125 relations: Adipose tissue, Algae, Ammonia, Amorphous solid, Amylopectin, Amylose, Animal, Antigen, Arabinose, Arabinoxylan, Arthropod, Atom, Bacteria, Basal metabolic rate, Beta-glucan, Bile acid, Biofilm, Biopolymer, Brain, Callose, Carbohydrate, Carboxylic acid, Cell (biology), Cell wall, Cellulose, Chemoreceptor, Chitin, Chitinase, Chitosan, Cholesterol, Chrysolaminarin, Concentration, Conjugate vaccine, Cotton, Cytosol, Dextran, Dietary fiber, Ecology, Energy, Enzyme, Escherichia coli, Ester, Exoskeleton, Extracellular polymeric substance, Flagellin, Fructose, Fucoidan, Function (biology), Fungus, Galactomannan, ..., Gastrointestinal tract, Gellan gum, Glucose, Glucose cycle, Glycan, Glyceraldehyde, Glycogen, Glycogenesis, Glycogenin, Glycosidic bond, Glycosylation, Hepatocyte, Hydrolysis, Intermittent fasting, Kidney, Laminarin, Lignin, Lipopolysaccharide, Liver, Macromolecule, Maize, Mannan, Metabolic pathway, Molecular mass, Molecule, Monosaccharide, Mucin, Muscle, Neuroglia, Nitrogen, Nucleotide, Nucleotide sugar, Oligosaccharide, Oligosaccharide nomenclature, Organic compound, Organism, Paper, Pathogenic bacteria, Pectin, Periodic acid–Schiff stain, Physiology, Pilin, Plant, Polymer, Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria, Potato, Protein, Pullulan, Red blood cell, Rhamnolipid, Rheology, Rice, Ruminant, Shear thinning, Short-chain fatty acid, Solubility, Starch, Stomach, Sugar, Sulfur, Surgical suture, Termite, Transcription (biology), Triglyceride, Unified atomic mass unit, Vaccine, Viscoelasticity, Viscose, Water, Welan gum, Wheat, White blood cell, Xanthan gum, Xylan, Xylose. Expand index (75 more) » « Shrink index
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
Amylopectin is a water-soluble polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in plants.
Amylose is a polysaccharide made of α-D-glucose units, bonded to each other through α(1→4) glycosidic bonds.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Arabinose is an aldopentose – a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde (CHO) functional group.
Arabinoxylan is a hemicellulose found in both the primary and secondary cell walls of plants, including woods and cereal grains, consisting of copolymers of two pentose sugars – arabinose and xylose.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.
β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, bacteria, and fungi, with significantly differing physicochemical properties dependent on source.
Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Callose is a plant polysaccharide, it is made by the Glucan Synthase-Like gene (GLS) in various places within a plant.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.
Chitinases (chitodextrinase, 1,4-beta-poly-N-acetylglucosaminidase, poly-beta-glucosaminidase, beta-1,4-poly-N-acetyl glucosamidinase, poly glycanohydrolase, (1->4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucan glycanohydrolase) are hydrolytic enzymes that break down glycosidic bonds in chitin.
Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1→4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and ''N''-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit).
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Chrysolaminarin is a linear polymer of β(1→3) and β(1→6) linked glucose units in a ratio of 11:1.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
A conjugate vaccine is created by covalently attaching a poor antigen to a strong antigen thereby eliciting a stronger immunological response to the poor antigen.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
Dextran is a complex branched glucan (polysaccharide made of many glucose molecules) composed of chains of varying lengths (from 3 to 2000 kilodaltons).
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
Extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) are natural polymers of high molecular weight secreted by microorganisms into their environment.
Flagellin is a globular protein that arranges itself in a hollow cylinder to form the filament in a bacterial flagellum.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide (MW: average 20,000) found mainly in various species of brown algae and brown seaweed such as mozuku, kombu, bladderwrack, wakame, and hijiki (variant forms of fucoidan have also been found in animal species, including the sea cucumber).
In biology, function has been defined in many ways.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Galactomannans are polysaccharides consisting of a mannose backbone with galactose side groups (more specifically, a (1-4)-linked beta-D-mannopyranose backbone with branchpoints from their 6-positions linked to alpha-D-galactose, i.e. 1-6-linked alpha-D-galactopyranose).
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gellan gum is a water-soluble anionic polysaccharide produced by the bacterium Sphingomonas elodea (formerly Pseudomonas elodea).
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
The glucose cycle (also known as the hepatic futile cycle) occurs primarily in the liver and is the dynamic balance between glucose and glucose 6-phosphate.
The terms glycan and polysaccharide are defined by IUPAC as synonyms meaning "compounds consisting of a large number of monosaccharides linked glycosidically".
Glyceraldehyde (glyceral) is a triose monosaccharide with chemical formula C3H6O3.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage.
Glycogenin is an enzyme involved in converting glucose to glycogen.
In chemistry, a glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.
Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Intermittent fasting (IF) is an umbrella term for various diets that cycle between a period of fasting and non-fasting during a defined period.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The molecule laminarin (also known as laminaran) is a storage glucan (a polysaccharide of glucose) found in brown algae.
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Mannan may refer to a plant polysaccharide that is a linear polymer of the sugar mannose.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
Mucins are a family of high molecular weight, heavily glycosylated proteins (glycoconjugates) produced by epithelial tissues in most animals.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Nucleotide sugars are the activated forms of monosaccharides.
An oligosaccharide (from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten) of monosaccharides (simple sugars).
Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are an important class of polymeric carbohydrates found in virtually all living entities.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
Pectin (from πηκτικός, "congealed, curdled") is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.
Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) is a staining method used to detect polysaccharides such as glycogen, and mucosubstances such as glycoproteins, glycolipids and mucins in tissues.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Pilin refers to a class of fibrous proteins that are found in pilus structures in bacteria.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria, frequently referred to simply as encapsulated bacteria and less precisely called encapsulated organisms, are a group of bacteria that have an outer covering, a bacterial capsule, made of polysaccharide.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pullulan is a polysaccharide polymer consisting of maltotriose units, also known as α-1,4-;α-1,6-glucan'.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Rhamnolipids are a class of glycolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, amongst other organisms, frequently cited as the best characterised of the bacterial surfactants.
Rheology (from Greek ῥέω rhéō, "flow" and -λoγία, -logia, "study of") is the study of the flow of matter, primarily in a liquid state, but also as "soft solids" or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.
In rheology, shear thinning is the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids whose viscosity decreases under shear strain.
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are fatty acids with two to six carbon atoms.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Surgical suture is a medical device used to hold body tissues together after an injury or surgery.
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Viscoelasticity is the property of materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation.
Viscose is a semi-synthetic fiber.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Welan gum is an exopolysaccharide used as a rheology modifier in industrial applications such as cement manufacturing.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide with many industrial uses, including as a common food additive.
Xylan (CAS number: 9014-63-5) is a group of hemicelluloses that are found in plant cell walls and some algae.
Xylose (cf. ξύλον, xylon, "wood") is a sugar first isolated from wood, and named for it.