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Pope Francis

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Pope Francis (Franciscus; Francesco; Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio; 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State. [1]

804 relations: Aachen, Abbey of the Dormition, Abortion-rights movements, Abraham Skorka, Adolfo Armando Uriona, Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Advent, Ahmed el-Tayeb, Al-Azhar University, Alcalá de Henares, Alejandro Avruj, Alexandria, Alfred Xuereb, Alfredo Zecca, Alvear Palace Hotel, AMIA bombing, Amoris laetitia, André Cox, Andrés Stanovnik, Andrea Tornielli, Angela Merkel, Angela of Foligno, Angelo De Donatis, Angelus, Anglican Bishop of Argentina, Anglican Church in North America, Anglican Church of South America, Anglican realignment, Anti-abortion movements, Antisemitism, Antonio Quarracino, Apostolic exhortation, Apostolic Nunciature to Argentina, Apostolic Palace, Apostolic Penitentiary, Apostolic Signatura, Archbishop of Canterbury, Argent, Argentina, Argentina Bicentennial, Argentine legislative election, 2001, Argentine order of precedence, Argentine Revolution, Argentines, Ariel Edgardo Torrado Mosconi, Armenia, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Catholic Church, Association football, Associations of the faithful, ..., Atlanta, Augsburg, Austerity, Austral University (Argentina), Álvaro del Portillo, Óscar Rodríguez Maradiaga, Óscar Romero, Óscar Vicente Ojea Quintana, Ban Ki-moon, Baptism, Baptism of Jesus, Baptism of the Lord, Barack Obama, Bartholomew I of Constantinople, Basilica of Our Lady of Luján, BBC, Beatification, Bede, Benito Mussolini, Birth control, Boeselager, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bouncer (doorman), Breastfeeding in public, Bride of Christ, Buddhism, Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral, Buenos Aires Province, Burkina Faso, Business Insider, Calvary, Calvinism, Canon law of the Catholic Church, Canonization, Capital punishment, Capitalism, Cardinal (Catholic Church), Cardinal electors for the papal conclave, 2005, Cardinal Secretary of State, Carl E. 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Aachen

Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.

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Abbey of the Dormition

Abbey of the Dormition is an abbey and the name of a Benedictine community in Jerusalem on Mt. Zion just outside the walls of the Old City near the Zion Gate.

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Abortion-rights movements

Abortion-rights movements, also referred to as pro-choice movements, advocate for legal access to induced abortion services.

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Abraham Skorka

Abraham Skorka (born July 5, 1950, in Buenos Aires) is an Argentine biophysicist, rabbi and book author.

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Adolfo Armando Uriona

Adolfo Armando Uriona F.D.P. (May 27, 1955) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Adolfo Pérez Esquivel

Adolfo Pérez Esquivel (born November 26, 1931) is an Argentine activist, community organizer, art painter, writer and sculptor.

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Advent

Advent is a season observed in many Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas as well as the return of Jesus at the second coming.

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Ahmed el-Tayeb

Ahmed Muhammad Ahmed el-Tayeb (أحمد محمد أحمد الطيب) (born January 6, 1946) is the current Grand Imam of al-Azhar and former president of al-Azhar University.

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Al-Azhar University

Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.

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Alcalá de Henares

Alcalá de Henares, meaning Castle on the Henares (river), in Arabic قلعة النار, is a Spanish city located northeast of the country's capital, Madrid.

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Alejandro Avruj

Alejandro Avruj is an Argentine Conservative rabbi.

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Alexandria

Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Alfred Xuereb

Alfred Xuereb (born 14 October 1958 in Victoria on the Maltese island of Gozo) is a Roman Catholic Church archbishop, currently the Apostolic Nuncio to South Korea and Mongolia.

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Alfredo Zecca

Alfredo Horacio Zecca (born September 27, 1949) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church He served as archbishop of Tucumán from 2011 to 2017, when he resigned for reasons of health.

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Alvear Palace Hotel

The Alvear Palace Hotel is a luxury hotel located in Avenida Alvear in Recoleta, an upscale neighbourhood in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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AMIA bombing

The AMIA bombing was an attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (AMIA; Argentine Israelite Mutual Association) building.

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Amoris laetitia

Amoris laetitia (English: The Joy of Love) is a post-synodal apostolic exhortation by Pope Francis addressing the pastoral care of families.

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André Cox

General André Cox (born 12 July 1954) is the chief executive officer (CEO) and 20th General of The Salvation Army.

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Andrés Stanovnik

Andrés Stanovnik O.F.M. Cap. (December 15, 1949) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Andrea Tornielli

Andrea Tornielli (born Chioggia, 14 March 1964) is an Italian journalist and religious writer.

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Angela Merkel

Angela Dorothea Merkel (Kasner, born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000.

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Angela of Foligno

Angela of Foligno, T.O.S.F., (1248 – 4 January 1309) was an Italian Franciscan tertiary who became known as a mystic from her extensive writings about her mystical revelations.

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Angelo De Donatis

Angelo De Donatis (born 4 January 1954) is an Italian Catholic prelate who currently serves as Vicar General of Rome, Archpriest of the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, and Grand Chancellor of the Pontifical Lateran University.

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Angelus

The Angelus (Latin for "angel") is a Catholic devotion commemorating the Incarnation.

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Anglican Bishop of Argentina

The Bishop of Argentina is a bishop in the Anglican communion, the head of the Anglican Diocese of Argentina within the Anglican Church of South America.

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Anglican Church in North America

The Anglican Church in North America (ACNA) is a Christian denomination in the Anglican tradition in the United States and Canada.

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Anglican Church of South America

The Anglican Church of South America (Iglesia Anglicana de Sudamérica) is the ecclesiastical province of the Anglican Communion that covers seven dioceses in the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay.

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Anglican realignment

The term Anglican realignment refers to a movement among some Anglicans to align themselves under new or alternative oversight within or outside the Anglican Communion.

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Anti-abortion movements

Anti-abortion movements, also referred to as pro-life movements, are involved in the abortion debate advocating against the practice of abortion and its legality.

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Antisemitism

Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.

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Antonio Quarracino

Antonio Quarracino (8 August 1923 – 28 February 1998) was a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church of Argentina and the Archbishop of Buenos Aires between 1990 and 1998.

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Apostolic exhortation

An apostolic exhortation is a type of communication from the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Apostolic Nunciature to Argentina

The Apostolic Nuncio to Argentina is the principal representative of the Holy See to the Government of Argentina.

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Apostolic Palace

The Apostolic Palace (Palatium Apostolicum; Palazzo Apostolico) is the official residence of the Roman Catholic Pope and Bishop of Rome, which is located in Vatican City.

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Apostolic Penitentiary

The Apostolic Penitentiary, formerly called the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Penitentiary, is one of the three tribunals of the Roman Curia.

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Apostolic Signatura

The Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura is the highest judicial authority in the Catholic Church (apart from the Pope himself, who as supreme ecclesiastical judge is the final point of appeal for any ecclesiastical judgment).

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Archbishop of Canterbury

The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.

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Argent

In heraldry, argent is the tincture of silver, and belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals." It is very frequently depicted as white and usually considered interchangeable with it.

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Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Argentina Bicentennial

The Argentina Bicentennial (bicentenario argentino) was a series of ceremonies, festivals, and observances celebrated on May 25, 2010 and throughout the year.

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Argentine legislative election, 2001

An Argentine legislative election took place on Sunday, 14 October 2001 to elect 127 of the 257 seats in the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, and all 72 seats in the Argentine Senate.

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Argentine order of precedence

The order of precedence in Argentina is a symbolic hierarchy of officials used to direct protocol.

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Argentine Revolution

Argentine Revolution (Revolución Argentina) was the name given by its leaders to a military coup d'état which overthrew the government of Argentina in June 1966 and began a period of military dictatorship by a junta from then until 1973.

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Argentines

Argentines, also known as Argentinians (argentinos; feminine argentinas), are the citizens of the Argentine Republic, or their descendants abroad.

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Ariel Edgardo Torrado Mosconi

Ariel Edgardo Torrado Mosconi (January 18, 1961) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Armenia

Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Armenian Apostolic Church

The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.

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Armenian Catholic Church

The Armenian Catholic Church (translit; Ecclesia armeno-catholica), improperly referred to as the Armenian Uniate Church, is one of the Eastern particular churches sui iuris of the Catholic Church.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Associations of the faithful

Associations of the faithful are groups of Catholics, clerics or laity or both together, who according to the Code of Canon Law jointly foster a more perfect life or promote public worship or Christian teaching, or who devote themselves to other works of the apostolate.

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Atlanta

Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.

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Augsburg

Augsburg (Augschburg) is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.

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Austerity

Austerity is a political-economic term referring to policies that aim to reduce government budget deficits through spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of both.

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Austral University (Argentina)

Austral University (in Spanish, Universidad Austral) is a private university in Argentina, based in Buenos Aires and with seats in Pilar (Buenos Aires Province) and Rosario (Santa Fe).

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Álvaro del Portillo

Blessed Álvaro del Portillo y Diez de Sollano (11 March 1914 – 23 March 1994) was a Spanish engineer and Roman Catholic bishop.

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Óscar Rodríguez Maradiaga

Óscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga, S.D.B. (born December 29, 1942) is a Salesian and Cardinal of the Catholic Church from Honduras.

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Óscar Romero

Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez (15 August 1917 – 24 March 1980) was a prelate of the Catholic Church in El Salvador, who served as the fourth Archbishop of San Salvador.

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Óscar Vicente Ojea Quintana

Óscar Vicente Ojea Quintana (October 15, 1946) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Ban Ki-moon

Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944) is a South Korean politician and diplomat who was the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 2007 to December 2016.

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Baptism

Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.

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Baptism of Jesus

The baptism of Jesus is described in the gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke.

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Baptism of the Lord

The Baptism of the Christ (or the Baptism of Christ) is the feast day commemorating the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River by John the Baptist.

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Barack Obama

Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.

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Bartholomew I of Constantinople

Bartholomew I (Πατριάρχης Βαρθολομαῖος Αʹ, Patriarchis Bartholomaios A', Patrik I. Bartholomeos; born 29 February 1940) is the 270th and current Archbishop of Constantinople and Ecumenical Patriarch, since 2 November 1991.

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Basilica of Our Lady of Luján

The Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Luján (Basílica Menor de Nuestra Señora de Luján) is a Roman Catholic church building in Luján, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Beatification

Beatification (from Latin beatus, "blessed" and facere, "to make") is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name.

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Bede

Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.

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Benito Mussolini

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).

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Birth control

Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.

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Boeselager

Boeselager is the name of a German noble family from Magdeburg.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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Bouncer (doorman)

A bouncer (also known as a doorman, door supervisor or cooler) is a type of security guard, employed at venues such as bars, nightclubs, stripclubs, casinos, restaurants or concerts.

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Breastfeeding in public

Breastfeeding in public is the practice of breastfeeding babies in a public or semi-public place in open view of the general public.

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Bride of Christ

The Bride of Christ or the bride, the Lamb's wife is a term used in reference to a group of related verses in the Bible, in the Gospels, Revelation, the Epistles and related verses in the Old Testament.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.

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Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral

The Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral (Catedral Metropolitana de Buenos Aires) is the main Catholic church in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Buenos Aires Province

Buenos Aires (Provincia de Buenos Aires; English: "good airs") is the largest and most populous Argentinian province.

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Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.

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Business Insider

Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.

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Calvary

Calvary, or Golgotha (Biblical Greek Γολγοθᾶ Golgotha, traditionally interpreted as reflecting Syriac (Aramaic) golgolta, as it were Hebrew gulgōleṯ "skull" Strong's Concordance.), was, according to the Gospels, a site immediately outside Jerusalem's walls where Jesus was crucified.

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Calvinism

Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

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Canon law of the Catholic Church

The canon law of the Catholic Church is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the Catholic Church to regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the Church.

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Canonization

Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints.

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Capital punishment

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.

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Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Cardinal (Catholic Church)

A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Cardinal electors for the papal conclave, 2005

The following is a list of the 115 cardinal electors in the 2005 papal conclave, arranged by region and, within each region, alphabetically.

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Cardinal Secretary of State

The Secretary of State of His Holiness The Pope, commonly known as the Cardinal Secretary of State, presides over the Holy See Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia.

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Carl E. Olson

Carl E. Olson (born April 17, 1969) is an American non-fiction author.

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Carlo Caffarra

Carlo Caffarra (1 June 1938 – 6 September 2017) was an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church.

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Carlos Álvarez (politician)

Carlos Alberto "Chacho" Álvarez (born December 26, 1948) is an Argentine politician; he was Vice President of Argentina during part of President Fernando de la Rúa's term, and currently heads the ALADI Secretariat.

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Carlos Menem

Carlos Saúl Menem Akil (born July 2, 1930) is an Argentine politician who was President of Argentina from July 8, 1989 to December 10, 1999.

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Cassock

The white or black cassock, or soutane, is an item of Christian clerical clothing used by the clergy of Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, Lutheran, and Reformed churches, among others.

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Catherine Pepinster

Catherine Pepinster (born 7 July 1959) is an English editor, historian, commentator and writer with a focus on theology, Catholic and Anglican ecumenism, church history, and religion and politics.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic Church and abortion

The Catholic Church opposes all forms of abortion procedures whose direct purpose is to destroy a zygote, blastocyst, embryo or fetus, since it holds that "human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception.

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Catholic Church and HIV/AIDS

The Catholic Church's position on HIV/AIDS prevention has attracted controversy due to its opposition to condom use.

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Catholic Church and homosexuality

The Catholic Church and homosexuality describes the relationship between the Christian denomination and the sexual orientation.

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Catholic Church in Austria

The Catholic Church of Austria, also known as the Roman-Catholic Church of Austria, is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope in Rome.

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Catholic Church in England and Wales

The Catholic Church in England and Wales is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope.

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Catholic Church in Germany

The Catholic Church in Germany (Katholische Kirche in Deutschland) is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Pope, assisted by the Roman Curia, and of the German bishops.

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Catholic Church in the United States

The Catholic Church in the United States is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Pope in Rome.

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Catholic Church sexual abuse cases

Cases of child sexual abuse by Catholic priests, nuns and members of religious orders, and subsequent cover-ups, in the 20th and 21st centuries have led to numerous allegations, investigations, trials and convictions.

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Catholic News Service

Catholic News Service (CNS) is an American news agency that reports on the Roman Catholic Church.

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Catholic theology

Catholic theology is the understanding of Catholic doctrine or teachings, and results from the studies of theologians.

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Catholicos of All Armenians

The Catholicos of All Armenians (plural Catholicoi, due to its Greek origin) (Ամենայն Հայոց Կաթողիկոս) is the chief bishop and spiritual leader of Armenia's national church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, and the worldwide Armenian diaspora.

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Catholics for Choice

Catholics for Choice (CFC) is a pro-choice dissenting Catholic advocacy group based in Washington, D.C. Formed in 1973 as Catholics for a Free Choice, CFC states that its mission is "to serve as a voice for Catholics who believe that the Catholic tradition supports a woman's moral and legal right to follow her conscience in matters of sexuality and reproductive health." The group gained some notice and status after its 1984 advertisement in ''The New York Times'' challenging Church teaching on abortion led to Church disciplinary pressure against some of the priests and nuns who signed it.

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Córdoba, Argentina

Córdoba is a city in the geographical center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas on the Suquía River, about northwest of the Buenos Aires.

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Central African Republic

The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

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Chaldean Catholic Church

The Chaldean Catholic Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, ʿīdtha kaldetha qāthuliqetha; Arabic: الكنيسة الكلدانية al-Kanīsa al-kaldāniyya; translation) is an Eastern Catholic particular church (sui juris) in full communion with the Holy See and the rest of the Catholic Church, with the Chaldean Patriarchate having been originally formed out of the Church of the East in 1552.

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Chaplain of His Holiness

A Chaplain of His Holiness is a priest to whom the Pope has granted this title.

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Charge (heraldry)

In heraldry, a charge is any emblem or device occupying the field of an escutcheon (shield).

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Charlemagne Prize

The Charlemagne Prize (Karlspreis; full name originally Internationaler Karlspreis der Stadt Aachen, International Charlemagne Prize of the City of Aachen, since 1988 Internationaler Karlspreis zu Aachen, International Charlemagne Prize of Aachen) is a prize awarded for work done in the service of European unification.

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Charles Maung Bo

Charles Maung Bo (ချားလ်မောင်ဘို; born 29 October 1948) is the current Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Yangon.

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Chemical technologist

Chemical technologists and technicians (abbr. chem techs) are workers who provide technical support or services in chemical-related fields.

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Cherry picking

Cherry picking, suppressing evidence, or the fallacy of incomplete evidence is the act of pointing to individual cases or data that seem to confirm a particular position while ignoring a significant portion of related cases or data that may contradict that position.

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Chiamatemi Francesco

Chiamatemi Francesco (Call Me Francis) is a 2015 Italian biographical film about Pope Francis directed by Daniele Luchetti.

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Chibly Langlois

Chibly Langlois (born 29 November 1958) is a Haitian cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines

The Chief Justice of the Philippines (Punong Mahistrado ng Pilipinas) presides over the Supreme Court of the Philippines and is the highest judicial officer of the government of the Philippines.

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Chief Rabbi

Chief Rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that country's Jewish community, or to a rabbinic leader appointed by the local secular authorities.

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China–Holy See relations

There have been no official People's Republic of China – Holy See relations since 1951.

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Christianity in the Middle East

Christianity, which originated in the Middle East in the 1st century AD, is a significant minority religion of the region. Christianity in the Middle East is characterized by the diversity of its beliefs and traditions, compared to other parts of the Old World. Christians now make up approximately 5% of the Middle Eastern population, down from 20% in the early 20th century. Cyprus is the only Christian Majority country in the Middle East, with the Christian percentage ranging between 76% and 78% of mainly Eastern Orthodox Christianity (i.e. most of the Greek population). Proportionally, Lebanon has the 2nd highest rate of Christians in the Middle East, with a percentage ranging between 39% and 41% of mainly Maronite Christians, followed by Egypt where Christians (especially Coptic Christians) and others account for about 11%. The largest Christian group in the Middle East is the previously Coptic speaking but today mostly Arabic-speaking Egyptian Copts, who number 15–20 million people, "estimates ranged from 6 to 11 million; 6% (official estimate) to 20% (Church estimate)" although Coptic sources claim the figure is closer to 12–16 million. "In 2008, Pope Shenouda III and Bishop Morkos, bishop of Shubra, declared that the number of Copts in Egypt is more than 12 million." (Arabic) "In 2008, father Morkos Aziz the prominent priest in Cairo declared that the number of Copts (inside Egypt) exceeds 16 million." Copts reside mainly in Egypt, but also in Sudan and Libya, with tiny communities in Israel, Cyprus, Jordan, Lebanon, and Tunisia. The Eastern Aramaic speaking indigenous Assyrians of Iraq, southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran and northeastern Syria, who number 2–3 million, have suffered both ethnic and religious persecution for many centuries, such as the Assyrian Genocide conducted by the Ottoman Turks and their allies, leading to many fleeing and congregating in areas in the north of Iraq and northeast of Syria. The great majority of Assyrians are followers of the Assyrian Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Syriac Orthodox Church, Ancient Church of the East, Assyrian Pentecostal Church and Assyrian Evangelical Church. In Iraq, the numbers of Assyrians has declined to between 300,000 and 500,000 (from 0.8 to 1.4 million before 2003 US invasion). Assyrian Christians were between 800,000 and 1.2 million before 2003. In 2014, the Assyrian population of the Nineveh Plains In Northern Iraq largely collapsed due to an Invasion by ISIS. But after the fall of ISIS the Assyrian population of the Nineveh Plainsis rreturning home. The next largest Christian group in the Middle East is the once Aramaic speaking but now Arabic-speaking Maronites who are Catholics and number some 1.1–1.2 million across the Middle East, mainly concentrated within Lebanon. Many Lebanese Christians avoid an Arabic ethnic identity in favour of a pre-Arab Phoenician-Canaanite heritage, to which most of the general Lebanese population originates from. In Israel, Israeli Maronites (Palestinians) together with smaller Aramaic-speaking Christian populations of Syriac Orthodox and Greek Catholic adherence are legally classified ethnically as either Arameans or Arabs per their choice. The Arab Christians mostly descended from Arab Christian tribes, from Arabized Greeks or are recent converts to Protestantism, and number about 5 million in the region. Most Arab Christians are adherents of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Roman Catholics of the Latin Rite are small in numbers and Protestants altogether number about 400,000. Most Arab Christian Catholics are originally non-Arab, with Melkites and Rum Christians descending from Arabized Greek-speaking Byzantine populations. They are members of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, a Eastern Catholic Church. They number over 1 million in the Middle East. They came into existence as a result of a schism within the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch due to the election of a Patriarch in 1724. The Armenians number around 1 million in the Middle East, with their largest community in Iran with 200,000 members. The number of Armenians in Turkey is disputed having a wide range of estimations. More Armenian communities reside in Lebanon, Jordan and to lesser degree in other Middle Eastern countries such as Iraq, Israel and Egypt. The Armenian Genocide during and after World War I drastically reduced the once sizeable Armenian population. The Greeks who had once inhabited large parts of the western Middle East and Asia Minor, declined after of the Arab conquests, then the later Turkish conquests, and all but vanished from Turkey as a result of the Greek Genocide and expulsions which followed World War I. Today the biggest Middle Eastern Greek community resides in Cyprus and numbers around 793,000 (2008). Cypriot Greeks constitute the only Christian majority state in the Middle East, although Lebanon was founded with a Christian majority in the first half of the 20th century. In addition, some of the modern Arab Christians (especially Melkites) constitute Arabized Greco-Roman communities rather than ethnic Arabs. Smaller Christian groups include: Arameans, Georgians, Ossetians and Russians. There are currently several million Christian foreign workers in the Gulf area, mostly from the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and Indonesia. In the Persian Gulf states, Bahrain has 1,000 Christian citizens and Kuwait has 400 native Christian citizens, in addition to 450,000 Christian foreign residents in Kuwait. Although the vast majority of Middle Eastern populations descend from Pre-Arab and Non-Arab peoples extant long before the 7th century AD Arab Islamic conquest, a 2015 study estimates there are also 483,500 Christian believers from a previously Muslim background in the Middle East, most of them being adherents of various Protestant churches. Converts to Christianity from other religions such as Islam, Yezidism, Mandeanism, Yarsan, Zoroastrianism, Bahaism, Druze, and Judaism exist in relatively small numbers amongst the Kurdish, Turks, Turcoman, Iranian, Azeri, Circassian, Israelis, Kawliya, Yezidis, Mandeans and Shabaks. Middle Eastern Christians are relatively wealthy, well educated, and politically moderate, as they have today an active role in social, economic, sporting and political spheres in their societies in the Middle East.

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Christogram

A Christogram (Latin Monogramma ChristiThe portmanteau of Christo- and -gramma is modern, first introduced in German as Christogramm in the mid-18th century. Adoption into English as Christogram dates to c. 1900.) is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a religious symbol within the Christian Church.

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Christoph Schönborn

Christoph Maria Michael Hugo Damian Peter Adalbert, Count of Schönborn, O.P. (German: Christoph Maria Michael Hugo Damian Peter Adalbert, Graf von Schönborn; born 22 January 1945), is a Bohemian-born Austrian Dominican friar and theologian, who is a cardinal of the Catholic Church.

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Church Fathers

The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.

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Church of Sweden

The Church of Sweden (Svenska kyrkan) is an Evangelical Lutheran national church in Sweden.

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Church of the Nativity

The Church of the Nativity, also Basilica of the Nativity (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْمَهْد; Βασιλική της Γεννήσεως; Սուրբ Ծննդյան տաճար; Basilica Nativitatis) is a basilica located in Bethlehem in the West Bank.

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Civil marriage

A civil marriage is a marriage performed, recorded and recognised by a government official.

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Civil union

A civil union, also referred to by a variety of other names, is a legally recognized arrangement similar to marriage.

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Clarín (Argentine newspaper)

Clarín (meaning "Bugle") is the largest newspaper in Argentina, published by the Grupo Clarín media group.

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Clare of Assisi

Saint Clare of Assisi (July 16, 1194 – August 11, 1253, born Chiara Offreduccio and sometimes spelled Clair, Claire, etc.) is an Italian saint and one of the first followers of Saint Francis of Assisi.

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Cláudio Hummes

Cláudio Hummes, OFM (born 8 August 1934) is a Brazilian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Clerical celibacy (Catholic Church)

Clerical celibacy is the discipline within the Catholic Church by which only unmarried men are ordained to the episcopate, to the priesthood (as a rule to which exceptions are sometimes made for individuals) in some autonomous particular Churches, and similarly to the diaconate, though in this last case exceptions exist not only for single individuals but for whole categories of people.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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CNN

Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

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CNSNews.com

CNSNews.com (formerly known as Cybercast News Service) is a politically conservative American news and commentary website founded by L. Brent Bozell III and owned by Media Research Center, Bozell's Reston, Virginia-based organization.

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Coadjutor bishop

A coadjutor bishop (or bishop coadjutor) is a bishop in the Catholic, Anglican, and (historically) Eastern Orthodox churches whose main role is to assist the diocesan bishop in the administration of the diocese.

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Coat of arms

A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.

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Coat of arms of Pope Francis

On 18 March 2013, Pope Francis adopted in his Papal coat of arms the coat of arms and motto he used since his episcopal consecration in 1991, differenced following his election as Roman Pontiff.

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Colegio del Salvador

Colegio del Salvador, Buenos Aires, Argentina, was founded by the Society of Jesus in 1868 and remains an all-male school, pre-primary through high school.

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Colegio Máximo de San José

The Colegio Máximo de San José (English: Maximum College of St. Joseph) is a Jesuit religious college in San Miguel, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Collaborative writing

The term collaborative writing refers to projects where written works are created by multiple people together (collaboratively) rather than individually.

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Colombo

Colombo (translit,; translit) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka.

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Communion and Liberation

Communion and Liberation (Italian: Comunione e Liberazione) is an Italian ecclesial movement within the Catholic Church and the leader of the movement is the Spanish priest Julián Carrón.

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Confessional

A confessional is a box, cabinet, or stall in which the priest in some Christian churches sits to hear the confessions of penitents.

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Confessor

Confessor is a title used within Christianity in several ways.

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Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments

The Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments (Congregatio de Cultu Divino et Disciplina Sacramentorum) is the congregation of the Roman Curia that handles most affairs relating to liturgical practices of the Latin Church as distinct from the Eastern Catholic Churches and also some technical matters relating to the Sacraments.

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Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life

The Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (Congregatio pro Institutis Vitae Consecratae et Societatibus Vitae Apostolicae) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for everything which concerns Institutes of Consecrated Life (orders and religious congregations, both of men and of women, as well as secular institutes) and Societies of Apostolic Life, regarding their government, discipline, studies, goods, rights, and privileges.

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Congregation for the Clergy

The Congregation for the Clergy (formerly the Sacred Congregation for the Clergy and Sacred Congregation of the Council) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for overseeing matters regarding priests and deacons not belonging to religious orders.

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Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei; CDF) is the oldest among the nine congregations of the Roman Curia.

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Conscience

Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong.

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Conscience clause (medical)

Conscience clauses are legal clauses attached to laws in some parts of the United States and other countries which permit pharmacists, physicians, and/or other providers of health care not to provide certain medical services for reasons of religion or conscience.

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Consecration

Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service, usually religious.

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Consumerism

Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.

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Contemporary slavery

Contemporary slavery, also known as modern slavery, refers to the institutions of slavery that continue to exist in the present day.

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Copernican Revolution

The Copernican Revolution was the paradigm shift from the Ptolemaic model of the heavens, which described the cosmos as having Earth stationary at the center of the universe, to the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System.

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Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.

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Correctio filialis de haeresibus propagatis

Correctio filialis de haeresibus propagatis (Latin: "Filial correction on account of heretical propagations") is an August 11, 2017 petition by initially 62 critics of Pope Francis, who argue that the pope unwittingly propagated heresies, with regard to seven theological issues the authors identified in Amoris Laetitia (an Apostolic Exhortation dated March 29, 2016) and other related statements.

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Council of Cardinal Advisers

The Council of Cardinal Advisers, formally the Council of Cardinals (C9), is a group of nine Catholic cardinals appointed by Pope Francis to serve as his advisers.

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Crónica (newspaper)

Crónica is a newspaper published in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Credible witness

In the law of evidence, a credible witness is a person making testimony in a court or other tribunal, or acting otherwise as a witness, whose credibility is unimpeachable.

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Crimes against humanity

Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.

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Cristina Fernández de Kirchner

Cristina Elisabet Fernández de Kirchner (born 19 February 1953), sometimes referred to by her initials CFK, is an Argentine lawyer and politician, who served as President of Argentina from 2007 to 2015.

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Cross necklace

A cross necklace is any necklace featuring a Christian cross or crucifix worn by Christians and others.

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Cross pattée

A cross pattée (or "cross patty" or "cross Pate", known also as "cross formée/formy" or croix pattée) is a type of Christian cross, which has arms narrow at the center, and often flared in a curve or straight line shape, to be broader at the perimeter.

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Cuban thaw

The Cuban thaw was a warming of Cuba–United States relations that began in December 2014 ending a 54-year stretch of hostility between the nations.

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Cyst

A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division compared with the nearby tissue.

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Dalai Lama

Dalai Lama (Standard Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la'i bla ma) is a title given to spiritual leaders of the Tibetan people.

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Daniel DiNardo

Daniel Nicholas DiNardo (born May 23, 1949) is an American cardinal of the Catholic Church.

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Darío Grandinetti

Darío Grandinetti (born March 5, 1959 in Rosario) is an Argentine Emmy-winning actor.

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De facto

In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

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De jure

In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.

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December 2001 riots in Argentina

The December 2001 crisis, sometimes known as the Argentinazo, was a period of civil unrest and rioting in Argentina, which took place during December 2001, with the most violent incidents taking place on December 19 and December 20 in the capital, Buenos Aires, Rosario and other large cities around the country.

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Declaration of nullity

In the Catholic Church, a declaration of nullity, commonly called an annulment and less commonly a decree of nullity, is a judgment on the part of an ecclesiastical tribunal determining that a marriage was invalidly contracted or, less frequently, a judgment determining that ordination was invalidly conferred.

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Deforestation

Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.

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Denis Hart

Denis James Hart (born 16 May 1941) is an Australian prelate of the Catholic Church.

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Devil in Christianity

In mainstream Christianity, the Devil (or Satan) is a fallen angel who rebelled against God.

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Dicastery

A dicastery (from Greek δικαστήριον, law-court, from ''δικαστής'', judge/juror) is a department of the Roman Curia, the administration of the Holy See through which the pope directs the Roman Catholic Church.

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Dicastery for Communication

The Dicastery for Communication (Dicastero per la Comunicazione) is a division (dicastery) of the Roman Curia with authority over all communications offices of the Holy See and the Vatican City State, including the Pontifical Council for Social Communications, Holy See Press Office, Vatican Internet Service, Vatican Radio, Vatican Television Center, Osservatore Romano,, Photograph Service, and Vatican Publishing House.

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Dieudonné Nzapalainga

Dieudonné Nzapalainga (born 14 March 1967) is a Catholic cardinal and the Archbishop of Bangui in the Central African Republic and a professed member of the Congregation of the Holy Spirit.

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DignityUSA

DignityUSA is an organization with headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts that focuses on LGBT rights and the Catholic Church.

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Diocesan priest

A diocesan priest is a Catholic, Anglican, or Eastern Orthodox priest who commits himself to a certain geographical area and is ordained into the service of the citizens of a diocese, a church administrative region.

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Diocletian

Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.

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Dirty War

The "Dirty War" (guerra sucia) is the name used for the period of state terrorism committed by Argentina's military junta from 1974 to 1983, during which military and security forces and right-wing death squads in the form of the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (Triple A) hunted down any political dissidents and anyone believed to be associated with socialism, left-wing Peronism or the Montoneros movement.

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Doctor of the Church

Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor "teacher") is a title given by the Catholic Church to saints whom they recognize as having been of particular importance, particularly regarding their contribution to theology or doctrine.

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Domus Sanctae Marthae

The Domus Sanctae Marthae (Latin for Saint Martha's House; in Italian, Casa Santa Marta) is a building adjacent to St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City.

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Donald Trump

Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.

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Donald Wuerl

Donald William Wuerl (born November 12, 1940) is an American prelate of the Catholic Church.

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Early Christianity

Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).

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East–West Schism

The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which has lasted since the 11th century.

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Eastern Catholic Churches

The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Eastern Orthodox Church organization

The Eastern Orthodox Church, like the Catholic Church, claims to be the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church.

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Ecclesiology

In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership.

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Economic inequality

Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.

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Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople

The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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Ecumenism

Ecumenism refers to efforts by Christians of different Church traditions to develop closer relationships and better understandings.

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Eduardo Horacio García

Eduardo Horacio García (born January 22, 1956) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Eduardo Maria Taussig

Eduardo Maria Taussig (born July 4, 1954) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Edward Egan

Edward Michael Egan (April 2, 1932 – March 5, 2015) was an American Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Elizabeth Hesselblad

Saint Maria Elizabeth Hesselblad (4 June 1870 – 24 April 1957), was a Swedish nurse who was a convert to the Catholic Church and founded a new form of life of the Bridgettines known as the Bridgettine Sisters.

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Emilio Ogñénovich

Emilio Ogñénovich (January 25, 1923 – January 29, 2011) was the Roman Catholic bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mercedes-Luján, Argentina. Ordained to the priesthood in 1949, Ogñénovich was named in bishop in 1979 retiring in 2000. He died in 2011, four days after his 88th birthday. On 27 June 1992 he was co-consecrator of Jorge Mario Bergoglio, later Pope Francis, as bishop.

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Encyclical

An encyclical was originally a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Roman Church.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Ennio Morricone

Ennio Morricone, Grand Officer OMRI (born 10 November 1928) is an Italian composer, orchestrator, conductor, and former trumpet player.

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Enrique Eguía Seguí

Enrique Eguía Seguí (born December 9, 1962) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Environmental quality

Environmental quality is a set of properties and characteristics of the environment, either generalized or local, as they impinge on human beings and other organisms.

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Episcopal Conference of Argentina

The Argentine Episcopal Conference is an episcopal conference of the Roman Catholic Church of Argentina that gathers the bishops of the country in order to discuss pastoral issues and in general all matters that have to do with the Church.

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Episcopal Conference of Latin America

The Latin American Episcopal Council (Consejo Episcopal Latinoamericano), better known as CELAM, is a council of the Roman Catholic bishops of Latin America, created in 1955 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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Ernst von Freyberg

Ernst Conrad Rudolf Freiherr von Freyberg-Eisenberg (born 26 October 1958 in Geneva) is a German manager and was President of the Istituto per le Opere di Religione between February 2013 and July 2014, Vatican Radio, 01 July 2013.

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Escutcheon (heraldry)

In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms.

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Esther Ballestrino

Esther Ballestrino (20 January 1918 – disappeared 17 or 18 December 1977) was a Uruguayan martyr.

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Etchmiadzin Cathedral

Etchmiadzin Cathedral (Էջմիածնի մայր տաճար, Ēǰmiatsni mayr tačar) is the mother church of the Armenian Apostolic Church, located in the city of Vagharshapat (Etchmiadzin), Armenia.

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Ethnic groups in Europe

The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.

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Eucharist

The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.

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Eucharist in the Catholic Church

The Eucharist in the Catholic Church is the celebration of Mass, the eucharistic liturgy.

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Eugenio Scalfari

Eugenio Scalfari (born 6 April 1924 in Civitavecchia) is an Italian journalist, editor of the news magazine L'espresso (1963–1968), former member of parliament in the Italian Chamber of Deputies (1968–1972), co-founder of the newspaper La Repubblica and its editor from 1976 to 1996.

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European debt crisis

The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.

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Evangelical counsels

The three evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection in Christianity are chastity, poverty (or perfect charity), and obedience.

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Evangelical Lutheran Church in America

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.

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Evangelicalism

Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.

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Evangelii gaudium

Evangelii gaudium (English: The Joy of the Gospel) is a 2013 apostolic exhortation by Pope Francis on "the church's primary mission of evangelization in the modern world." In its opening paragraph, Pope Francis urged the entire Church "to embark on a new chapter of evangelism".

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Evo Morales

Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959), popularly known as Evo, is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006.

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Extrajudicial punishment

Extrajudicial punishment is punishment for an alleged crime or offense carried out without legal process or supervision from a court or tribunal through a legal proceeding.

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Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy

The Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy (Iubilaeum Extraordinarium Misericordiae) was a Roman Catholic period of prayer held from 8 December 2015, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, to 20 November 2016, the Feast of Christ the King.

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Extreme poverty

Extreme poverty, abject poverty, absolute poverty, destitution, or penury, was originally defined by the United Nations in 1995 as "a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information.

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Fabio Fabene

Fabio Fabene (born 12 March 1959) has been the Under-Secretary of the Synod of Bishops since his appointment on 8 February 2014 by Pope Francis.

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Facultades de Filosofía y Teología de San Miguel

Facultades de Filosofía y Teología de San Miguel (English: Philosophical and Theological Faculty of San Miguel) is a Jesuit university and seminary in San Miguel, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

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Fake news

Fake news is a type of yellow journalism or propaganda that consists of deliberate misinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media.

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Feast of Christ the King

The Solemnity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe, commonly referred to as the Feast of Christ the King, is a relatively recent addition to the Western liturgical calendar, having been instituted in 1925 by Pope Pius XI for the Roman Catholic Church.

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Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches

The Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches (Schweizerischer Evangelischer Kirchenbund, Fédération des Eglises protestantes de Suisse, Federazione delle Chiese evangeliche della Svizzera, Federaziun da las baselgias evangelicas da la Svizra - SEK-FEPS) is a federation of 26 member churches — 24 cantonal churches and two free churches (Free Church of Geneva and the Evangelical-Methodist Church of Switzerland).

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Federico Lombardi

Federico Lombardi, S.J. (born 29 August 1942) is an Italian Catholic priest and the former director of the Holy See Press Office.

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Fernando Carlos Maletti

Fernando Carlos Maletti (born March 17, 1949) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Fernando de la Rúa

Fernando de la Rúa (born September 15, 1937) is an Argentine retired politician of the Radical Civic Union (UCR) who served as President of Argentina from December 10, 1999, to December 21, 2001.

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Financial market

A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives such as futures and options at low transaction costs.

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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First National Government

The First National Government (Primer gobierno patrio) is a public holiday of Argentina, commemorating the May Revolution and the creation on May 25, 1810 of the Primera Junta, which is considered the first patriotic government of Argentina.

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First Presidency (LDS Church)

The First Presidency, also called the Quorum of the Presidency of the ChurchDoctrine and Covenants.

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Flag of Vatican City

The flag of Vatican City was adopted on June 7, 1929, the year Pope Pius XI signed the Lateran Treaty with Italy, creating a new independent state governed by the Holy See.

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Flores, Buenos Aires

Flores is a middle class barrio or district in the centre part of Buenos Aires city, Argentina.

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Foley Beach

Foley Thomas Beach (born October 31, 1958) is an American Anglican bishop.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Foot washing

Maundy (from the Vulgate of John 13:34 mandatum meaning "command"), or the Washing of the Feet, is a religious rite observed by various Christian denominations.

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Forbes

Forbes is an American business magazine.

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Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People

Since 2009, Forbes business magazine had compiled an annual list of the world's most powerful people.

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Fortune (magazine)

Fortune is an American multinational business magazine headquartered in New York City, United States.

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Fouad Twal

Fouad Twal (البطريرك فؤاد طوال) (born 23 October 1940 in Madaba, Jordan) is the emeritus Archbishop and Patriarch of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, having been its ordinary from 2008 to 2016.

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Fourth vow

The "Fourth vow" is a religious solemn vow that is taken by members of various religious institutes of the Catholic Church, after the three traditional vows of poverty, chastity and obedience.

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François de Laval

Saint Francis-Xavier de Montmorency-Laval, M.E.P., commonly referred to as François de Laval (30 April 1623 – 6 May 1708), was the first Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec, appointed when he was 36 years old by Pope Alexander VII.

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Francesco Marchisano

Francesco Marchisano (25 June 1929 – 27 July 2014) was an Italian Cardinal who worked in the Roman Curia from 1956 until his death.

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Francis of Assisi

Saint Francis of Assisi (San Francesco d'Assisi), born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, informally named as Francesco (1181/11823 October 1226), was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher.

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Francis: Pray for Me

Francis: Pray for me is a 2015 Argentine film, starring Darío Grandinetti as Pope Francis.

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Francisco and Jacinta Marto

Saint Francisco de Jesus Marto (11 June 1908 – 4 April 1919), his sister Saint Jacinta de Jesus Marto (11 March 1910 – 20 February 1920) and their cousin Lúcia dos Santos (1907–2005) were children from Aljustrel, a small hamlet near Fátima, Portugal, who witnessed three apparitions of the Angel of Peace in 1916 and several apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Cova da Iria in 1917.

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Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa

Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa (born 5 September 1933) is a Chilean prelate of the Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Santiago from 1998 to 2010.

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Franz Jalics

Franz Jalics (Jálics Ferenc; born 1927) is a Hungarian-born Jesuit priest and author of spiritual books.

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Full communion

Full communion is a communion or relationship of full understanding among different Christian denominations that they share certain essential principles of Christian theology.

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Funeral of Pope John Paul II

The funeral of Pope John Paul II was held on 8 April 2005, six days after his death on 2 April.

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Gaudete et exsultate

Gaudete et exsultate (italic, from) is the third apostolic exhortation of Pope Francis, dated (the Solemnity of Saint Joseph) and published on, subtitled "on the call to holiness in today's world".

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Gérald Caussé

Gérald Jean Caussé (born 20 May 1963) has been the Presiding Bishop of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) since 9 October 2015.

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Gender identity

Gender identity is one's personal experience of one's own gender.

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General of The Salvation Army

General is the title of the international leader and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the Salvation Army, a Christian denomination with extensive charitable social services that gives quasi-military rank to its ministers (who are therefore known as officers).

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Genoese dialect

Genoese (called Zeneize in the local language) is the main dialect of the Ligurian language spoken in Genoa (the principal city of the Liguria region in Northern Italy).

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George Haley

George T. Haley is an American author and academic, currently a tenured Professor of Industrial and International Marketing at the University of New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

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George Pell

George Pell (born 8 June 1941) is an Australian prelate of the Catholic Church.

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Georgia (U.S. state)

Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.

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Gerhard Ludwig Müller

Gerhard Ludwig Müller (born 31 December 1947) is a German cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Giampiero Gloder

Giampiero Gloder (born 15 May 1958) is the president of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy and vice Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.

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Giorgio Napolitano

Giorgio Napolitano, (born 29 June 1925) is an Italian politician who served as the 11th President of the Republic from 2006 to 2015, the only Italian President to be reelected to the Presidency.

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Giuseppe Bertello

Giuseppe Bertello (born 1 October 1942) is a Catholic prelate and Cardinal currently serving as the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and President of the Governorate of Vatican City State.

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Gluten

Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.

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Gnosticism

Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.

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Godfried Danneels

Godfried Maria Jules Danneels (born 4 June 1933) is a Belgian cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Gospel

Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".

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Gospel of Matthew

The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.

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Government of Canada

The Government of Canada (Gouvernement du Canada), formally Her Majesty's Government (Gouvernement de Sa Majesté), is the federal administration of Canada.

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Grace in Christianity

In Western Christian theology, grace has been defined, not as a created substance of any kind, but as "the love and mercy given to us by God because God desires us to have it, not necessarily because of anything we have done to earn it", "Grace is favour, the free and undeserved help that God gives us to respond to his call to become children of God, adoptive sons, partakers of the divine nature and of eternal life." It is understood by Christians to be a spontaneous gift from God to people "generous, free and totally unexpected and undeserved" – that takes the form of divine favor, love, clemency, and a share in the divine life of God.

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Graciela Fernández Meijide

Rosa Graciela Castagnola de Fernández Meijide known as Graciela Fernández Meijide (born 27 February 1931) is an Argentine teacher, human rights activist and politician.

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Grand Imam of al-Azhar

The Grand Imam of al-Azhar (Arabic: الإمام الأكبر), also known as Grand Sheikh of al-Azhar (Arabic: شيخ الأزهر الشريف), currently Ahmed el-Tayeb, is a prestigious Sunni Islam title and a prominent official title in Egypt.

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Grand Master (order)

Grand Master (Magister generalis; Großmeister) is a title of the supreme head of various orders, including chivalric orders such as military orders and dynastic orders of knighthood.

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Grant of arms

A grant of arms is an action by a lawful authority, such as an officer of arms, conferring on a person and his or her descendants the right to bear a particular coat of arms or armorial bearings.

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Great Recession

The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.

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Greece

No description.

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Greek government-debt crisis

The Greek government-debt crisis (also known as the Greek Depression) was the sovereign debt crisis faced by Greece in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–08.

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Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and all Africa

The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and all Africa (Greek: Πατριαρχεῖον Ἀλεξανδρείας καὶ πάσης Ἀφρικῆς, Patriarcheîon Alexandreías kaì pásēs Aphrikês) is an autocephalous Byzantine Rite jurisdiction of the Eastern Orthodox Church, having the African continent as its canonical territory.

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Greg Burke (journalist)

Gregory Joseph "Greg" Burke (born 8 November 1959) is an American journalist.

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Gregory of Narek

Gregory of Narek (Գրիգոր Նարեկացի Grigor Narekatsi, Western Armenian: Krikor Naregatsi; 9511003) was an Armenian monk, poet, mystical philosopher, theologian, and composer who is venerated as a Saint by both the Armenian Apostolic and Roman Catholic Churches.

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Gregory Venables

Gregory James Venables (born 6 December 1949) is an English Anglican bishop.

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Gustavo Gutiérrez

Gustavo Gutiérrez Merino (born 8 June 1928) is a Peruvian philosopher, theologian, and Dominican priest regarded as one of the founders of liberation theology.

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Guzmán Carriquiry Lecour

Guzmán Carriquiry Lecour (born '1944', 'Montevideo') is a Uruguayan Roman Catholic activist, Distinguished Professor, and leader.

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H

H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.

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Habemus Papam

Habemus Papam! ("We Have a Pope!") is the announcement given in Latin by the Cardinal Protodeacon, the senior Cardinal Deacon, upon the election of a new Roman Catholic pope.

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Haiti

Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.

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Halakha

Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.

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Hanukkah

Hanukkah (חֲנֻכָּה, Tiberian:, usually spelled rtl, pronounced in Modern Hebrew, or in Yiddish; a transliteration also romanized as Chanukah or Ḥanukah) is a Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Helmut Schlegel

Helmut Schlegel OFM (born 15 May 1943) is a German Franciscan, Catholic priest, meditation instructor, author, librettist and songwriter.

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Hendrik Hertzberg

Hendrik Hertzberg (born 1943) is an American liberalGranick, Jennifer and Sprigman, Christopher (2013-06-27), The New York Times journalist, best known as the principal political commentator for The New Yorker magazine.

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Henry B. Eyring

Henry Bennion Eyring (born May 31, 1933) is an American educational administrator, author, and religious leader.

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Heresy in Christianity

When heresy is used today with reference to Christianity, it denotes the formal denial or doubt of a core doctrine of the Christian faithJ.D Douglas (ed).

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Hipólito Yrigoyen

Juan Hipólito del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús Yrigoyen Alem (July 12, 1852 – July 3, 1933) was a two-time President of Argentina (from 1916 to 1922, and again from 1928 to 1930).

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His Holiness

His Holiness is a style and form of address (in the variant form Your Holiness) for some supreme religious leaders.

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Hispanic

The term Hispanic (hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain.

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History of the Jews in Argentina

The history of the Jews in Argentina goes back to the early sixteenth centuries, following the Jewish expulsion from Spain.

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Holiness movement

The Holiness movement involves a set of beliefs and practices which emerged within 19th-century Methodism.

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Holy door

A Holy Door (Porta Sancta) traditionally refers to an entrance portal located within the Papal major basilicas in Rome.

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Holy Name of Jesus

In Roman Catholicism, the veneration Holy Name of Jesus (also Most Holy Name of Jesus, Santissimo Nome di Gesù) developed as a separate type of devotion in the Early Modern period, in parallel to that of the Sacred Heart.

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Holy orders

In the Christian churches, Holy Orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest or deacon.

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Holy See

The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.

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Holy See Press Office

The Holy See Press Office (Sala Stampa della Santa Sede) publishes the official news of the activities of the Pope and of the various departments of the Roman Curia.

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Holy See–Palestine relations

The Holy See has maintained relations with Palestine since before 1948.

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Holy See–Sri Lanka relations

Holy See – Sri Lanka relations are foreign relations between the Holy See and Sri Lanka.

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Homily

A homily is a commentary that follows a reading of scripture.

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Horacio Ernesto Benites Astoul

Horacio Ernesto Benites Astoul (November 3, 1933 – May 25, 2016) was a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Horacio Verbitsky

Horacio Verbitsky (born 1942) is an Argentine left-wing investigative journalist and author with a past history as a leftist guerrilla in the Montoneros.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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House of Lords

The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Hugo Manuel Salaberry Goyeneche

Hugo Manuel Salaberry Goyeneche S.J. (March 7, 1952) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Hugo Nicolás Barbaro

Hugo Nicolás Barbaro (December 12, 1950) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Humanitas (journal)

Humanitas is an interdisciplinary journal published by the National Humanities Institute.

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Idolatry

Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", also known as a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon.

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Ieronymos II of Athens

Ieronymos II (Ierōnymos II,; born March 10, 1938) is the Archbishop of Athens and All Greece and as such the primate of the Autocephalous Orthodox Church of Greece.

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Ignatius Aphrem II

Moran Mor Ignatius Aphrem II (ܡܪܢ ܡܪܝ ܐܝܓܢܛܝܘܣ ܐܦܪܝܡ ܬܪܝܢܐ Moran Mor Ignaṭius Afrem Trayono, مار إغناطيوس أفرام الثاني Mār Iġnāṭīūs Afrām al-Ṯānī; born as Saʿid Karim on May 3, 1965) is the patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church.

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Ignatius of Loyola

Saint Ignatius of Loyola (Ignazio Loiolakoa, Ignacio de Loyola; – 31 July 1556) was a Spanish Basque priest and theologian, who founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and became its first Superior General.

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Ignatius Press

Ignatius Press, named for Saint Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuit Order, is a Catholic publishing house based in San Francisco, California, USA.

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Immaculate Conception

The Immaculate Conception is the conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary free from original sin by virtue of the merits of her son Jesus Christ.

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Income distribution

In economics, income distribution is how a nation’s total GDP is distributed amongst its population.

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Independent Catholicism

Independent Catholicism is a movement comprising clergy and laity who self-identify as Catholic and who form "micro-churches claiming apostolic succession and valid sacraments," despite a lack of affiliation with the main Catholic Church itself.

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Inmaculada Concepción Seminary

The Inmaculada Concepción Seminary is located in Villa Devoto, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Instagram

Instagram is a photo and video-sharing social networking service owned by Facebook, Inc. It was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, and launched in October 2010 exclusively on iOS.

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Institute for the Works of Religion

The Institute for the Works of Religion (Istituto per le Opere di Religione – IOR; Institutum pro Operibus Religionis), commonly known as the Vatican Bank, is a private bank situated inside Vatican City and run by a Board of Superintendence which reports to a Supervisory Commission of Cardinals and the Pope.

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Interfaith dialogue

Interfaith dialogue refers to cooperative, constructive, and positive interaction between people of different religious traditions (i.e., "faiths") and/or spiritual or humanistic beliefs, at both the individual and institutional levels.

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International Association of Penal Law

The International Association of Penal Law (AIDP) (L'Association Internationale de Droit Penal) was founded in Paris on March 14, 1924.

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International Business Times

The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Islam in Argentina

Islam in Argentina is represented by one of Latin America's largest Muslim minorities.

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Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.

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Islamophobia

Islamophobia is the fear, hatred of, or prejudice against, the Islamic religion or Muslims generally, especially when seen as a geopolitical force or the source of terrorism.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Israel Singer

Israel Singer (born 29 July 1942 in New York City) was secretary general of the World Jewish Congress (WJC) from 1986 to 2001.

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Italian Argentines

Italian Argentines (italo-argentini, ítalo-argentinos) are Argentine-born citizens of Italian descent or Italian-born people who reside in Argentina.

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Italian Sommelier Association

Italian Sommelier Association, 'AIS' (Associazione Italiana Sommelier, sometimes also as known as Italian Association of Sommeliers) is an Italian non-profit organization founded in Milan on July 7, 1965, officially recognised and legally acknowledged by the Italian government on April 6, 1973, - WSA / AIS Affiliation with formal President of the Republic decree #539 in 1973.

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Jacques Hamel

Jacques Hamel (30 November 1930 – 26 July 2016) was a French Catholic priest in the parish of Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray.

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Jargon

Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context.

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Józef and Wiktoria Ulma

Servants of God Józef and Wiktoria Ulma, a Polish husband and wife, living in Markowa near Rzeszów in south-eastern Poland during the Nazi German occupation in World War II, were the Righteous who attempted to rescue Polish Jewish families by hiding them in their own home during the Holocaust.

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Jean-Louis Tauran

Jean-Louis Pierre Tauran (born 5 April 1943) is a French cardinal of the Catholic Church.

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Jean-Marie Speich

Jean-Marie Speich is a prelate of the Catholic Church.

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Jerónimo Podestá

Jerónimo José Podestá (August 8, 1920 – June 23, 2000) was an Argentine Catholic priest and bishop.

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Jerusalem

Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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Jesus and the woman taken in adultery

Jesus and the woman taken in adultery (or Pericope Adulterae, Pericope de Adultera) is a passage (pericope) found in the Gospel of John, that has been the subject of much scholarly discussion.

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Jewish Community Center

A Jewish Community Center or Jewish Community Centre (JCC) is a general recreational, social, and fraternal organization serving the Jewish community in a number of cities.

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Joachim Meisner

Joachim Meisner (25 December 1933 – 5 July 2017) was a German cardinal of the Catholic Church.

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Joaquín Mariano Sucunza

Joaquín Mariano Sucunza (February 15, 1946) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Joaquín Piña Batllevell

Joaquin Piña Batllevell (May 25, 1930 − 8 July 2013) was a Spanish Argentine Roman Catholic bishop.

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John L. Allen Jr.

John L. Allen Jr. (born 1965) is an American journalist serving as editor of the Roman Catholic–oriented news website Crux, formerly hosted by The Boston Globe and currently produced in partnership with the Catholic fraternal organization the Knights of Columbus.

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John Wesley

John Wesley (2 March 1791) was an English cleric and theologian who, with his brother Charles and fellow cleric George Whitefield, founded Methodism.

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Joint Declaration of Pope Francis and Patriarch Kirill

The Joint Declaration of Pope Francis and Patriarch Kirill, also known as the Havana Declaration, was issued following the first meeting in February 2016 between Pope Francis, who as the Bishop of Rome is the pontiff of the Catholic Church, and Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus', Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC), the largest of the Eastern Orthodox churches.

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Jordan

Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.

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Jorge Eduardo Lozano

Jorge Eduardo Lozano (February 10, 1955) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Jorge María Mejía

Jorge María Mejía (31 January 1923 – 9 December 2014) was an Argentine cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church (Roman Rite).

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Jorge Rafael Videla

Jorge Rafael Videla (2 August 1925 – 17 May 2013) was a senior commander in the Argentine Army and dictator of Argentina from 1976 to 1981.

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Jorge Rubén Lugones

Jorge Rubén Lugones S.J. (July 31, 1952) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Joris Vercammen

Joris August Odilius Ludovicus Vercammen (born 14 October 1952) is the current Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht of the Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands.

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José Antonio Gentico

José Antonio Gentico (November 28, 1931 - April 5, 2007) was a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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José Avelino Bettencourt

José Avelino Bettencourt (born Velas, Açores, Portugal on 23 May 1962) is a Portuguese-Canadian Roman Catholic priest, chaplain of His Holiness since 2003 and head of Protocol of Secretariat of State of the Holy See since 2012.

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José de Anchieta

José de Anchieta y Díaz de Clavijo, S.J. (19 March 1534 – 9 June 1597) was a Spanish Jesuit missionary to the Portuguese colony of Brazil in the second half of the 16th century.

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José Rodríguez Carballo

José Rodríguez Carballo (born 11 August 1953) is a Catholic archbishop and official of the Roman Curia.

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Joseph Vaz

Joseph Vaz, CO, (Konkani: Sant Zuze Vaz; Portuguese: São José Vaz; புனித யோசப் வாஸ் Punidha Yosap Vaz; ශාන්ත ජුසේ වාස් මුනිතුමා, ලංකා අපොස්තුළුවරයා Santha Juse Vaz Piyathuma, Lanka Aposthuluvaraya), (21 April 165116 January 1711) was an Oratorian priest and missionary in Sri Lanka, then known as Ceylon.

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Joseph Zen

Joseph Zen Ze-kiun SDB (born 13 January 1932) is a Chinese cardinal of the Catholic Church, who served as the sixth Bishop of Hong Kong.

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Juan Carlos Scannone

Juan Carlos Scannone, SJ (born 1931), is an Argentine Roman Catholic Jesuit priest.

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Jubilee (Christianity)

In Judaism and Christianity, the concept of the Jubilee is a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon.

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Justicialist Party

The Justicialist Party (Partido Justicialista), or PJ, is a Peronist political party in Argentina, and the largest component of the Peronist movement.

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Justin Welby

Justin Portal Welby (born 6 January 1956) is the 105th Archbishop of Canterbury and the most senior bishop in the Church of England.

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Karadima case

The case of Father Fernando Karadima accused of the sexual abuse of minors in Chile, which became public in 2010, raised questions about the responsibility and complicity of several Chilean bishops, including some of the country's highest-ranking Catholic prelates.

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Karekin II

Catholicos Karekin II (Գարեգին Բ) (born August 21, 1951) is the current Catholicos of All Armenians, the supreme head of the Armenian Apostolic Church.

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Korean Martyrs

The Korean Martyrs were the victims of religious persecution against Catholic Christians during the 19th century in Korea.

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Kristallnacht

Kristallnacht (lit. "Crystal Night") or Reichskristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, Reichspogromnacht or simply Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome (Yiddish: קרישטאָל נאַכט krishtol nakt), was a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians.

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Krzysztof Charamsa

Krzysztof Olaf Charamsa (born 5 August 1972) is a Polish Catholic theologian and author.

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L'Osservatore Romano

L'Osservatore Romano (Italian for "The Roman Observer") is the daily newspaper of Vatican City State which carries the Pope’s discourses and reports on the activities of the Holy See, reports on events taking place in the Church and the world, and many cultural articles.

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L. Tom Perry

Lowell Tom Perry (August 5, 1922 – May 30, 2015) was an American businessman and religious leader who was a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1974 until his death.

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La Civiltà Cattolica

La Civiltà Cattolica (Italian for Catholic Civilization) is a periodical published by the Jesuits in Rome, Italy.

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La Nación

La Nación (The Nation) is an Argentine daily newspaper.

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La Plata

La Plata is the capital city of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

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La Repubblica

la Repubblica (the Republic) is an Italian daily general-interest newspaper.

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La Stampa

La Stampa (meaning The Press in English) is an Italian daily newspaper published in Turin, Italy.

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Lancaster University

Lancaster University, also officially known as the University of Lancaster, is a public research university in the City of Lancaster, Lancashire, England.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem

Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem (Patriarchatus Latinus Hierosolymitanus) is the title of the see of Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem.

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Laudato si'

Laudato si (Medieval Central Italian for "Praise be to you") is the second encyclical of Pope Francis.

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Laudato si' (oratorio)

Laudato si' is an oratorio composed in 2016 by Peter Reulein on a libretto by Helmut Schlegel.

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Laura of Saint Catherine of Siena

Saint Laura of Saint Catherine of Siena (26 May 1874 – 21 October 1949) - born María Laura de Jesús Montoya Upegui - was a Colombian Roman Catholic professed religious and the founder of the Congregation of the Missionary Sisters of the Immaculate Virgin Mary and Saint Catherine of Siena (1914).

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Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya

Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya (born 7 October 1939) is the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Kinshasa and de facto primate of the Democratic Republic of Congo since his appointment by Pope Benedict XVI in 2007.

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Lavandula

Lavandula (common name lavender) is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae.

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Law of Vatican City

The law of Vatican City State consists of many forms, the most important of which is the Fundamental Law of Vatican City State.

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Leitmotif

A leitmotif or leitmotiv is a "short, constantly recurring musical phrase"Kennedy (1987), Leitmotiv associated with a particular person, place, or idea.

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Lesbos

Lesbos (Λέσβος), or Lezbolar in Turkish sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.

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Letters rogatory

Letters rogatory or letters of request are a formal request from a court to a foreign court for some type of judicial assistance.

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LGBT

LGBT, or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.

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LGBT clergy in Christianity

The ordination of lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or transgender (LGBT) clergy who are open about their sexuality (or gender identity if transgender), are sexually active if lesbian, gay, or bisexual, or are in committed same-sex relationships is a debated practice within some contemporary Christian Church communities.

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LGBT conservatism

LGBT conservatism refers to a socio-political movement which embraces and promotes the ideology of conservatism within an LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) context.

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Liberation theology

Liberation theology is a synthesis of Christian theology and Marxist socio-economic analyses that emphasizes social concern for the poor and the political liberation for oppressed peoples.

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Libretto

A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical.

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Libya

Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Licentiate (degree)

A licentiate is a degree below that of a PhD given by universities in some countries.

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Liebfrauen, Frankfurt

Liebfrauenkirche ("Our Lady", literally "Dear Lady") is a Gothic-style Catholic parish church, located in the centre of Frankfurt, Germany.

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Life imprisonment

Life imprisonment (also known as imprisonment for life, life in prison, a life sentence, a life term, lifelong incarceration, life incarceration or simply life) is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled.

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Limburg an der Lahn

Limburg an der Lahn (officially abbreviated Limburg a. d. Lahn) is the district seat of Limburg-Weilburg in Hesse, Germany.

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Limburg Cathedral

The Catholic Cathedral of Limburg (German: Limburger Dom), also known as Georgsdom in German after its dedication to Saint George, is located above the old town of Limburg in Hesse, Germany.

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Limes (magazine)

Limes (pronounced "lee-mes") is a monthly Italian geopolitical magazine published in Italy.

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Linda Woodhead

Linda Jane Pauline Woodhead (born 15 February 1964) is a British academic specialising in the religious studies and sociology of religion.

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List of current Christian leaders

The following is a current list of the highest-ranking leaders in major Christian churches or denominations.

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List of current heads of state and government

This is a list of current heads of state and heads of government.

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List of Greek Orthodox Patriarchs of Alexandria

The Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria has the title Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria and All Africa. The following list contains all the incumbents of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria.

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List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East.

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List of pastoral visits of Pope Francis

This is a list of pastoral visits of Pope Francis.

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List of people beatified by Pope Francis

Pope Francis beatified 1,131 people.

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List of political parties in the United Kingdom

This article lists political parties in the United Kingdom.

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List of popes

This chronological list of popes corresponds to that given in the Annuario Pontificio under the heading "I Sommi Pontefici Romani" (The Supreme Pontiffs of Rome), excluding those that are explicitly indicated as antipopes.

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List of Princes and Grand Masters of the Knights Hospitaller

This is a list of Princes and Grand Masters of the Knights Hospitaller including the claimed predecessor Sovereign Military Order of Malta, starting with the founder Gerard Thom (established in 1099 and given papal recognition in 1113 by Paschal II).

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List of Syriac Orthodox Patriarchs of Antioch

The Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch is the head of the Syriac Orthodox Church.

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Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.

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Louis Martin and Marie-Azélie Guérin

Louis Martin (22 August 1823 – 29 July 1894) and Marie-Azélie "Zélie" Guérin Martin (23 December 1831 – 28 August 1877) were two married Roman Catholic French laypeople and the parents of five Roman Catholic nuns, including Thérèse of Lisieux, a Carmelite nun who was canonized as a saint of the Catholic Church in 1925.

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Louis Raphaël I Sako

Louis Raphaël I Sako (ܠܘܝܣ ܪܘܦܐܝܠ ܩܕܡܝܐ ܣܟܘ; Ludovicus Raphael I Sako; born 4 July 1948) was chosen as Chaldean Catholic Patriarch of Babylon and the Head of the Chaldean Catholic Church at his election on 1 February 2013.

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Ludger Stühlmeyer

Ludger Stühlmeyer (born 3 October 1961 in Melle, Germany) is a German cantor, composer, docent and musicologist.

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Luis Alberto Fernández Alara

Luis Alberto Fernández Alara (born October 26, 1946) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Luis Ladaria Ferrer

Luis Francisco Ladaria Ferrer (born 19 April 1944) is a Spanish Jesuit, theologian and a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Luis Palau

Luis Palau Jr. (born November 27, 1934) is an international Christian evangelist living in the Portland area in Oregon, United States.

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Lumen fidei

Lumen fidei (English: The Light of Faith) is the first encyclical of Pope Francis, issued on 29 June 2013, the Solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul, and published on 5 July 2013, less than four months after his election to the papacy.

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Lund Cathedral

The Lund Cathedral (Lunds domkyrka) is the Lutheran cathedral in Lund, Scania, Sweden.

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Lutheran World Federation

The Lutheran World Federation (LWF; Lutherischer Weltbund) is a global communion of national and regional Lutheran churches headquartered in the Ecumenical Centre in Geneva, Switzerland.

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Lutheranism

Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.

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Mahmoud Abbas

Mahmoud Abbas (مَحْمُود عَبَّاس,; born 15 November 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (أَبُو مَازِن), is the President of the State of Palestine and Palestinian National Authority. He has been the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since 11 November 2004, and Palestinian president since 15 January 2005 (Palestinian National Authority since 15 January 2005, and State of Palestine since 8 May 2005). Abbas is a member of the Fatah party and was elected Chairman of Fatah in 2009. Abbas was elected on 9 January 2005 to serve as President of the Palestinian National Authority until 15 January 2009, but extended his term until the next election in 2010, citing the PLO constitution, and on December 16, 2009 was voted into office indefinitely by the PLO Central Council. As a result, Fatah's main rival, Hamas, initially announced that it would not recognize the extension or view Abbas as the rightful president. The Jerusalem Post (9 January 2009) Yet, Abbas is internationally recognized and Hamas and Fatah conducted numerous negotiations in the following years, leading to an agreement in April 2014 over a Unity Government, which lasted until October 2016, and therefore to the recognition of his office by Hamas. Abbas was also chosen as the President of the State of Palestine by the Palestine Liberation Organization's Central Council on 23 November 2008, a position he had held unofficially since 8 May 2005. Abbas served as the first Prime Minister of the Palestinian Authority from March to September 2003. Before being named prime minister, Abbas led the PLO Negotiations Affairs Department.

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Mainstream media

Mainstream media (MSM) is a term and abbreviation used to refer collectively to the various large mass news media that influence a large number of people, and both reflect and shape prevailing currents of thought.

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Maiorem hac dilectionem

Maiorem hac dilectionem (Latin for Greater love than this) is an Apostolic Letter issued in the form of a motu proprio that Pope Francis issued on 11 July 2017.

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Malmö

Malmö (Malmø) is the capital and largest city of the Swedish county of Scania.

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Mantling

In heraldry, mantling or lambrequin is drapery tied to the helmet above the shield.

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Maoism

Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists.

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María Guadalupe García Zavala

Saint María Guadalupe García Zavala (27 April 1878 – 24 June 1963) - born Anastasia Guadalupe García Zavala - was a Mexican Roman Catholic nun and the co-foundress of the Handmaids of Santa Margherita and the Poor.

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Marcello Semeraro

Marcello Semeraro (born 22 December 1947) is a Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of Albano, and secretary to the group of cardinals named by Pope Francis to advise him.

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Marian devotions

A Marian devotion in Christianity is directed to the person of Mary, mother of Jesus consisting of external pious practices expressed by the believer.

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Marie of the Incarnation (Ursuline)

Marie of the Incarnation, O.S.U. (28 October 1599 – 30 April 1672) was an Ursuline nun of the French order.

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Mario Aurelio Poli

Mario Aurelio Poli (born 29 November 1947) is an Argentine cardinal of the Catholic Church.

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Mark Hanson

Mark S. Hanson (born December 2, 1946) was the third Presiding Bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.

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Markowa

Markowa (Маркова, Markova) is a village in Łańcut County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.

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Marriage in the Catholic Church

Marriage in the Roman Catholic Church, also called matrimony, is the "covenant by which a man and a woman establish between themselves a partnership of the whole of life and which is ordered by its nature to the good of the spouses and the procreation and education of offspring", and which "has been raised by Christ the Lord to the dignity of a sacrament between the baptised." Catholic matrimonial law, based on Roman law regarding its focus on marriage as a free mutual agreement or contract, became the basis for the marriage law of all European countries, at least up to the Reformation.

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Martyrs of Otranto

St.

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Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War

Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War is the name given by the Catholic Church to the people who were killed by Republicans during the war because of their faith.

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Marxism

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Mary Untier of Knots

Mary, Untier of Knots or Mary, Undoer of Knots is the name of both a Marian devotion and a Baroque painting (German: Wallfahrtsbild or Gnadenbild) which represents that devotion.

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Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.

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Master of novices

In the Roman Catholic Church, the master of novices or novice master is someone who is committed the training of the novices and the government of the novitiate of a religious institute.

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Mate (drink)

Mate (sometimes spelled maté in English though not in Spanish or Portuguese), also known as chimarrão or cimarrón, is a traditional South American caffeine-rich infused drink, that was first consumed by the Guaraní and also spread by the Tupí people.

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Matrimonial nullity trial reforms of Pope Francis

The matrimonial nullity trial reforms of Pope Francis are the reforms of Catholic canon law governing such trials, made public 8 September 2015.

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Matthew Festing

Fra' Robert Matthew Festing (born 30 November 1949) served as the 79th Prince and Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, from which position he resigned following a dispute with the Vatican on 28 January 2017.

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Matthew the Apostle

Matthew the Apostle (מַתִּתְיָהוּ Mattityahu or Mattay, "Gift of YHVH"; Ματθαῖος; ⲙⲁⲧⲑⲉⲟⲥ, Matthaios; also known as Saint Matthew and as Levi) was, according to the Christian Bible, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and, according to Christian tradition, one of the four Evangelists.

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Maundy Thursday

Maundy Thursday (also known as Holy Thursday, Covenant Thursday, Great and Holy Thursday, Sheer Thursday, and Thursday of Mysteries, among other names) is the Christian holy day falling on the Thursday before Easter.

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Meeting for friendship among peoples

The Meeting for friendship among peoples (Meeting per l'amicizia fra i popoli in Italian) is a multi-event Catholic festival held every year in Rimini, Italy in a week at the end of August.

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Mercy

Mercy (Middle English, from Anglo-French merci, from Medieval Latin merced-, merces, from Latin, "price paid, wages", from merc-, merxi "merchandise") is a broad term that refers to benevolence, forgiveness, and kindness in a variety of ethical, religious, social, and legal contexts.

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Methodist Church of Great Britain

The Methodist Church of Great Britain is the fourth-largest Christian denomination in Britain and the mother church to Methodists worldwide.

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Metropolitan bishop

In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis (then more precisely called metropolitan archbishop); that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.

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Miguel Ángel Ayuso Guixot

Miguel Ángel Ayuso Guixot, MCCJ (born 17 June 1952) is a Spanish Catholic clergyman and historian of Islam.

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Milltown Institute of Theology and Philosophy

The Milltown Institute of Theology and Philosophy was a Jesuit-run institution of higher education and research, located in Dublin, Ireland.

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Milonga (music)

Milonga is a musical genre that originated in the Río de la Plata areas of Argentina and Uruguay.

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Misiones Province

Misiones (Missions) is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the northeastern corner of the country in the Mesopotamia region.

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Mitre

The mitre (British English) (Greek: μίτρα, "headband" or "turban") or miter (American English; see spelling differences), is a type of headgear now known as the traditional, ceremonial head-dress of bishops and certain abbots in traditional Christianity.

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Money laundering

Money laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.

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Moneyval

Moneyval is the common and official name of the Committee of Experts on the Evaluation of Anti-Money Laundering Measures and the Financing of Terrorism.

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Monogram

A monogram is a motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or other graphemes to form one symbol.

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Monsignor

Monsignor is an honorific form of address for those members of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church including bishops, honorary prelates and canons.

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Montoneros

Montoneros (Movimiento Peronista Montonero-MPM) was an Argentine leftist urban guerrilla group, active during the 1960s and 1970s.

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Mormonism

Mormonism is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity started by Joseph Smith in Western New York in the 1820s and 30s.

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Mother Teresa

Mother Teresa, known in the Roman Catholic Church as Saint Teresa of Calcutta (born Anjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu,; 26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997), was an Albanian-Indian Roman Catholic nun and missionary.

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Motu proprio

In law, motu proprio (Latin for: "on his own impulse") describes an official act taken without a formal request from another party.

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Moyers & Company

Moyers & Company is a commentary and interview television show hosted by Bill Moyers, and broadcast via syndication on public television stations in the United States.

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Mozzetta

The mozzetta is a short elbow-length sartorial vestment, a cape that covers the shoulders and is buttoned over the frontal breast area.

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MSN

MSN (stylized as msn) is a web portal and related collection of Internet services and apps for Windows and mobile devices, provided by Microsoft and launched on August 24, 1995, the same release date as Windows 95.

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Munib Younan

Munib Younan (منيب يونان, מוניב יונאן; born September 18, 1950 in Jerusalem) is a Bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Jordan and the Holy Land since 1998, and former President of the Lutheran World Federation (2010-2017).

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Myanmar

Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Myriam Bregman

Myriam Bregman (born 25 February 1972) is an Argentine lawyer, activist and politician.

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National Catholic Register

The National Catholic Register is the oldest national Catholic newspaper in the United States.

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National Catholic Reporter

The National Catholic Reporter (NCR) is an American newspaper which reports on issues related to the Roman Catholic Church.

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National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons

National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons (Spanish: Comisión Nacional sobre la Desaparición de Personas, CONADEP) was an Argentine organization created by President Raúl Alfonsín on 15 December 1983, shortly after his inauguration, to investigate the fate of the desaparecidos (victims of forced disappearance) and other human rights violations (see: Dirty War) performed during the military dictatorship known as the National Reorganization Process between 1976 and 1983.

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National Humanities Institute

The National Humanities Institute is a nonprofit interdisciplinary educational organization founded in 1984.

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National Library of the Argentine Republic

The Mariano Moreno National Library of the Argentine Republic (Spanish: Biblioteca Nacional "Mariano Moreno" de la República Argentina) is the largest library in Argentina.

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National Reorganization Process

The National Reorganization Process (Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, often simply el Proceso, "the Process") was the name used by its leaders for the military dictatorship that ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1983.

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Natural environment

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.

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Natural family planning

Natural family planning (NFP) comprises the family planning methods approved by the Roman Catholic Church and some Protestant denominations for both achieving and postponing or avoiding pregnancy.

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Néstor Kirchner

Néstor Carlos Kirchner (25 February 195027 October 2010) was an Argentine politician who served as President of Argentina from 2003 to 2007 and as Governor of Santa Cruz from 1991 to 2003.

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NBC

The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.

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NBC News

NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.

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Neoliberalism

Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.

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New Ways Ministry

New Ways Ministry is a gay-positive ministry of advocacy and justice for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender Catholics, working for reconciliation within the Christian and civil communities.

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New York Daily News

The New York Daily News, officially titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City.

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Nicolás Maduro

Nicolás Maduro Moros (born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has served as the 63rd President of Venezuela since 2013 and previously served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.

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Ninety-five Theses

The Ninety-five Theses or Disputation on the Power of Indulgences is a list of propositions for an academic disputation written in 1517 by Martin Luther, professor of moral theology at the University of Wittenberg, Germany, that started the Reformation, a schism in the Catholic Church which profoundly changed Europe.

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Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.

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Non-governmental organization

Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.

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Northern Italy

Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.

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NPR

National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.

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Nuclear family

A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more).

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Old Catholic Church

The term Old Catholic Church was used from the 1850s, by groups which had separated from the Roman Catholic Church over certain doctrines, primarily concerned with papal authority; some of these groups, especially in the Netherlands, had already existed long before the term.

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Olivos, Buenos Aires

Olivos is a city in Vicente López Partido in the Province of Buenos Aires and a suburb within the Greater Buenos Aires metro area.

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On Heaven and Earth

On Heaven and Earth (Sobre el cielo y la tierra) is a book that presents conversations between Argentine Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio, who later became Pope Francis, and Argentine rabbi Abraham Skorka.

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Opus Dei

Opus Dei, formally known as The Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei (Praelatura Sanctae Crucis et Operis Dei), is an institution of the Roman Catholic Church which teaches that everyone is called to holiness and that ordinary life is a path to sanctity.

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Or (heraldry)

In heraldry, or (French for "gold") is the tincture of gold and, together with argent (silver), belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals", or light colours.

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Oratorio

An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, choir, and soloists.

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Order of Friars Minor

The Order of Friars Minor (also called the Franciscans, the Franciscan Order, or the Seraphic Order; postnominal abbreviation O.F.M.) is a mendicant Catholic religious order, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi.

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Order of Pope Pius IX

The Order of Pope Pius IX (Ordine di Pio IX), also referred as the Pian Order (Ordine Piano), is a papal order of knighthood founded on 17 June 1847 by Pope Pius IX.

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Order of St. Gregory the Great

The Pontifical Equestrian Order of St.

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Order of St. Sylvester

The Pontifical Equestrian Order of Saint Sylvester Pope and Martyr (Ordo Sancti Silvestri Papae, Ordine di San Silvestro Papa), sometimes referred to as the Sylvestrine Order, or the Pontifical Order of Pope Saint Sylvester, is one of five Orders of Knighthood awarded directly by the Pope as Supreme Pontiff and head of the Catholic Church and as the Head of State of Vatican City.

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Order of the Condor of the Andes

The Order of the Condor of the Andes (La Orden del Cóndor de los Andes) is a state decoration of the Plurinational State of Bolivia instituted on 12 April 1925.

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Order of the Golden Spur

The Order of the Golden Spur (Ordine dello Speron d'Oro, Ordre de l'Éperon d'or), officially known also as the Order of the Golden Militia (Ordo Militia Aurata, Milizia Aurata), is a Papal Order of Knighthood conferred upon those who have rendered distinguished service in propagating the Catholic faith, or who have contributed to the glory of the Church, either by feat of arms, by writings, or by other illustrious acts.

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Order of the Smile

The Order of the Smile (Polish: Order Uśmiechu) is an international award given by children to adults distinguished in their love, care and aid for children.

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Ordinariate for Eastern Catholic faithful

An ordinariate for the faithful of Eastern rite is a geographical ecclesiastical structure for Eastern Catholic communities in areas where no eparchy of their own particular Church has been established.

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Ordinary (officer)

An ordinary (from Latin ordinarius) is an officer of a church or civic authority who by reason of office has ordinary power to execute laws.

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Ordinatio Sacerdotalis

Ordinatio Sacerdotalis (italic) is an ecclesiastical letter issued by Pope John Paul II on 22 May 1994 in which he discussed the Catholic Church's position requiring "the reservation of priestly ordination to men alone" and wrote that "the Church has no authority whatsoever to confer priestly ordination on women".

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Ordination of women

The ordination of women to ministerial or priestly office is an increasingly common practice among some major religious groups of the present time, as it was of several pagan religions of antiquity and, some scholars argue, in early Christian practice.

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Ordination of women and the Catholic Church

The dogma of the Catholic Church on ordination, as expressed in the current Code of Canon Law and the Catechism of the Catholic Church, is that "Only a baptized man (Latin: vir) validly receives sacred ordination." The Catholic Church teaches that this requirement is a matter of divine law and thus doctrinal.

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Oriental Orthodoxy

Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.

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Oswald Gracias

Oswald Gracias (born 24 December 1944) is an Indian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Our Lady of Luján

Our Lady of Luján (Nuestra Señora de Luján) is a celebrated 16th-century icon of the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus Christ.

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Overdevelopment

In international economics, overdevelopment refers to a way of seeing global inequality that focuses on the negative consequences of excessive consumption.

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Pallottines

The Society of the Catholic Apostolate (Societas Apostolatus Catholici, abbreviated SAC), better known as the Pallottines, are a Society of Apostolic Life within the Roman Catholic Church, founded in 1835 by the Roman priest Saint Vincent Pallotti.

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Palm Sunday church bombings

On Palm Sunday, 9 April 2017, twin suicide bombings took place at St.

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Palo, Leyte

, officially the, is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.

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Papabile

Papabile (pl. papabili) is an unofficial Italian term first coined by Vaticanologists and now used internationally in many languages to describe a Roman Catholic man, in practice always a cardinal, who is thought a likely or possible candidate to be elected pope.

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Papal Apartments

The Papal Apartments is the non-official designation for the collection of apartments, which are private, state, and religious, that wrap around a courtyard (the Courtyard of Sixtus V, Cortile di Sisto V) on two sides of the third (top) floor of the Apostolic Palace in Vatican City.

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Papal bull

A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Papal conclave

A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals convened to elect a Bishop of Rome, also known as the Pope.

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Papal conclave, 2005

The papal conclave of 2005 was convened to elect a new pope following the death of Pope John Paul II on 2 April 2005.

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Papal conclave, 2013

The papal conclave of 2013 was convened to elect a pope to succeed Pope Benedict XVI following his resignation on 28 February 2013.

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Papal consistory

In the Roman Catholic Church a consistory is a formal meeting of the College of Cardinals called by the pope.

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Papal inauguration

Papal inauguration is a liturgical service of the Catholic Church within Mass celebrated in the Roman Rite but with elements of Byzantine Rite for the ecclesiastical investiture of a pope.

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Papal name

A papal name is the regnal name taken by a pope.

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Papal primacy

Papal primacy, also known as the primacy of the Bishop of Rome, is an ecclesiastical doctrine concerning the respect and authority that is due to the pope from other bishops and their episcopal sees.

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Papal regalia and insignia

Papal regalia and insignia are the official items of attire and decoration proper to the Pope in his capacity as the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State.

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Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement (Accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance starting in the year 2020.

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Pastoral Provision

The "Pastoral Provision", in the context of the Catholic Church in the United States, referred to a set of practices and norms by which bishops are authorized to provide spiritual care for Roman Catholics coming from the Anglican tradition, by establishing parishes for them and ordaining priests from among them.

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Patriarch Kirill of Moscow

Kirill or Cyril (Кирилл, Ст҃ѣ́йшїй патрїа́рхъ кѷрі́ллъ, secular name Vladimir Mikhailovich Gundyayev, Владимир Михайлович Гундяев; born 20 November 1946) is a Russian Orthodox bishop.

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Patriarch Theodore II of Alexandria

Theodore (Theodoros) II (Πάπας και Πατριάρχης Αλεξανδρείας και πάσης Αφρικής Θεόδωρος Β΄, born Nikolaos Horeftakis (Νικόλαος Χορευτάκης) on November 25, 1954) is the current Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria and all Africa.

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Patrick D'Rozario

Cardinal Patrick D'Rozario (translit; born 1 October 1943, in Padrishibpur, Barisal, British India (now part of Bangladesh)) is the Catholic Archbishop of the Dhaka, the highest-ranked official of the Roman Catholic Church in Bangladesh.

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Patrick Dehm

Patrick Dehm (born 1962) is a German Catholic theologian, supervisor and clinical Gestalt therapist.

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Paul VI Audience Hall

The Paul VI Audience Hall (Aula Paolo VI) also known as the Hall of the Pontifical Audiences is a building in Rome named for Pope with a seating capacity of 6,300, designed in reinforced concrete by the Italian architect Pier Luigi Nervi and completed in 1971.

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Página/12

Página/12 is a newspaper published in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Pectoral cross

A pectoral cross or pectorale (from the Latin pectoralis, "of the chest") is a cross that is worn on the chest, usually suspended from the neck by a cord or chain.

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Pelagianism

Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without special divine aid.

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People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA; stylized PeTA) is an American animal rights organization based in Norfolk, Virginia, and led by Ingrid Newkirk, its international president.

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Permanent Assembly for Human Rights

The Permanent Assembly for Human Rights (in Spanish, La Asamblea Permanente por los Derechos Humanos (APDH)) is an Argentine non-governmental human rights organization; founded in 1975.

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Persecution of Christians by ISIL

The persecution of Christians by ISIL refers to the persecution of Christian minorities, within its region of control in Iraq, Syria and Libya by the Islamic extremist group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).

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Personal ordinariate

A personal ordinariate, sometimes called a "personal ordinariate for former Anglicans" or more informally an "Anglican ordinariate", is a canonical structure within the Catholic Church established in accordance with the apostolic constitution Anglicanorum coetibus of 4 November 2009 and its complementary norms.

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Peter Bryan Wells

Peter Bryan Wells (born 12 May 1963) is an American Catholic archbishop and diplomat.

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Peter Faber

Saint Peter Faber (Pierre Lefevre or Favre, Pedro Fabro, Petrus Faver) (13 April 1506 – 1 August 1546) was the first Jesuit priest and theologian, who was also a co-founder of the Society of Jesus.

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Peter Hans Kolvenbach

Peter Hans Kolvenbach (30 November 1928 – 26 November 2016), was the twenty-ninth Superior General of the Society of Jesus, the largest male Catholic religious order.

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Peter Reulein

Peter Reulein (born 1966) is a German composer, organ improviser, academic teacher and church musician, from 2000 at the church Liebfrauen in Frankfurt am Main.

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Philippe Ouédraogo (cardinal)

Philippe Nakellentuba Ouédraogo (born 25 January 1945) is a cardinal of the Catholic Church from Burkina Faso.

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Piedmont

Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.

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Piedmontese language

Piedmontese (Piemontèis or Lenga Piemontèisa, in Italian: Piemontese) is a Romance language spoken by some 700,000 people in Piedmont, northwestern region of Italy.

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Pietro Parolin

Pietro Parolin (born 17 January 1955) is an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church.

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Police brutality

Police brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which involves undue violence by police members.

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Pontifex maximus

The Pontifex Maximus or pontifex maximus (Latin, "greatest priest") was the chief high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome.

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Pontiff

A pontiff (from Latin pontifex) was, in Roman antiquity, a member of the most illustrious of the colleges of priests of the Roman religion, the College of Pontiffs.

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Pontifical Academy of Sciences

The Pontifical Academy of Sciences (Pontificia accademia delle scienze, Pontificia Academia Scientiarum) is a scientific academy of the Vatican City, established in 1936 by Pope Pius XI, and thriving with the blessing of the Papacy ever since.

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Pontifical Biblical Commission

The Pontifical Biblical Commission is a body established within the Roman Curia to ensure the proper interpretation and defense of Sacred Scripture.

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Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina

The Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, whose full name in Spanish is Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina "Santa María de los Buenos Aires", also known as Universidad Católica Argentina (UCA), is a university in Argentina with campuses in the cities of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Rosario, Paraná, Mendoza and Pergamino.

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Pontifical Commission for Latin America

The Pontifical Commission for Latin America is a department of the Roman Curia.

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Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors

The Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors (Pontificia Commissione per la Tutela dei Minori) is an institution within the Roman Curia of the Catholic Church instituted by Pope Francis on 22 March 2014.

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Pontifical Council for the Family

The Pontifical Council for the Family was part of the Curia of the Roman Catholic Church from 1981 to 2016.

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Pope

The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Pope Adrian VI

Pope Adrian VI (Hadrianus VI), born Adriaan Florensz Boeyens (2 March 1459 – 14 September 1523), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 January 1522 until his death on 14 September 1523.

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Pope Benedict XVI

Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.

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Pope Clement XIV

Pope Clement XIV (Clemens XIV; 31 October 1705 – 22 September 1774), born Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 May 1769 to his death in 1774.

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Pope Francis

Pope Francis (Franciscus; Francesco; Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio; 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State.

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Pope Francis's 2015 visit to North America

Pope Francis's visit to Cuba, the United States, and the United Nations took place from 19 to 27 September 2015.

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Pope Francis's visit to the Philippines

Pope Francis' visit to the Philippines (Pagparito ng Santo Papang Francisco sa Pilipinas) was an Apostolic and state visit taken by Pope Francis from January 15 to 19, 2015, in the Philippines.

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Pope Francis: A Man of His Word

Pope Francis: A Man of His Word is a 2018 documentary film produced, co-written and directed by Wim Wenders, focusing on the life and goals of Pope Francis, the 266th and current Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State.

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Pope Francis: Conversations with Jorge Bergoglio: His Life in His Own Words

Pope Francis: Conversations with Jorge Bergoglio: His Life in His Own Words is a biography of Jorge Bergoglio, who became Pope Francis in 2013.

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Pope Gregory III

Pope Gregory III (Gregorius III; died 28 November 741) was Pope from 11 February 731 to his death in 741.

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Pope John Paul I

Pope John Paul I (Ioannes Paulus I; Giovanni Paolo I; born Albino Luciani;; 17 October 191228 September 1978) served as Pope of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City from 26 August 1978 to his sudden death 33 days later.

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Pope John Paul II

Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.

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Pope John XXIII

Pope John XXIII (Ioannes; Giovanni; born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli,; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 28 October 1958 to his death in 1963 and was canonized on 27 April 2014.

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Pope Lando

Lando (also known as Landus) was Pope from September 913 to his death March 914.

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Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

The Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is the leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, a faith with ancient Christian roots in Egypt.

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Pope Paul VI

Pope Paul VI (Paulus VI; Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini; 26 September 1897 – 6 August 1978) reigned from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978.

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Pope Pius X

Pope Saint Pius X (Pio), born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, (2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914) was head of the Catholic Church from August 1903 to his death in 1914.

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Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria

Pope Shenouda III (Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ϣⲉⲛⲟⲩϯ ⲅ̅; بابا الإسكندرية شنودة الثالث; 3 August 1921 – 17 March 2012) was the 117th Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.

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Pope Tawadros II of Alexandria

This article uses dates and years written in the Coptic calendar, using the A.M. (Anno Martyrum) calendar era, in addition to the Gregorian calendar, using the A.D. calendar era. Pope Tawadros II (Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ⲑⲉⲟ́ⲇⲱⲣⲟⲥ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩ ⲃ̅ Papa Abba Theódōrōs II; البابا تواضروس الثاني al-Bābā Tawāḍurūs al-ṯhānī, English: Pope Theodore II) (born 4 November 1952; 25 Paopi 1668) is the 118th and current Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark, succeeding the late Pope Shenouda III as leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.

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Portacomaro

Portacomaro is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Asti in the Italian region Piedmont, located about southeast of Turin and about northeast of Asti.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Post-Resurrection appearances of Jesus

The post-resurrection appearances of Jesus are the earthly appearances of Jesus to his followers after his death, burial and resurrection.

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Poverty

Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.

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Prelate

A prelate is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries.

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President of Israel

The President of the State of Israel (נְשִׂיא מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Nesi Medinat Yisra'el, or נְשִׂיא הַמְדִינָה, Nesi HaMedina, literally President of the State) is the head of state of Israel.

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President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State

The President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State is the leader of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, the legislative body of Vatican City.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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Presiding Bishop (LDS Church)

The Presiding Bishop of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) is a priesthood calling with church-wide authority.

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Priesthood in the Catholic Church

The ministerial orders of the Catholic Church (for similar but different rules among Eastern Catholics see Eastern Catholic Church) are those of bishop, presbyter (more commonly called priest in English), and deacon.

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Primate (bishop)

Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some archbishops in certain Christian churches.

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Primus inter pares

Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.

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Progressivism

Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of improvement of society by reform.

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Promontory Financial Group

Promontory Financial Group, a wholly owned subsidiary of IBM, is a global consulting firm that advises clients on a variety of financial services matters, including regulatory issues, compliance, risk management, liquidity, restructuring, acquisitions, due diligence, internal investigations and cyber security.

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Proselytism

Proselytism is the act of attempting to convert people to another religion or opinion.

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Province of Asti

The Province of Asti (Provincia di Asti) is a province in the Piedmont region of northern Italy.

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Provincial superior

A provincial superior is a major superior of a religious institute acting under the institute's Superior General and exercising a general supervision over all the members of that institute in a territorial division of the order called a province—similar to but not to be confused with an ecclesiastical province made up of particular churches or dioceses under the supervision of a Metropolitan Bishop.

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Psychology

Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Quorum of the Twelve Apostles (LDS Church)

In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Quorum of the Twelve, the Council of the Twelve Apostles, or simply the Twelve) is one of the governing bodies in the church hierarchy.

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Raúl Castro

Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (born 3 June 1931) is a Cuban politician and leader who is currently serving as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, the most senior position in the Communist state, succeeding his brother Fidel Castro in April 2011.

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Raúl Martín (bishop)

Raúl Martín (October 9, 1957) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Rachel's Vineyard

Rachel's Vineyard is an American organization offering weekend retreats for women who have had abortions and others who believe that they have been hurt by abortion.

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Rai 5

Rai 5 is an Italian television channel owned by Rai and broadcast on Digital terrestrial television in Italy.

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Ramón José Castellano

Ramón José Castellano (15 February 1903 – 27 January 1979) was the Argentine Archbishop of Córdoba, known to have ordained to the Catholic priesthood Jorge Mario Bergoglio, S.J., who later became Pope Francis.

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Ramón Puerta

Federico Ramón Puerta (born September 9, 1951) is an Argentine Peronist politician who has served as a governor, senator and national deputy and effectively acted as President of Argentina during 2001.

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Ramos Mejía

Ramos Mejía is a city in La Matanza Partido, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

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Raymond Leo Burke

Raymond Leo Burke (born June 30, 1948) is an American cardinal prelate of the Roman Catholic Church and a leader of its conservative wing.

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Rector (academia)

A rector ("ruler", from meaning "ruler") is a senior official in an educational institution, and can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school.

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Red Brigades

The Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse, often abbreviated BR) was a left-wing terrorist organization, based in Italy, responsible for numerous violent incidents, including assassinations, kidnapping and robberies during the so-called "Years of Lead".

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Reformation

The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Regensburg lecture

The Regensburg lecture or Regensburg address was delivered on 12 September 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI at the University of Regensburg in Germany, where he had once served as a professor of theology.

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Regnal name

A regnal name, or reign name, is a name used by some monarchs and popes during their reigns, and used subsequently to refer to them.

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Regnal number

Regnal numbers are ordinal numbers used to distinguish among persons with the same name who held the same office.

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Reinhard Marx

Reinhard Marx (born 21 September 1953) is a German cardinal of the Catholic Church and chairman of the German Bishops' Conference.

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Renewable energy

Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

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Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust

Polish Jews were the primary victims of the German-organized Holocaust. Throughout the German occupation of Poland, some Poles risked their lives – and the lives of their families – to rescue Jews from the Germans. Poles were, by nationality, the most numerous persons who rescued Jews during the Holocaust. To date, ethnic Poles have been recognized by the State of Israel as Righteous among the Nations – more, by far, than the citizens of any other country. The Home Army (the Polish Resistance) alerted the world to the Holocaust through the reports of Polish Army officer Witold Pilecki, conveyed by Polish Government-in-Exile courier Jan Karski. The Polish Government-in-Exile and the Polish Secret State pleaded, to no avail, for American and British help to stop the Holocaust. Some estimates put the number of Polish rescuers of Jews as high as 3 million, and credit Poles with saving up to some 450,000 Jews, temporarily, from certain death. The rescue efforts were aided by one of the largest resistance movements in Europe, the Polish Underground State and its military arm, the Home Army. Supported by the Government Delegation for Poland, these organizations operated special units dedicated to helping Jews; of those units, the most notable was the Żegota Council, based in Warsaw, with branches in Kraków, Wilno, and Lwów. Polish rescuers of Jews were hampered by the most stringent conditions in all of German-occupied Europe. Occupied Poland was the only country where the Germans decreed that any kind of help to Jews was punishable by death for the rescuer and the rescuer's entire family. Of the estimated 3 million non-Jewish Poles killed in World War II, thousands – perhaps as many as 50,000 – were executed by the Germans solely for saving Jews.

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Resignation of Pope Benedict XVI

The resignation of Pope Benedict XVI occurred on 28 February 2013 at 20:00 (8:00 PM) CET (19:00 UTC).

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Resurrection of Jesus

The resurrection of Jesus or resurrection of Christ is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead: as the Nicene Creed expresses it, "On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures".

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Reynato Puno

Reynato Puno y Serrano (Filipino: Reynato Serrano Puno; born May 17, 1940) was the 22nd Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines.

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Ricardo Lorenzetti

Ricardo Luis Lorenzetti (born in Rafaela, Santa Fe Province, September 19th, 1955) is an Argentine judge graduated from the National University of the Littoral, Argentina, with a long national and international career.

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Riccardo Di Segni

Riccardo Di Segni (born November 13, 1949) is the chief rabbi of Rome.

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Ring of the Fisherman

The Ring of the Fisherman (Latin: Annulus Piscatoris; Italian: Anello Piscatorio), also known as the Piscatory Ring, is an official part of the regalia worn by the Pope, who is head of the Catholic Church and successor of Saint Peter, who was a fisherman by trade.

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Rodrigo de la Serna

Rodrigo de la Serna (born April 18, 1976) is an Argentine actor.

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Rolling Stone

Rolling Stone is an American monthly magazine that focuses on popular culture.

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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Buenos Aires

The Archdiocese of Buenos Aires (Archidioecesis Bonaerensis) is one of thirteen Latin Metropolitan archdioceses of the Catholic Church in Argentina, South America.

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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Córdoba

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Córdoba (erected 10 May 1570, as the Diocese of Córdoba) is in Argentina and is a metropolitan diocese and its suffragan sees include Cruz del Eje, San Francisco, Villa de la Concepción del Río Cuarto and Villa María as well as the Territorial Prelature of Deán Funes.

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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mercedes-Luján

The Archdiocese of Mercedes-Luján (Arquidiócesis Mercedes-Luján; Archidioecesis Mercedensis-Luianensis) is a Roman Catholic archdiocese serving north-central Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney (Archidioecesis Sydneyensis) is a Latin Church metropolitan archdiocese, located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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Roman Catholic Diocese of Oca

Oca (Latin Auca) is a former bishopric in the province of Burgos, Castile and León region (northern Spain), the predecessor of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Burgos, and presently a Latin titular see of the Catholic Church.

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Roman Curia

The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central body through which the Roman Pontiff conducts the affairs of the universal Catholic Church.

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Romano Guardini

Romano Guardini (17 February 1885 – 1 October 1968) was an Italian-born German Catholic priest, author, and academic.

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Rosh Hashanah

Rosh Hashanah (רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה), literally meaning the "beginning (also head) the year" is the Jewish New Year.

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RT (TV network)

RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".

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Rush Limbaugh

Rush Hudson Limbaugh III (born January 12, 1951) is an American radio talk show host and conservative political commentator.

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Russian Orthodox Church

The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.

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Sacrament of Penance

The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (commonly called Penance, Reconciliation, or Confession) is one of the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church (called sacred mysteries in the Eastern Catholic Churches), in which the faithful obtain absolution for the sins committed against God and neighbour and are reconciled with the community of the Church.

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Sacramental bread

Sacramental bread (Latin: hostia, Italian: ostia), sometimes called altar bread, Communion bread, the Lamb or simply the host, is the bread or wafer used in the Christian ritual of the Eucharist.

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Saint

A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.

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Saint Joseph

Joseph (translit) is a figure in the Gospels who was married to Mary, Jesus' mother, and, in the Christian tradition, was Jesus's legal father.

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Saint Joseph's Day

Saint Joseph's Day, 19 March, the Feast of Saint Joseph is in Western Christianity the principal feast day of Saint Joseph, husband of the Blessed Virgin Mary and legal father of Jesus Christ.

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Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral (Alexandria)

Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral is a Coptic church in Alexandria, Egypt.

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Saint Peter

Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.

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Salesians of Don Bosco

The Salesians of Don Bosco (SDB; also known as the Salesian Society; officially named the Society of St. Francis de Sales) is a Roman Catholic Latin Rite religious institute founded in the late nineteenth century by Italian priest Saint John Bosco to help poor children during the Industrial Revolution.

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Same-sex marriage

Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.

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Same-sex marriage in Argentina

Same-sex marriage in Argentina has been legal since July 22, 2010.

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San Lorenzo de Almagro

Club Atlético San Lorenzo de Almagro, commonly known as San Lorenzo de Almagro or simply San Lorenzo (in English: Saint Lawrence), is an Argentine sports club based in the Boedo district of Buenos Aires.

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San Miguel, Buenos Aires

San Miguel is a city in the northwest region of Greater Buenos Aires, 30 km from the City of Buenos Aires.

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San Patricio Church massacre

The San Patricio Church massacre was the murder of three priests and two seminarians of the Pallottine order on July 4, 1976, during the Dirty War, at St.

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San Roberto Bellarmino (church)

San Roberto Bellarmino Church facade San Roberto Bellarmino (Saint Robert Bellarmine), is a church in Rome founded by Pope Pius XI in 1933, after the canonisation of the Jesuit Cardinal Bellarmine (1542-1621) in 1930, and his being named a Doctor of the Church in 1931.

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Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology

Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology (German: Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Sankt Georgen) is a higher education Jesuit college in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

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Santa Fe, Argentina

Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz (usually called just Santa Fe) is the capital city of the province of Santa Fe, Argentina.

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Santiago

Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.

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Sarajevo

Sarajevo (see names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.

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Saudi Gazette

Saudi Gazette is the leading English-language daily newspaper published in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

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Scania

Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden.

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Schism

A schism (pronounced, or, less commonly) is a division between people, usually belonging to an organization, movement, or religious denomination.

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Sciatica

Sciatica is a medical condition characterized by pain going down the leg from the lower back.

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Seán Patrick O'Malley

Seán Patrick O'Malley, (born June 29, 1944) is an American cardinal of the Catholic Church serving as the Archbishop of Boston.

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Second Vatican Council

The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.

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Secretariat for the Economy

The Secretariat for the Economy (Segreteria per l'economia) is a dicastery of the Roman Curia with authority over all economic activities of the Holy See and the Vatican City State.

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Self-censorship

Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own discourse.

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Seminario Rabinico Latinoamericano

Seminario Rabínico Latinoamericano (Latin American Rabbinical Seminary, also known as the Marshall T. Meyer Latin American Rabbinical Seminary) is a Jewish religious, cultural, and academic center in Buenos Aires, Argentina, whose primary purpose is to educate and ordain rabbis from Latin America who will help to strengthen and sustain Jewish communities throughout the region.

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Seminary

Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, Early-Morning Seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy, academia, or ministry.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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Sergio Rubin

Sergio Rubin is an Argentine journalist and writer.

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Servant of God

"Servant of God" is a term used for individuals by various religions for people believed to be pious in the faith's tradition.

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Servant of the servants of God

Servant of the servants of God (servus servorum Dei) is one of the titles of the pope and is used at the beginning of papal bulls.

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Sex reassignment surgery

Sex reassignment surgery or SRS (also known as gender reassignment surgery, gender confirmation surgery, genital reconstruction surgery, gender-affirming surgery, or sex realignment surgery) is the surgical procedure (or procedures) by which a transgender person's physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are altered to resemble that socially associated with their identified gender.

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Sexual intercourse

Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.

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Shimon Peres

Shimon Peres (שמעון פרס,; born Szymon Perski; August 2, 1923 – September 28, 2016) was an Israeli politician who served as the ninth President of Israel (2007–2014), the Prime Minister of Israel (twice), and the Interim Prime Minister, in the 1970s to the 1990s.

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Simple living

Simple living encompasses a number of different voluntary practices to simplify one's lifestyle.

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Single parent

A single parent is a parent that parents alone without the other parent's support, meaning this particular parent is the only parent to the child, responsible for all financial, material, and emotional needs.

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Sistine Chapel

The Sistine Chapel (Sacellum Sixtinum; Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in Vatican City.

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Slate (magazine)

Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.

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Slovak same-sex marriage referendum, 2015

A referendum on banning same-sex marriage was held in Slovakia on 7 February 2015.

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Soane Patita Paini Mafi

Soane Patita Paini Mafi (IPA: soaːne patita paɪni mafi) (born 19 December 1961) is the fourth Roman Catholic Bishop of Tonga.

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Social justice

Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.

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Social liberalism

Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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Solemnity

A solemnity is a feast day of the highest rank in the liturgical calendar of the Roman Rite, celebrating a mystery of faith such as the Trinity, an event in the life of Jesus, his mother Mary, or another important saint.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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Southern Hemisphere

The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.

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Sovereign Military Order of Malta

The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Supremus Ordo Militaris Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodius et Melitensis), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) or the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order traditionally of military, chivalrous and noble nature.

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Spikenard

Spikenard, also called nard, nardin, and muskroot, is a class of aromatic amber-colored essential oil derived from Nardostachys jatamansi, a flowering plant of the valerian family which grows in the Himalayas of Nepal, China, and India.

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Spiritual direction

Spiritual direction is the practice of being with people as they attempt to deepen their relationship with the divine, or to learn and grow in their own personal spirituality.

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Spring Day

Spring Day is a holiday marking the coming of the spring season, which takes place in different countries, on varying dates.

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St. Peter's Basilica

The Papal Basilica of St.

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St. Peter's Square

St.

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Stanislaus Papczyński

Saint Stanislaus Papczyński, M.I.C. (18 May 1631 – 17 September 1701), born Jan Papczyński, was a Polish Roman Catholic priest who founded the Marians of the Immaculate Conception, the first Polish religious order for men.

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State of Palestine

Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.

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Stefan Czmil

Stefan Czmil (Степан Чміль, Stepan Chmil; 20 October 1914 – 22 January 1978) was a Ukrainian Eastern Catholic known for his missionary work in Argentina as well as for work in his native Ukraine and Italy.

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Style (manner of address)

A style of office or honorific is an official or legally recognized title.

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Subdivisions of Buenos Aires

The city of Buenos Aires is formally divided in 48 barrios (neighbourhoods), grouped into 15 comunas (communes), which are defined as "units of decentralized political and administrative management governed by designated residents".

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Summorum Pontificum

Summorum Pontificum (English: "Of the Supreme Pontiffs") is an apostolic letter of Pope Benedict XVI, issued in July 2007, which specified the circumstances in which priests of the Latin Church may celebrate Mass according to what he called the "Missal promulgated by Blessed John XXIII in 1962" (the latest edition of the Roman Missal, in the form known as the Tridentine Mass or Traditional Latin Mass), and administer most of the sacraments in the form used before the liturgical reforms that followed the Second Vatican Council.

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Suppression of the Society of Jesus

The suppression of the Jesuits in the Portuguese Empire (1759), France (1764), the Two Sicilies, Malta, Parma, the Spanish Empire (1767) and Austria and Hungary (1782) is a complex topic.

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Supreme Order of Christ

The Supreme Order of Christ (Ordine Supremo del Cristo) is the highest order of chivalry awarded by the Pope.

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Surrogacy

Surrogacy is a method or agreement whereby a woman agrees to carry a pregnancy for another person or persons, who will become the newborn child's parent(s) after birth.

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Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests

The Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests, known as SNAP, established in 1989, is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization support group of survivors of clergy sexual abuse and their supporters in the United States.

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Sviatoslav Shevchuk

Sviatoslav Shevchuk (Святосла́в Шевчу́к; born 5 May 1970 in Stryi, Ukrainian SSR) has been the Major Archbishop of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC) since 25 March 2011.

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Synod of Bishops in the Catholic Church

In the Roman Catholic Church, the Synod of Bishops is an advisory body for the Pope.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Syriac Orthodox Church

The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.

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Szczecin

Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.

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Tabloid journalism

Tabloid journalism is a style of journalism that emphasizes sensational crime stories, gossip columns about celebrities and sports stars, extreme political views from one perspective, junk food news, and astrology.

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Tango

Tango is a partner dance which originated in the 1880s along the River Plate (Río de Plata), the natural border between Argentina and Uruguay.

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Tanta

Tanta (طنطا) is a large city in Egypt.

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TED (conference)

TED Conferences, LLC (Technology, Entertainment, Design) is a media organization that posts talks online for free distribution, under the slogan "ideas worth spreading".

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Terrorism

Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

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Tertianship

Tertianship is the final formal period of formation in the Society of Jesus.

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Thérèse of Lisieux

Saint Thérèse of Lisieux (Sainte-Thérèse de Lisieux), born Marie Françoise-Thérèse Martin (2 January 1873 – 30 September 1897), also known as Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus and the Holy Face, O.C.D., was a French Catholic Discalced Carmelite nun who is widely venerated in modern times.

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The Advocate

The Advocate is an American LGBT-interest magazine, printed bi-monthly and available by subscription.

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The Age

The Age is a daily newspaper that has been published in Melbourne, Australia, since 1854.

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The Atlantic

The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.

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The Catholic Herald

The Catholic Herald is a London-based Roman Catholic magazine, published in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland.

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The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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The Japan Times

The Japan Times is Japan's largest and oldest English-language daily newspaper.

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The Jerusalem Post

The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The New Yorker

The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.

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The Salvation Army

The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian church and an international charitable organisation structured in a quasi-military fashion.

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The Venerable

The Venerable is used as a style or epithet in several Christian churches.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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TheGuardian.com

TheGuardian.com, formerly known as Guardian.co.uk and Guardian Unlimited, is a British news and media website owned by the Guardian Media Group.

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Theology of Huldrych Zwingli

The theology of Huldrych Zwingli was based on the Bible, taking scripture as the inspired word of God and placing its authority higher than what he saw as human sources such as the ecumenical councils and the church fathers.

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Thesis

A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.

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Thomas J. Reese

Thomas J. Reese (born 1945) is an American Roman Catholic Jesuit priest, author, and journalist.

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Thomas Rosica

Thomas Rosica, C.S.B., born March 3, 1959 in Rochester, New York, is a Canadian Roman Catholic priest and a Basilian Father.

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Thomas Weinandy

Reverend Thomas G. Weinandy, OFM Cap (born January 12, 1946 in Delphos, Ohio) is a Catholic priest and a leading scholar in the Roman Catholic Church.

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Throne

A throne is the seat of state of a potentate or dignitary, especially the seat occupied by a sovereign on state occasions; or the seat occupied by a pope or bishop on ceremonial occasions.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Tincture (heraldry)

Tinctures constitute the limited palette of colours and patterns used in heraldry.

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Tita Merello

Tita Merello (born Laura Ana Merello; 11 October 1904 in Buenos Aires, Argentina – 24 December 2002 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) was a prominent Argentine film actress, tango dancer and singer of the Golden Age of Argentine Cinema (1940–1960).

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Titular church

A titular church or titulus (English: title) is a church in Rome assigned or assignable to one of the cardinals, or more specifically to a Cardinal priest.

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Titular see

A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese".

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Tonga

Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited.

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Transgender

Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.

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Transitioning (transgender)

Transitioning is the process of changing one's gender presentation and/or sex characteristics to accord with one's internal sense of gender identity – the idea of what it means to be a man or a woman,Brown, M. L. & Rounsley, C. A. (1996) True Selves: Understanding Transsexualism – For Families, Friends, Coworkers, and Helping Professionals Jossey-Bass: San Francisco or genderqueer (in-between).

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Transubstantiation

Transubstantiation (Latin: transsubstantiatio; Greek: μετουσίωσις metousiosis) is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ.

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Tridentine Mass

The Tridentine Mass, the 1962 version of which has been officially declared the (authorized) extraordinary form of the Roman Rite of Mass (Extraordinary Form for short), is the Roman Rite Mass which appears in typical editions of the Roman Missal published from 1570 to 1962.

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Trotskyism

Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky.

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Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet

The Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet (الرباعي التونسي للحوار الوطني, Quartet du dialogue national) is a group of four organizations that were central in the attempts to build a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011.

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Twitter

Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".

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Tzedakah

Tzedakah or Ṣ'daqah in Classical Hebrew (צדקה), is a Hebrew word literally meaning "justice" or "righteousness," but commonly used to signify charity Notably, this concept of "charity" is different from the modern Western understanding of "charity," which is typically understood as a spontaneous act of goodwill and a marker of generosity, as tzedakah is rather an ethical obligation.

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Ubaldo Calabresi

Ubaldo Calabresi (2 January 1925 – 14 June 2004) was a Roman Catholic bishop.

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Uki Goñi

Uki Goñi (born 1953) is an Argentine author who is principally known for his work documenting the escape of Nazi war criminals from Europe.

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Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church

The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC) (Ecclesia Graeco-Catholica Ucrainae) is a Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See.

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Union of Utrecht (Old Catholic)

The Union of Utrecht of the Old Catholic Churches (UU) is a federation of Old Catholic churches, nationally organised from 1870 schisms which rejected Roman Catholic doctrines of the First Vatican Council; its member churches are not in communion with the Roman Catholic Church.

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United Methodist Church

The United Methodist Church (UMC) is a mainline Protestant denomination and a major part of Methodism.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United States Conference of Catholic Bishops

The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) is the episcopal conference of the Catholic Church in the United States.

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United States presidential election, 2016

The United States presidential election of 2016 was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.

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Universal call to holiness

The Universal Call to Holiness is a teaching of the Roman Catholic Church that all people are called to be holy, and is based on Matthew 5:48 – "Be you therefore perfect, as also your heavenly Father is perfect.". From the very first pages of the Bible, we see the call to holiness expressed in the Lord’s words to Abraham: “Walk before me, and be blameless” (Gen 17:1).

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Universalism

Universalism is a theological and philosophical concept that some ideas have universal application or applicability.

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Universidad del Salvador

The Universidad del Salvador (USAL) is a Jesuit university in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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University of Molise

The University of Molise (Università degli Studi del Molise), also known as UNIMOL, is an Italian public university located in Campobasso, Italy.

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University of New Haven

The University of New Haven (UNH) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational university located in West Haven, Connecticut, which borders the larger city of New Haven and Long Island Sound.

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Urbi et Orbi

Urbi et Orbi ("to the City of Rome and to the World") denotes a papal address and apostolic blessing given to the city of Rome and to the entire world by the Roman pontiff on certain solemn occasions.

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Ursulines

The term Ursulines refers to a number of religious institutes of the Catholic Church.

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Uruguay

Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.

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USA Today

USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.

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Vatican City

Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.

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Vatican Information Service

The Vatican Information Service is an official news service of the Holy See Press Office.

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Vatican Radio

Vatican Radio (Radio Vaticana; Statio Radiophonica Vaticana) is the official broadcasting service of the Vatican.

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Veritatis gaudium

Veritatis gaudium (Latin: The Joy of Truth) is an apostolic constitution on ecclesiastical universities and faculties.

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Vestment

Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religion, especially among the Eastern Orthodox, Catholics (Latin Church and others), Anglicans, and Lutherans.

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Vicar of Christ

Vicar of Christ (from Latin Vicarius Christi) is a term used in different ways and with different theological connotations throughout history.

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Vicente Bokalic Iglic

Vicente Bokalic Iglic C.M. (June 11, 1952) is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Villa Devoto

Villa Devoto is a neighborhood or district located in the northwestern area of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Villafranca Montes de Oca

Villafranca Montes de Oca is a municipality, former medieval bishopric and present Latin titular see located in the province of Burgos, Castile and León, northern Spain.

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Vincent Nichols

Vincent Gerard Nichols (born 8 November 1945) is an English cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, Archbishop of Westminster and President of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales.

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Wake Up! (Pope Francis album)

Wake Up! Music Album with His Words and Prayers is a progressive rock album by Pope Francis released on 27 November 2015 on Believe Digital.

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Walter Brandmüller

Walter Brandmüller (born 5 January 1929) is a German prelate of the Catholic Church, a cardinal since 2009.

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Walter Kasper

Walter Kasper (born 5 March 1933) is a German Roman Catholic Cardinal and theologian.

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Week of Prayer for Christian Unity

The Week of Prayer for Christian Unity is an international Christian ecumenical observance kept annually between 18 January and 25 January.

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Wim Wenders

Ernst Wilhelm "Wim" Wenders (born 14 August 1945) is a German filmmaker, playwright, author, photographer, and a major figure in New German Cinema.

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Wittenberg

Wittenberg, officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

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Women in the Catholic Church

In the history of the Catholic Church, laywomen and women in religious institutes have played a variety of roles and the church has affected societal attitudes to women throughout the world in significant ways.

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Women's Ordination Conference

The Women's Ordination Conference is the oldest and largest organization in the United States that works to ordain women as deacons, priests, and bishops in the Roman Catholic Church.

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World Day of the Poor

The World Day of the Poor is a Roman Catholic observance, celebrated on the 33rd Sunday of Ordinary Time since 2017.

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World Jewish Congress

The World Jewish Congress (WJC) was founded in Geneva, Switzerland, in August 1936 as an international federation of Jewish communities and organizations.

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World Methodist Council

The World Methodist Council (WMC), founded in 1881, is a consultative body and association of churches in the Methodist tradition.

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World Values Survey

The World Values Survey (WVS) is a global research project that explores people’s values and beliefs, how they change over time and what social and political impact they have.

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Yom Kippur War

The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.

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14th Dalai Lama

The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.

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1998–2002 Argentine great depression

The 1998–2002 Argentine Great Depression was an economic depression in Argentina, which began in the third quarter of 1998 and lasted until the second quarter of 2002.

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2008 Argentine government conflict with the agricultural sector

The 2008 Argentine Farm Crisis refers to the conflict between the Argentinean national government and the 4 entities that represented the agriculture sector.

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2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21 or CMP 11 was held in Paris, France, from 30 November to 12 December 2015.

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2016 Normandy church attack

On 26 July 2016, two Islamist terrorists attacked participants in a Mass at a Catholic church in Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray, Normandy, northern France.

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2018 Cannes Film Festival

The 71st annual Cannes Film Festival was held from 8 to 19 May 2018.

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Redirects here:

266th pope, Alberto Horacio Bergoglio, Archbishop Bergoglio, Archbishop Jorge Bergoglio, Archbishop Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Archbishop Mario Bergoglio, Bergoglio, Bishop Bergoglio, Bishop Jorge Bergoglio, Bishop Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Bishop Mario Bergoglio, Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Current Pope, Current pope, Francis (Pope), Francis (pope), Francis of Rome, Jorge Bergoglio, Jorge Cardinal Bergoglio, Jorge M Bergoglio, Jorge M. Bergoglio, Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Mario Bergoglio, Marta Regina Bergoglio, María Elena Bergoglio, Oscar Adrián Bergoglio, Papa Francisco, Papa Francisco I, Papa Franciscus, Pope Bergoglio, Pope Francais, Pope Frances, Pope Frances I, Pope Francis (biography), Pope Francis I, Pope Francis effect, Pope Francis the First, Pope Francisco, Pope Franciscus I, Pope Francus, Pope Frank, Pope Franses, Pope Fransis, Pope François, Pope François I, Pope Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Pope francais, Pope francis, Pope frank.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Francis

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