is underdevelopment or incomplete development of a tissue or organ.

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Interploidy hybridization

Interploidy hybridization is a term to describe a hybridization (or manual cross) between two different individuals of different ploidy levels.

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J. B. S. Haldane

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (5 November 18921 December 1964) was an English scientist known for his work in the study of physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and in mathematics, where he made innovative contributions to the fields of statistics and biostatistics.

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John Gurdon

Sir John Bertrand Gurdon (born 2 October 1933), is an English developmental biologist.

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Jonagold is a cultivar of apple which was developed in 1953 in New York State Agricultural Experiment Station of Cornell University's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, a cross between the crisp Golden Delicious and the blush-crimson Jonathan.

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The 'Kinnow' is a high yield mandarin hybrid cultivated extensively in the wider Punjab region of Pakistan and India.

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Kiwifruit (often abbreviated as kiwi), or Chinese gooseberry is the edible berry of several species of woody vines in the genus Actinidia.

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In biology, a klepton (abbr. kl.) and synklepton (abbr sk.) is a species that requires input from another biological taxon (normally from a species which is closely related to the kleptonic species) to complete their reproductive cycle.

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Klerokinesis (from the Greek root for allotted inheritance) has been claimed to be a new form of cell division in human cells.

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Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.

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The leek is a vegetable, a cultivar of Allium ampeloprasum, the broadleaf wild leek.

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Lilium (members of which are true lilies) is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers.

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Lineage (evolution)

An evolutionary lineage is a temporal series of organisms, populations, cells, or genes connected by a continuous line of descent from ancestor to descendent.

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Lomatia tasmanica

Lomatia tasmanica, commonly known as King's lomatia, is a shrub from the family Proteaceae native to Tasmania.

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Macaroni is a variety of dry pasta traditionally shaped and produced in various shapes and sizes.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.

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Microbotryum violaceum

Microbotryum violaceum, also known as the anther smut fungus, was formerly known as Ustilago violacea.

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Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.

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In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.

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Mitotic inhibitor

A mitotic inhibitor is a drug that inhibits mitosis, or cell division.

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Molar pregnancy

Molar pregnancy is an abnormal form of pregnancy in which a non-viable fertilized egg implants in the uterus and will fail to come to term.

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Mole salamander

The mole salamanders (genus Ambystoma) are a group of advanced salamanders endemic to North America, the only genus in the family Ambystomatidae.

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Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.

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Mountain viscacha rat

The mountain viscacha rat or mountain vizcacha rat (Octomys mimax), historically viscacha rat or vizcacha rat, is a species of rodent in the family Octodontidae.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Mutsu (apple)

The apple (also known as Crispin) was introduced in 1948 and is a cross between the 'Golden Delicious and the 'Indo' apple cultivars first grown in Japan, and named after the Mutsu Province of Japan.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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New Phytologist

New Phytologist is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published on behalf of the New Phytologist Trust by Wiley-Blackwell.

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Nondisjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly during cell division.

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The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).

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Octodontidae is a family of rodents, restricted to southwestern South America.

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An oocyte, oöcyte, ovocyte, or rarely ocyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction.

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Oomycota or oomycetes form a distinct phylogenetic lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Oryza sativa

Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the plant species most commonly referred to in English as rice.

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Oryzalin is an herbicide of the dinitroaniline class.

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Oxalis tuberosa

Oxalis tuberosa is a perennial herbaceous plant that overwinters as underground stem tubers.

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Paleopolyploidy is the result of genome duplications which occurred at least several million years ago (MYA).

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Pamela S. Soltis

Pamela Soltis is an American botanist.

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The garden pansy is a type of large-flowered hybrid plant cultivated as a garden flower.

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Paramecium (also Paramoecium) is a genus of unicellular ciliates, commonly studied as a representative of the ciliate group.

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Parenchyma is the bulk of a substance.

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In botany and horticulture, parthenocarpy (literally meaning "virgin fruit") is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules, which makes the fruit seedless.

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Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.

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The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.

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Pelargonium is a genus of flowering plants which includes about 200 species of perennials, succulents, and shrubs, commonly known as geraniums (in the United States also storksbills).

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Phytophthora (from Greek (phytón), "plant" and (phthorá), "destruction"; "the plant-destroyer") is a genus of plant-damaging oomycetes (water molds), whose member species are capable of causing enormous economic losses on crops worldwide, as well as environmental damage in natural ecosystems.

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The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.

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The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.

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Plains viscacha rat

The plains viscacha rat, plains vizcacha rat, red viscacha rat, or red vizcacha rat (Tympanoctomys barrerae) is a species of rodent in the family Octodontidae native to Argentina.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.

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Polar body

A polar body is a small haploid cell that is formed concomitantly as an egg cell during oogenesis, but which generally does not have the ability to be fertilized.

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A polyp in zoology is one of two forms found in the phylum Cnidaria, the other being the medusa.

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Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.

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Polyploid complex

A polyploid complex, also called a diploid-polyploid complex, is a group of interrelated and interbreeding species that also have differing levels of ploidy that can allow interbreeding.

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Polysomy is a condition found in many species, including fungi, plants, insects, and mammals, in which an organism has at least one more chromosome than normal, i.e., there may be three or more copies of the chromosome rather than the expected two copies.

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In biology, polyspermy describes an egg that has been fertilized by more than one sperm.

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The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.

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Prenatal development

Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.

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Prenatal testing

Prenatal testing consists of prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis, which are aspects of prenatal care that focus on detecting problems with the pregnancy as early as possible.

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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed.

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Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.

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Rhizopus oryzae

Rhizopus oryzae is a fungus that lives worldwide in dead organic matter.

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Ribston Pippin

'Ribston Pippin' is a triploid cultivar of apples, also known by other names including 'Essex Pippin', 'Beautiful Pippin', 'Formosa', 'Glory of York', 'Ribstone', 'Rockhill's Russet', 'Travers', and 'Travers's Reinette'.

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Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.

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Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.

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Saccharomyces is a genus of fungi that includes many species of yeasts.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.

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Saccharomyces pastorianus

Saccharomyces pastorianus is a yeast used industrially for the production of lager beer, and was named in honour of Louis Pasteur by the German Max Reess in 1870.

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Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults.

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Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.

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Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only living family currently placed in the order Salmoniformes.

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Sequoia sempervirens

Sequoia sempervirens Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607 is the sole living species of the genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae (formerly treated in Taxodiaceae).

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Shinya Yamanaka

is a Japanese Nobel Prize-winning stem cell researcher.

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Somatic cell

A somatic cell (from the Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body") or vegetal cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.

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Somatic fusion

Somatic fusion, also called protoplast fusion, is a type of genetic modification in plants by which two distinct species of plants are fused together to form a new hybrid plant with the characteristics of both, a somatic hybrid.

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Spartina anglica

Spartina anglica (Common Cord-grass) is a species of cordgrass that originated in southern England in about 1870 and is endemic as a native to Britain.

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Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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A spermatophore or sperm ampulla is a capsule or mass containing spermatozoa created by males of various animal species, especially salamanders and arthropods, and transferred in entirety to the female's ovipore during reproduction.

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In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.

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A sporophyte is the diploid multicellular stage in the life cycle of a plant or alga.

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Sport (botany)

In botany, a sport or bud sport, traditionally called lusus, is a part of a plant that shows morphological differences from the rest of the plant.

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The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries.

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Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae.

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Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.

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Sympatric speciation

Sympatric speciation is the process through which new species evolve from a single ancestral species while inhabiting the same geographic region.

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In biology, two species or populations are considered sympatric when they exist in the same geographic area and thus frequently encounter one another.

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Synthesis-dependent strand annealing

In genetics, the initial processes involved in repair of a double-strand break by synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) are identical to those in the double Holliday junction model, and have been most extensively studied in yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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Tardigrades (also known colloquially as water bears, or moss piglets) are water-dwelling, eight-legged, segmented micro-animals.

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In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.

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Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.

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Tolmiea menziesii

The plant Tolmiea menziesii is a member of the genus Tolmiea.

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Tragopogon, also known as goatsbeard or salsify, is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family.

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Tragopogon dubius

Tragopogon dubius (yellow salsify, western salsify, western goat's-beard, wild oysterplant, yellow goat's beard, goat's beard, goatsbeard, common salsify, salsify) is a species of salsify native to southern and central Europe and western Asia and found as far north and west as northern France.

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Tragopogon mirus

Tragopogon mirus Ownbey, the remarkable goatsbeard, is a species considered native to certain regions of North America.

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Tragopogon miscellus

Tragopogon miscellus, the Moscow salsify, is a species native to the States of Washington and Idaho.

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Tragopogon porrifolius

Tragopogon porrifolius is a plant cultivated for its ornamental flower, edible root, and herbal properties.

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Tragopogon pratensis

Tragopogon pratensis (common names Jack-go-to-bed-at-noon, meadow salsify, showy goat's-beard or meadow goat's-beard) is a biennial plant in the Asteraceae family, distributed across Europe and North America, commonly growing in fields (hence its name) and on roadsides.

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The transcriptome is the set of all RNA molecules in one cell or a population of cells.

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Transposable element

A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.

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Triangle of U

The triangle of U is a theory about the evolution and relationships among members of the plant genus Brassica.

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Triploid block

Triploid block is a phenomenon describing the formation of nonviable progeny after hybridization of flowering plants that differ in ploidy.

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Triploid syndrome

Triploid syndrome, also called triploidy, is an extremely rare chromosomal disorder, in which a fetus has three copies of every chromosome instead of the normal two.

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Triticale (× Triticosecale), is a hybrid of wheat (Triticum) and rye (Secale) first bred in laboratories during the late 19th century in Scotland and Germany.

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Tulips (Tulipa) form a genus of spring-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes (having bulbs as storage organs).

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Uganda clawed frog

The Uganda clawed frog (Xenopus ruwenzoriensis) is a species of frog in the family Pipidae found in Uganda and possibly the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Citrullus lanatus is a plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) flowering plant originally from Africa.

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Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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White sturgeon

White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) is a species of sturgeon in the family Acipenseridae of the order Acipenseriformes.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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Xenopus (Gk., ξενος, xenos.

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Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyploid

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