166 relations: Absorption (chemistry), Acrylonitrile, Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, Aluminium, American Chemistry Council, Apothecary, Architecture, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Aromaticity, Aryl hydrocarbon receptor, Associated Press, August Wilhelm von Hofmann, Autoclave, BASF, Benzene, Berkeley, California, Biodegradable plastic, Biodegradation, Bioplastic, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Channel Tunnel, Charpy impact test, Chemical decomposition, Chemical element, Chemistry, China, Chirality (chemistry), Chlorofluorocarbon, Column, Combustibility and flammability, Construction, Copolymer, Corrugated fiberboard, Craft, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, Crystallinity, Cushioning, Cutlery, Dart Container, Düsseldorf Airport fire, Decomposition, Diastereomer, Divinylbenzene, Dow Chemical Company, Drywall, DVD, Eduard Simon, Electricity generation, ..., Environment (biophysical), Environmental organization, Ethylene oxide, Extrusion, Flame retardant, Flory–Huggins solution theory, Foam food container, Foam peanut, Freeport, Maine, Geofoam, Giulio Natta, Glass transition, Graphite, Green Restaurant Certification, Hardness, Heat capacity, Hermann Staudinger, Hydrocarbon, Hydrofluorocarbon, Hydrogen, IG Farben, India, Injection moulding, Insulating concrete form, Intermolecular force, Intramolecular force, Joule, Kelvin, Kerbside collection, Koppers, Laboratory, Liquidambar styraciflua, List of environmental ministries, Litter, Ludwigshafen, Macromolecule, Maleic anhydride, Marcellin Berthelot, Microtiter plate, Molar mass distribution, Molding (process), Monomer, National Toxicology Program, NBC, Oakland, California, Optical disc packaging, Organic compound, Oxygen, Pascal (unit), Pentane, Peptide synthesis, Petri dish, Phenyl group, Photo-oxidation of polymers, Physical model, Pi bond, Pittsburgh, Plasma (physics), Plastic, Plastic model, Polybutadiene, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polyhydroxyalkanoates, Polymer, Polymer-bonded explosive, Polymerization, Polypropylene, Polystyrene sulfonate, Portland, Oregon, Pseudomonas putida, Radical (chemistry), Randomness, Rastra, Relative permittivity, Rigid panel, San Francisco, San Francisco Chronicle, San Jose, California, Sigma bond, Smoke detector, Society of the Plastics Industry, Starbucks, Steam, Stereochemistry, Storax balsam, Structural insulated panel, Styrene, Styrene maleic anhydride, Styrene-acrylonitrile resin, Styrofoam, Suffolk County, New York, Tacticity, Taiwan, Test tube, Tetrahedral molecular geometry, The New York Times, Thermal expansion, Thermoforming, Thermoplastic, Toughness, Trademark, Transparency and translucency, Ultimate tensile strength, Vacuum forming, Van der Waals force, Vancouver, Vehicle registration plate, Vicat softening point, Vinyl group, Water, Young's modulus, Ziegler–Natta catalyst, Zimbabwe, Zinc, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane. Expand index (116 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, absorption is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in which atoms, molecules or ions enter some bulk phase – liquid or solid material.
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Acrylonitrile is an organic compound with the formula CH2CHCN.
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Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) (chemical formula (C8H8)x·(C4H6)y·(C3H3N)z) is a common thermoplastic polymer.
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Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
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American Chemistry Council
The American Chemistry Council (ACC), formerly known as the Manufacturing Chemists' Association (at its founding in 1872) and then as the Chemical Manufacturers' Association (from 1978 until 2000), is an industry trade association for American chemical companies, based in Washington, D.C.
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Apothecary is one term for a medical professional who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons, and patients.
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Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
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An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
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In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR or AHR or ahr or ahR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AHR gene.
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The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
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August Wilhelm von Hofmann
August Wilhelm von Hofmann (8 April 18185 May 1892) was a German chemist.
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An autoclave is a pressure chamber used to carry out industrial processes requiring elevated temperature and pressure different from ambient air pressure.
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BASF SE is a German chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world.
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Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
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Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California.
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Biodegradable plastics are plastics that are decomposed by the action of living organisms, usually bacteria.
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Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
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Bioplastics are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, or microbiota.
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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
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Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
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The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche; also nicknamed the Chunnel) is a rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover.
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Charpy impact test
The, also known as the Charpy V-notch test, is a standardized high strain-rate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture.
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Chemical decomposition, analysis or breakdown is the separation of a single chemical compound into its two or more elemental parts or to simpler compounds.
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A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
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Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
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Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
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A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.
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Combustibility and flammability
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
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Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
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When two or more different monomers unite together to polymerize, the product is called a copolymer and the process is called copolymerization.
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Corrugated fiberboard is a material consisting of a fluted corrugated sheet and one or two flat linerboards.
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A craft or trade is a pastime or a profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work.
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CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is a comprehensive one-volume reference resource for science research, currently in its 98th edition (with 2560 pages, June 23, 2017, Editor-in-Chief John R. Rumble).
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The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
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Crystallinity refers to the degree of structural order in a solid.
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Package cushioning is used to help protect fragile items during shipment.
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Cutlery includes any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in Western culture.
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Dart Container Corporation of Mason, Michigan, United States is the world's largest manufacturer of foam cups and containers, producing about as many as all competitors combined.
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Düsseldorf Airport fire
On 11 April 1996, a fire broke out inside the passenger terminal of Düsseldorf Airport, Germany, killing 17 people.
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Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.
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Diastereomers (sometimes called diastereoisomers) are a type of a stereoisomer.
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Divinylbenzene (DVB) consists of a benzene ring bonded to two vinyl groups.
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Dow Chemical Company
The Dow Chemical Company, commonly referred to as Dow, is an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States, and the predecessor of the merged company DowDuPont.
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Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard, gypsum panel, sheet rock, or gypsum board) is a panel made of calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum), with or without additives, typically extruded between thick sheets of facer and backer paper, utilized in the construction of interior walls and ceilings.
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DVD (an abbreviation of "digital video disc" or "digital versatile disc") is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips and Sony in 1995.
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Johann Eduard Simon (18 September 1789 – 19 June 1856) was an apothecary in Berlin, Germany.
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Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
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A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
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An environmental organization is an organization coming out of the conservation or environmental movements that seeks to protect, analyse or monitor the environment against misuse or degradation from human forces.
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Ethylene oxide, called oxirane by IUPAC, is an organic compound with the formula. It is a cyclic ether and the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms. Ethylene oxide is a colorless and flammable gas with a faintly sweet odor. Because it is a strained ring, ethylene oxide easily participates in a number of addition reactions that result in ring-opening. Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst. The reactivity that is responsible for many of ethylene oxide's hazards also make it useful. Although too dangerous for direct household use and generally unfamiliar to consumers, ethylene oxide is used for making many consumer products as well as non-consumer chemicals and intermediates. These products include detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and various organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers, and other compounds. Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. At room temperature it is a flammable, carcinogenic, mutagenic, irritating, and anaesthetic gas. As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. It is so flammable and extremely explosive that it is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons; therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid to control its hazardous nature.Rebsdat, Siegfried and Mayer, Dieter (2005) "Ethylene Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim..
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Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile.
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The term flame retardants subsumes a diverse group of chemicals which are added to manufactured materials, such as plastics and textiles, and surface finishes and coatings.
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Flory–Huggins solution theory
Flory–Huggins solution theory is a mathematical model of the thermodynamics of polymer solutions which takes account of the great dissimilarity in molecular sizes in adapting the usual expression for the entropy of mixing.
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Foam food container
A foam food container is a disposable container for various foods and beverages, such as processed instant noodles, raw meat from supermarkets, ice cream from ice cream parlors, cooked food from delicatessens or food stalls, or beverages like "coffee to go".
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Foam peanuts, also known as packing peanuts, or packing noodles are a common loose-fill packaging and cushioning material used to prevent damage to fragile objects during shipping.
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Freeport is a town in Cumberland County, Maine, United States.
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Geofoam is expanded polystyrene (EPS) or extruded polystyrene (XPS) manufactured into large lightweight blocks.
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Giulio Natta (26 February 1903 – 2 May 1979) was an Italian chemist and Nobel laureate.
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The glass–liquid transition, or glass transition, is the gradual and reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials), from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased.
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Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
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Green Restaurant Certification
The Green Restaurant Association (GRA) is a United States non-profit organization that provides certification for restaurants to become more environmentally responsible.
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Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
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Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
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Hermann Staudinger (23 March 1881 – 8 September 1965) was a German organic chemist who demonstrated the existence of macromolecules, which he characterized as polymers.
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In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
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Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), organic compounds that contain fluorine and hydrogen atoms, are the most common type of organofluorine compounds.
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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
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IG Farben was a German chemical and pharmaceutical industry conglomerate.
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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
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Injection moulding (British English) or injection molding (American English) is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting molten material into a mould.
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Insulating concrete form
Insulating concrete form or insulated concrete form (ICF) is a system of formwork for reinforced concrete usually made with a rigid thermal insulation that stays in place as a permanent interior and exterior substrate for walls, floors, and roofs.
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Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.
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An intramolecular force is any force that binds together the atoms making up a molecule or compound, not to be confused with intermolecular forces, which are the forces present between molecules.
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The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
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The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
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Kerbside collection, or curbside collection, is a service provided to households, typically in urban and suburban areas of removing household waste.
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Koppers is a global chemical and materials company based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States in an art-deco 1920s skyscraper, the Koppers Tower.
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A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
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American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), also known as American storax, hazel pine, bilsted, redgum, satin-walnut, star-leaved gum, alligatorwood, or simply sweetgum, is a deciduous tree in the genus Liquidambar native to warm temperate areas of eastern North America and tropical montane regions of Mexico and Central America.
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List of environmental ministries
An environmental ministry is a national or subnational government agency politically responsible for the environment and/or natural resources.
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Litter consists of waste products that have been disposed improperly, without consent, at an inappropriate location.
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Ludwigshafen am Rhein is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Rhine opposite Mannheim.
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A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
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Maleic anhydride is an organic compound with the formula C2H2(CO)2O.
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Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot FRS FRSE (25 October 1827 – 18 March 1907) was a French chemist and politician noted for the ThomsenendashBerthelot principle of thermochemistry.
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A microtiter plate (spelled Microtiter is a registered trade name in the United States) or microplate or microwell plate or multiwell, is a flat plate with multiple "wells" used as small test tubes.
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Molar mass distribution
In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value.
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Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix.
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A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
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National Toxicology Program
The National Toxicology Program (NTP) is an inter-agency program run by the United States Department of Health and Human Services to coordinate, evaluate, and report on toxicology within public agencies.
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The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.
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Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States.
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Optical disc packaging
Optical disc packaging is the packaging that accompanies CDs, DVDs, and other formats of optical discs.
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In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
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The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
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Pentane is an organic compound with the formula C5H12—that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms.
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In organic chemistry, peptide synthesis is the production of peptides, compounds where multiple amino acids are linked via amide bonds, also known as peptide bonds.
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A Petri dish (sometimes spelled "Petrie Dish" and alternatively known as a Petri plate or cell-culture dish), named after the German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri, is a shallow cylindrical glass or plastic lidded dish that biologists use to culture cellssuch as bacteriaor small mosses.
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In organic chemistry, the phenyl group or phenyl ring is a cyclic group of atoms with the formula C6H5.
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Photo-oxidation of polymers
Photo-oxidation is the degradation of a polymer surface in the presence of oxygen or ozone.
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Physical model (most commonly referred to simply as a model but in this context distinguished from a conceptual model) is a smaller or larger physical copy of an object.
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In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of an orbital on one atom overlap two lobes of an orbital on another atom.
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Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
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Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
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Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
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A 4-year-old boy starts painting an assembled plastic model of the South Goodwin Lightship A plastic model is a plastic scale model manufactured as a kit, primarily assembled by hobbyists, and intended for static display.
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Polybutadiene is a synthetic rubber.
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
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Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.
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Polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHAs are polyesters produced in nature by numerous microorganisms, including through bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids.
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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
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A polymer-bonded explosive, also called PBX or plastic-bonded explosive, is an explosive material in which explosive powder is bound together in a matrix using small quantities (typically 5–10% by weight) of a synthetic polymer.
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In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
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Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.
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Polystyrene sulfonates are polymers derived from polystyrene by the addition of sulfonate functional groups.
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Portland is the largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County.
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Pseudomonas putida is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, saprotrophic soil bacterium.
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In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
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Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events.
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Rastra is a tradename for a particular insulating concrete form (ICF) used to make walls for buildings.
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The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.
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Rigid panel insulation is made from fibrous materials (fiberglass, rock and slag wool) or from plastic foam.
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San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
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San Francisco Chronicle
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.
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San Jose, California
San Jose (Spanish for 'Saint Joseph'), officially the City of San José, is an economic, cultural, and political center of Silicon Valley and the largest city in Northern California.
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In chemistry, sigma bonds (σ bonds) are the strongest type of covalent chemical bond.
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A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire.
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Society of the Plastics Industry
Founded in 1937, the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. was a professional society representing individuals in the plastics industry.
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Starbucks Corporation is an American coffee company and coffeehouse chain.
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Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
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Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation.
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Storax (storax; στύραξ, stúrax), often commercially sold as styrax, is a natural resin isolated from the wounded bark of Liquidambar orientalis Mill.
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Structural insulated panel
A structural insulated panel, or structural insulating panel, (SIP), is a form of sandwich panel used in the construction industry.
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Styrene, also known as ethenylbenzene, vinylbenzene, and phenylethene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH.
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Styrene maleic anhydride
Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA or SMAnh) is a synthetic polymer that is built-up of styrene and maleic anhydride monomers.
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Styrene acrylonitrile resin is a copolymer plastic consisting of styrene and acrylonitrile.
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Styrofoam is a trademarked brand of closed-cell extruded polystyrene foam (XPS), commonly called "Blue Board" manufactured as foam continuous building insulation board used in walls, roofs, and foundations as thermal insulation and water barrier.
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Suffolk County, New York
Suffolk County is a suburban county on Long Island and the easternmost county in the U.S. state of New York.
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Tacticity (from Greek τακτικός taktikos "of or relating to arrangement or order") is the relative stereochemistry of adjacent chiral centers within a macromolecule.
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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
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A test tube, also known as a culture tube or sample tube, is a common piece of laboratory glassware consisting of a finger-like length of glass or clear plastic tubing, open at the top and closed at the bottom.
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Tetrahedral molecular geometry
In a tetrahedral molecular geometry, a central atom is located at the center with four substituents that are located at the corners of a tetrahedron.
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The New York Times
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
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Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
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Thermoforming is a manufacturing process where a plastic sheet is heated to a pliable forming temperature, formed to a specific shape in a mold, and trimmed to create a usable product.
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A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.
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In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing.
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A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
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Transparency and translucency
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
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Ultimate tensile strength
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
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Vacuum forming is a simplified version of thermoforming, where a sheet of plastic is heated to a forming temperature, stretched onto a single-surface mold, and forced against the mold by a vacuum.
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Van der Waals force
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
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Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.
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Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate, also known as a number plate (British English) or a license plate (American English), is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes.
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Vicat softening point
Vicat softening temperature or Vicat hardness is the determination of the softening point for materials that have no definite melting point, such as plastics.
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In chemistry, vinyl or ethenyl is the functional group with the formula −CH.
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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
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Young's modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material.
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A Ziegler–Natta catalyst, named after Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta, is a catalyst used in the synthesis of polymers of 1-alkenes (alpha-olefins).
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Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
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Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
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1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (also known as norflurane (INN), R-134a, Freon 134a, Forane 134a, Genetron 134a, Florasol 134a, Suva 134a, or HFC-134a) is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) but with insignificant ozone depletion potential and a somewhat lower global warming potential (1,430, compared to R-12's GWP of 10,900).
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