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Population bottleneck

Index Population bottleneck

A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide). [1]

79 relations: Alcedo Volcano, Allele, American bison, Americas, Australopithecine, Baby boom, Before Present, Cambridge University Press, Cat, Cheetah, Chimpanzee, Climate change, Coalescent theory, Conservation biology, Dog, Dog breeding, Effective population size, European bison, Extinction, Fitness (biology), Fixation (population genetics), Founder effect, Galápagos Islands, Galápagos tortoise, Gene pool, Genetic diversity, Genetic drift, Genetic load, Genocide, Genome, Giant panda, Golden hamster, Golden snub-nosed monkey, Gorilla, Gray wolf, Greater prairie chicken, Habitat destruction, Homo erectus, Homogeneity and heterogeneity, Human, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, Illinois, Inbreeding, Inbreeding depression, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Invasive species, Mauna Kea silversword, Minimum viable population, Mitochondrial DNA, Mutation, ..., Natural selection, North America, Northern elephant seal, Nuclear gene, Offspring, Orangutan, Papilio homerus, Persian cat, Pest control, Popular sire effect, Population, Population growth, Prairie, Pug, Rhesus macaque, River Out of Eden, Selective breeding, Settlement of the Americas, Sexual reproduction, Small population size, Speciation, Sub-Saharan Africa, Supervolcano, Syria, The Ancestor's Tale, Tiger, Toba catastrophe theory, Upper Paleolithic, Wollemia. Expand index (29 more) »

Alcedo Volcano

Alcedo Volcano is one of the six coalescing shield volcanoes that make up Isabela Island in the Galapagos.

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Allele

An allele is a variant form of a given gene.

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American bison

The American bison or simply bison (Bison bison), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds.

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Americas

The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Australopithecine

Australopithecines are generally all species in the related Australopithecus and Paranthropus genera, and it typically includes Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus.

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Baby boom

A baby boom is a period marked by a significant increase of birth rate.

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Before Present

Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cat

The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.

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Cheetah

List |F. jubata Erxleben, 1777 |F. jubatus Schreber, 1775 |Felis guttata Hermann, 1804 |F. venatica Griffith, 1821 |Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 |F. fearonii Smith, 1834 |F. megaballa Heuglin, 1868 |C. jubatus Blanford, 1888 |Cynælurus jubata Mivart, 1900 |C. guttatus Hollister, 1911 --> The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae that occurs in Southern, North and East Africa, and a few localities in Iran. The species is IUCN Red Listed as vulnerable, as it suffered a substantial decline in its historic range in the 20th century due to habitat loss, poaching, illegal pet trade, and conflict with humans. By 2016, the global cheetah population has been estimated at approximately 7,100 individuals in the wild. Several African countries have taken steps to improve cheetah conservation measures. It is the fastest land animal. The only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, the cheetah was formally described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted coat, small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and long spotted tail. Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats, making it more similar to the cougar. The cheetah reaches nearly at the shoulder, and weighs. Though taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Typically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, with hunting their major activity. Adult males are sociable despite their territoriality, forming groups called coalitions. Females are not territorial; they may be solitary or live with their offspring in home ranges. Carnivores, cheetah mainly prey upon antelopes and gazelles. They will stalk their prey to within, charge towards it and kill it by tripping it during the chase and biting its throat to suffocate it to death. Cheetahs can reach speeds of in short bursts, but this is disputed by more recent measurements. The average speed of cheetahs is about. Cheetahs are induced ovulators, breeding throughout the year. Gestation is nearly three months long, resulting in a litter of typically three to five cubs (the number can vary from one to eight). Weaning occurs at six months; siblings tend to stay together for some time. Cheetah cubs face higher mortality than most other mammals, especially in the Serengeti region. Cheetahs inhabit a variety of habitatsdry forests, scrub forests and savannahs. Because of its prowess at hunting, the cheetah was tamed and used to kill game at hunts in the past. The animal has been widely depicted in art, literature, advertising and animation.

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Chimpanzee

The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Coalescent theory

Coalescent theory is a model of how gene variants sampled from a population may have originated from a common ancestor.

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Conservation biology

Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.

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Dog

The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.

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Dog breeding

Dog breeding is the practice of mating selected dogs with the intent to maintain or produce specific qualities and characteristics.

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Effective population size

The effective population size is "the number of individuals in a population who contribute offspring to the next generation," or all the breeding adults in that population.

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European bison

The European bison (Bison bonasus), also known as wisent or the European wood bison, is a Eurasian species of bison.

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Extinction

In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Fitness (biology)

Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.

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Fixation (population genetics)

In population genetics, fixation is the change in a gene pool from a situation where there exists at least two variants of a particular gene (allele) in a given population to a situation where only one of the alleles remains.

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Founder effect

In population genetics, the founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.

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Galápagos Islands

The Galápagos Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, west of continental Ecuador.

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Galápagos tortoise

The Galápagos tortoise complex or Galápagos giant tortoise complex (Chelonoidis nigra and related species) are the largest living species of tortoise.

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Gene pool

The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.

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Genetic diversity

Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.

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Genetic drift

Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.

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Genetic load

Genetic load is the difference between the fitness of an average genotype in a population and the fitness of some reference genotype, which may be either the best present in a population, or may be the theoretically optimal genotype.

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Genocide

Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.

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Genome

In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Giant panda

The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, literally "black and white cat-foot";, literally "big bear cat"), also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear native to south central China.

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Golden hamster

The golden hamster or Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent in the subfamily Cricetinae, the hamsters.

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Golden snub-nosed monkey

The golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) is an Old World monkey in the Colobinae subfamily.

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Gorilla

Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Gray wolf

The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).

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Greater prairie chicken

The greater prairie chicken or pinnated grouse (Tympanuchus cupido), sometimes called a boomer,Friederici, Peter (July 20, 1989).

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Habitat destruction

Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.

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Homo erectus

Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.

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Homogeneity and heterogeneity

Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.

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Human

Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup

In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by mutations in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y-chromosome (called Y-DNA).

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Illinois

Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.

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Inbreeding

Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically.

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Inbreeding depression

Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Invasive species

An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.

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Mauna Kea silversword

Argyroxiphium sandwicense subsp.

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Minimum viable population

Minimum viable population (MVP) is a lower bound on the population of a species, such that it can survive in the wild.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Mutation

In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Northern elephant seal

The northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) is one of two species of elephant seal (the other is the southern elephant seal).

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Nuclear gene

A nuclear gene is a gene located in the cell nucleus of a eukaryote.

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Offspring

In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.

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Orangutan

The orangutans (also spelled orang-utan, orangutang, or orang-utang) are three extant species of great apes native to Indonesia and Malaysia.

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Papilio homerus

Papilio homerus, the Homerus swallowtail or Jamaican swallowtail, is the largest butterfly in the Western Hemisphere.

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Persian cat

The Persian cat (Persian: گربه ایرانی Gorbe Irâni) is a long-haired breed of cat characterized by its round face and short muzzle.

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Pest control

Pest control is the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, a member of the animal kingdom that impacts adversely on human activities.

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Popular sire effect

The popular sire effect (or popular stud/sire syndrome) occurs when an animal with desirable attributes is bred repeatedly.

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Population

In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.

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Population growth

In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.

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Prairie

Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and a composition of grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type.

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Pug

The Pug is a breed of dog with physically distinctive features of a wrinkly, short-muzzled face, and curled tail.

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Rhesus macaque

The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.

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River Out of Eden

River Out of Eden: A Darwinian View of Life is a 1995 popular science book by Richard Dawkins.

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Selective breeding

Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

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Settlement of the Americas

Paleolithic hunter-gatherers first entered North America from the North Asian Mammoth steppe via the Beringia land bridge which had formed between northeastern Siberia and western Alaska due to the lowering of sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum.

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Small population size

Small populations can behave differently from larger populations.

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Speciation

Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

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Supervolcano

A supervolcano is a large volcano that has had an eruption of magnitude 8, which is the largest value on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI).

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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The Ancestor's Tale

The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins' research assistant Yan Wong.

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Tiger

The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.

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Toba catastrophe theory

The Toba supereruption was a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 75,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia.

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Upper Paleolithic

The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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Wollemia

Wollemia is a genus of coniferous tree in the family Araucariaceae.

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Redirects here:

Bottle neck effect, Bottleneck effect, Bottlenecking event, Evolutionary bottleneck, Genetic bottleneck, Near-Extinction evolution theory, Population Bottleneck, Population bottlenecks.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_bottleneck

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