83 relations: Adhesive, Allergy, Anaphylaxis, Bausch & Lomb, Beer, Blood plasma, Capsule (pharmacy), Cathode ray tube, Ceramic, Chemical polarity, Chemical substance, Chemical-mechanical planarization, Choline chloride, Coating, Contact lens, Crop, Deep eutectic solvent, Dialysis, Disinfectant, E number, Electric battery, Emulsion, Envelope, Ethanol, Fiberglass, Finings, Food additive, Food and Drug Administration, Glue stick, Hair gel, Hair spray, Hives, Hot-melt adhesive, Hygroscopy, Impetigo, Inkjet paper, Inkjet printing, Iodine, Membrane, Metal, Methanol, Microscopy, Molecular biology, Monomer, Mucous membrane, N-Vinylpyrrolidone, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Paint, Paracetamol, Pessary, ..., Peter DeMarco, Phenol, Photoresist, Pleurodesis, Polymer, Polyphenol, Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, Postage stamp, Povidone-iodine, Quenching, Recrystallization (chemistry), Seed treatment, Serum (blood), Shampoo, Solution polymerization, Solvent, Southern blot, Steel, Subcutaneous tissue, Surfactant, Syrup, Tablet (pharmacy), Talc, Tooth whitening, Toothpaste, Topical medication, Urea, Volume expander, Walter Reppe, Water, Water purification, Wine, 2-Pyrrolidone. Expand index (33 more) » « Shrink index
An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
Bausch + Lomb is an American eye health products company based in Bridgewater, New Jersey.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
In the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, encapsulation refers to a range of dosage forms—techniques used to enclose medicines—in a relatively stable shell known as a capsule, allowing them to, for example, be taken orally or be used as suppositories.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemical mechanical polishing/planarization is a process of smoothing surfaces with the combination of chemical and mechanical forces.
Choline chloride is an organic compound and a quaternary ammonium salt.
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate.
A contact lens, or simply contact, is a thin lens placed directly on the surface of the eye.
A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.
Deep eutectic solvents are systems formed from a eutectic mixture of Lewis or Brønsted acids and bases which can contain a variety of anionic and/or cationic species.
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
An envelope is a common packaging item, usually made of thin flat material.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.
FiningsThe term is a mass noun rather than a plural.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Glue sticks are solid adhesives in twist or push-up tubes.
Hair gel is a hairstyling product that is used to harden hair into a particular hairstyle.
Hair spray (also hair lacquer or spritz) is a common cosmetic hairstyling product that is sprayed onto hair to protect against humidity and wind.
Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.
Hot melt adhesive (HMA), also known as hot glue, is a form of thermoplastic adhesive that is commonly sold as solid cylindrical sticks of various diameters designed to be applied using a hot glue gun.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
Impetigo is a bacterial infection that involves the superficial skin.
Inkjet paper is a special fine paper designed for inkjet printers, typically classified by its weight, brightness and smoothness, and sometimes by its opacity.
Inkjet printing is a type of computer printing that recreates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper, plastic, or other substrates.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
N-Vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) is an organic compound consisting of a 5-membered lactam linked to a vinyl group.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
A pessary is a prosthetic device inserted into the vagina to reduce the protrusion of pelvic structures into the vagina.
Peter Thomas DeMarco (March 6, 1932 – October 26, 2005) was an American physician who graduated from Albright College in Pennsylvania and achieved his doctor of medicine degree in 1957 from Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
A photoresist is a light-sensitive material used in several processes, such as photolithography and photoengraving, to form a patterned coating on a surface.
Pleurodesis is a medical procedure in which the pleural space is artificially obliterated.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polyphenols (also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units.
Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (polyvinyl polypyrrolidone, PVPP, crospovidone, crospolividone or E1202) is a highly cross-linked modification of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP).
A postage stamp is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage.
Povidone-iodine (PVP-I), also known as iodopovidone, is an antiseptic used for skin disinfection before and after surgery.
In materials science, quenching is the rapid cooling of a workpiece in water, oil or air to obtain certain material properties.
In chemistry, recrystallization is a technique used to purify chemicals.
In agriculture and horticulture, seed treatment or seed dressing is a chemical, typically antimicrobial or fungicidal, with which seeds are treated (or "dressed") prior to planting.
In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens.
Shampoo is a hair care product, typically in the form of a viscous liquid, that is used for cleaning hair.
Solution polymerization is a method of industrial polymerization.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
The subcutaneous tissue, also called the hypodermis, hypoderm, subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
In cooking, a syrup or sirup (from شراب; sharāb, beverage, wine and sirupus) is a condiment that is a thick, viscous liquid consisting primarily of a solution of sugar in water, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars but showing little tendency to deposit crystals.
A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.
Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.
Tooth whitening (termed tooth bleaching when utilising bleach), is either the restoration of a natural tooth shade or whitening beyond the natural shade.
Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
A volume expander is a type of intravenous therapy that has the function of providing volume for the circulatory system.
Walter Julius Reppe (29 July 1892 in Göringen – 26 July 1969 in Heidelberg) was a German chemist.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
2-Pyrrolidone is an organic compound consisting of a 5-membered lactam, making it the simplest γ-lactam.
1-ethenyl-2-pyrrolidon homopolymer, C18H27N3O3, C24H36N4O4, C36H54N6O6, C42H63N7O7, C48H72N8O8, C54H81N9O9, C60H90N10O10, E1201, PNVP, PVP - Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone, Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone, Poly vinyl pyrrolidone, Polyvidon, Polyvidone, Polyvinyl pyrrolidone, Polyvinylpyrrolidonee, Povidone, Providone.