174 relations: Adaptation, Allele, Allele frequency, Allele frequency spectrum, Animal breeding, Antimicrobial resistance, Asexual reproduction, Autocorrelation, Bacillus subtilis, Background selection, Bacteria, Baldwin effect, Bdelloidea, Biostatistics, Blending inheritance, Blood type, Branching process, Callosobruchus chinensis, Chloroplast, Climate change, Clonal interference, Co-operation (evolution), Coalescent theory, Coefficient of relationship, Colonisation (biology), Computational phylogenetics, Copy-number variation, Diffusion equation, Domain (biology), Dominance (genetics), Drosophila melanogaster, E. B. Ford, Ecological genetics, Effective population size, Emergence, Endospore, Epistasis, Eukaryote, Evolution of ageing, Evolution of dominance, Evolution of sexual reproduction, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary capacitance, Evolutionary game theory, Evolutionary invasion analysis, Evolutionary rescue, F-statistics, Fitness (biology), Fitness landscape, Fixation (population genetics), ..., Fixation index, Gene duplication, Gene flow, Gene pool, Gene product, Genetic assimilation, Genetic diversity, Genetic drift, Genetic hitchhiking, Genetic linkage, Genetic load, Genetic recombination, Genetic variance, Genetic variation, Genetics, Genetics (journal), Genetics and the Origin of Species, Genome, Genotype–phenotype distinction, George R. Price, Great Wall of China, Habitat, Haldane's dilemma, Haplogroup, Hardy–Weinberg principle, Harvard University Press, Hill–Robertson effect, Horizontal gene transfer, Human genetic variation, Hybrid (biology), Inbreeding, Inbreeding depression, Industrial melanism, Introgression, Intron, J. B. S. Haldane, John H. Gillespie, John Maynard Smith, Johns Hopkins University Press, Laboratory experiments of speciation, Lamarckism, Linkage disequilibrium, List of population genetics projects, Locus (genetics), Macroevolution, McDonald–Kreitman test, Mendelian inheritance, Metabolism, Microevolution, Microorganism, Mitochondrion, Modern synthesis (20th century), Moran process, Morphology (biology), Motoo Kimura, Muller's ratchet, Mutation, Mutation rate, Mutation–selection balance, National Geographic Society, Natural selection, Nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution, Neutral theory of molecular evolution, Nucleotide diversity, Organism, Orthogenesis, Outcrossing, Overdominance, Panmixia, Peppered moth, Peppered moth evolution, Phenotype, Phenotypic plasticity, Phenotypic trait, Philopatry, Pigment, Pollen, Polymorphism (biology), Population, Population bottleneck, Population genomics, Population growth, Population stratification, Product (mathematics), Prokaryote, Propensity probability, Quantitative genetics, R/K selection theory, Reproduction, Reproductive isolation, Richard Lewontin, Robustness (evolution), Ronald Fisher, Russia, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sampling (statistics), Sampling error, Science (journal), Selection coefficient, Selective sweep, Sergei Chetverikov, Sewall Wright, Sexual selection, Shifting balance theory, Signalling theory, Sinauer Associates, Speciation, Statistical inference, Stephen C. Stearns, Synonymous substitution, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Theodosius Dobzhansky, Toward a New Philosophy of Biology, Transcription (biology), Translation (biology), Transposable element, Underdominance, Viral quasispecies, Virus, W. D. Hamilton, Wave, Will Provine, Yale University, Zygosity. Expand index (124 more) » « Shrink index
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Allele frequency, or gene frequency, is the relative frequency of an allele (variant of a gene) at a particular locus in a population, expressed as a fraction or percentage.
In population genetics, the allele frequency spectrum, sometimes called the site frequency spectrum, is the distribution of the allele frequencies of a given set of loci (often SNPs) in a population or sample.
Animal breeding is a branch of animal science that addresses the evaluation (using best linear unbiased prediction and other methods) of the genetic value (estimated breeding value, EBV) of livestock.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Autocorrelation, also known as serial correlation, is the correlation of a signal with a delayed copy of itself as a function of delay.
Bacillus subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans.
Background selection describes the loss of genetic diversity at a non-deleterious locus due to negative selection against linked deleterious alleles.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
In evolutionary biology, the Baldwin effect describes the effect of learned behavior on evolution.
Bdelloidea (Greek βδελλα, bdella, "leech-like") is a class of rotifers found in freshwater habitats all over the world.
Biostatistics is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology.
Blending inheritance is an obsolete theory in biology from the 19th century.
A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).
In probability theory, a branching process is a type of mathematical object known as a stochastic process, which consists of collections of random variables.
Callosobruchus chinensis is a common species of beetle found in the bean weevil subfamily, and is known to be a pest to many stored legumes.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Clonal interference is a phenomenon in the population genetics of organisms with significant linkage disequilibrium, especially asexually reproducing organisms.
In evolution, co-operation is the process where groups of organisms work or act together for common or mutual benefits.
Coalescent theory is a model of how gene variants sampled from a population may have originated from a common ancestor.
The coefficient of relationship is a measure of the degree of consanguinity (or biological relationship) between two individuals.
Colonisation or colonization is the process in biology by which a species spreads to new areas.
Computational phylogenetics is the application of computational algorithms, methods, and programs to phylogenetic analyses.
Copy number variation (CNV) is a phenomenon in which sections of the genome are repeated and the number of repeats in the genome varies between individuals in the human population.
The diffusion equation is a partial differential equation.
In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
Edmund Brisco "Henry" Ford (23 April 1901 – 2 January 1988) was a British ecological geneticist.
Ecological genetics is the study of genetics in natural populations.
The effective population size is "the number of individuals in a population who contribute offspring to the next generation," or all the breeding adults in that population.
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.
An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute phylum.
Epistasis is the phenomenon where the effect of one gene (locus) is dependent on the presence of one or more 'modifier genes', i.e. the genetic background.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Enquiry into the evolution of ageing aims to explain why survival, reproductive success, and functioning of almost all living organisms decline at old age.
The evolution of dominance concerns the evolution of genetic dominance.
The evolution of sexual reproduction describes how sexually reproducing animals, plants, fungi and protists evolved from a common ancestor that was a single celled eukaryotic species.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Evolutionary capacitance is the storage and release of variation, just as electric capacitors store and release charge.
Evolutionary game theory (EGT) is the application of game theory to evolving populations in biology.
Evolutionary invasion analysis, also known as adaptive dynamics, is a set of mathematical modeling techniques that use differential equations to study the long-term evolution of traits in asexually reproducing populations.
Evolutionary rescue is a theoretical situation in which a population recovers from environmental pressure through advantageous genetic change rather than increased gene flow, migration, dispersal or other demographic rescue techniques.
In population genetics, F-statistics (also known as fixation indices) describe the statistically expected level of heterozygosity in a population; more specifically the expected degree of (usually) a reduction in heterozygosity when compared to Hardy–Weinberg expectation.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
In evolutionary biology, fitness landscapes or adaptive landscapes (types of evolutionary landscapes) are used to visualize the relationship between genotypes and reproductive success.
In population genetics, fixation is the change in a gene pool from a situation where there exists at least two variants of a particular gene (allele) in a given population to a situation where only one of the alleles remains.
The fixation index (FST) is a measure of population differentiation due to genetic structure.
Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.
In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another.
The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.
A gene product is the biochemical material, either RNA or protein, resulting from expression of a gene.
Genetic assimilation is a process by which a phenotype originally produced in response to an environmental condition, such as exposure to a teratogen, later becomes genetically encoded via artificial selection or natural selection.
Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
Genetic hitchhiking, also called genetic draft or the hitchhiking effect, is when an allele changes frequency not because it itself is under natural selection, but because it is near another gene that is undergoing a selective sweep and that is on the same DNA chain.
Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.
Genetic load is the difference between the fitness of an average genotype in a population and the fitness of some reference genotype, which may be either the best present in a population, or may be the theoretically optimal genotype.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
Genetic variance is a concept outlined by the English biologist and statistician Ronald Fisher in his Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection which he outlined in his 1930 book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection which postulates that the rate of change of biological fitness can be calculated by the genetic variance of the fitness itself.
Genetic variation means that biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Genetics is a monthly scientific journal publishing investigations bearing on heredity, genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology.
Genetics and the Origin of Species is a 1937 book by the Ukrainian-American evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
The genotype–phenotype distinction is drawn in genetics.
George Robert Price (October 6, 1922 – January 6, 1975) was an American population geneticist.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Haldane's dilemma is a limit on the speed of beneficial evolution, first calculated by J. B. S. Haldane in 1957, and clarified further by later commentators.
A haplotype is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent, and a haplogroup (haploid from the ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, simple" and group) is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation.
The Hardy–Weinberg principle, also known as the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, model, theorem, or law, states that allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of other evolutionary influences.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
In population genetics, the Hill–Robertson effect, or Hill–Robertson interference, is a phenomenon first identified by Bill Hill and Alan Robertson in 1966.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Human genetic variation is the genetic differences in and among populations.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically.
Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals.
Industrial melanism is an evolutionary effect prominent in several arthropods, where dark pigmentation (melanism) has evolved in an environment affected by industrial pollution, including sulphur dioxide gas and dark soot deposits.
Introgression, also known as introgressive hybridization, in genetics is the movement of a gene (gene flow) from one species into the gene pool of another by the repeated backcrossing of an interspecific hybrid with one of its parent species.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (5 November 18921 December 1964) was an English scientist known for his work in the study of physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and in mathematics, where he made innovative contributions to the fields of statistics and biostatistics.
John H. Gillespie is an evolutionary biologist interested in theoretical population genetics and molecular evolution.
John Maynard Smith (6 January 1920 – 19 April 2004) was a British theoretical and mathematical evolutionary biologist and geneticist.
The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.
Laboratory experiments of speciation have been conducted for all four modes of speciation: allopatric, peripatric, parapatric, and sympatric; and various other processes involving speciation: hybridization, reinforcement, founder effects, among others.
Lamarckism (or Lamarckian inheritance) is the hypothesis that an organism can pass on characteristics that it has acquired through use or disuse during its lifetime to its offspring.
In population genetics, linkage disequilibrium is the non-random association of alleles at different loci in a given population.
This is a list of population genetics projects.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
Macroevolution is evolution on a scale at or above the level of species, in contrast with microevolution, which refers to smaller evolutionary changes of allele frequencies within a species or population.
The McDonald–Kreitman test is a statistical test often used by evolution and population biologists to detect and measure the amount of adaptive evolution within a species by determining whether adaptive evolution has occurred, and the proportion of substitutions that resulted from positive selection (also known as directional selection).
Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Microevolution is the change in allele frequencies that occurs over time within a population.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
The modern synthesis was the early 20th-century synthesis reconciling Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and Gregor Mendel's ideas on heredity in a joint mathematical framework.
A Moran process or Moran model is a simple stochastic process used in biology to describe finite populations.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
(November 13, 1924 – November 13, 1994) was a Japanese biologist best known for introducing the neutral theory of molecular evolution in 1968, in collaboration with Tomoko Ohta.
In evolutionary genetics, Muller's ratchet (named after Hermann Joseph Muller, by analogy with a ratchet effect) is a process by which the genomes of an asexual population accumulate deleterious mutations in an irreversible manner.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
In genetics, the mutation rate is the frequency of new mutations in a single gene or organism over time.
Mutation–selection balance is an equilibrium in the number of deleterious alleles in a population that occurs when the rate at which deleterious alleles are created by mutation equals the rate at which deleterious alleles are eliminated by selection.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
The nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution is a modification of the neutral theory of molecular evolution that accounts for the fact that not all mutations are either so deleterious such that they can be ignored, or else neutral.
The neutral theory of molecular evolution holds that at the molecular level most evolutionary changes and most of the variation within and between species is not caused by natural selection but by genetic drift of mutant alleles that are neutral.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nucleotide diversity is a concept in molecular genetics which is used to measure the degree of polymorphism within a population.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Orthogenesis, also known as orthogenetic evolution, progressive evolution, evolutionary progress, or progressionism, is the biological hypothesis that organisms have an innate tendency to evolve in a definite direction towards some goal (teleology) due to some internal mechanism or "driving force".
Out-crossing or out-breeding means that the crossing between different breeds.This is the practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line.
Overdominance is a condition in genetics where the phenotype of the heterozygote lies outside the phenotypical range of both homozygous parents.
Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.
The peppered moth (Biston betularia) is a temperate species of night-flying moth.
The evolution of the peppered moth is an evolutionary instance of directional colour change in the moth population as a consequence of air pollution during the Industrial Revolution.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
Phenotypic plasticity refers to some of the changes in an organism's behavior, morphology and physiology in response to a unique environment.
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
Philopatry is the tendency of an organism to stay in or habitually return to a particular area.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide).
Population genomics is the large-scale comparison of DNA sequences of populations.
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
Population stratification (or population structure) is the presence of a systematic difference in allele frequencies between subpopulations in a population, possibly due to different ancestry, especially in the context of association studies.
In mathematics, a product is the result of multiplying, or an expression that identifies factors to be multiplied.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
The propensity theory of probability is one interpretation of the concept of probability.
Quantitative genetics is a branch of population genetics that deals with phenotypes that vary continuously (in characters such as height or mass)—as opposed to discretely identifiable phenotypes and gene-products (such as eye-colour, or the presence of a particular biochemical).
In ecology, r/K selection theory relates to the selection of combinations of traits in an organism that trade off between quantity and quality of offspring.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
The mechanisms of reproductive isolation are a collection of evolutionary mechanisms, behaviors and physiological processes critical for speciation.
Richard Charles "Dick" Lewontin (born March 29, 1929) is an American evolutionary biologist, mathematician, geneticist, and social commentator.
Robustness of a biological system (also called biological or genetic robustness) is the persistence of a certain characteristic or trait in a system under perturbations or conditions of uncertainty.
Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962), who published as R. A. Fisher, was a British statistician and geneticist.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset (a statistical sample) of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population.
In statistics, sampling error is incurred when the statistical characteristics of a population are estimated from a subset, or sample, of that population.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
In population genetics, a selection coefficient, usually denoted by the letter s, is a measure of differences in fitness.
In genetics, a selective sweep is the reduction or elimination of variation among the nucleotides near a mutation in DNA.
Sergei Sergeevich Chetverikov (Сергей Сергеевич Четвериков, 6 May 1880 – 2 July 1959) was one of the early contributors to the development of the field of genetics.
Sewall Green Wright (December 21, 1889March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory and also for his work on path analysis.
Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).
The shifting balance theory is a theory of evolution proposed in 1932 by Sewall Wright, suggesting that adaptive evolution may proceed most quickly when a population divides into subpopulations with restricted gene flow.
Within evolutionary biology, signalling theory is a body of theoretical work examining communication between individuals, both within species and across species.
Sinauer Associates, Inc. is a publisher of college-level textbooks.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
Statistical inference is the process of using data analysis to deduce properties of an underlying probability distribution.
Stephen C. Stearns (born December 12, 1946, in Kapaau, Hawaii and raised in Hawi, Hawaii), an American biologist, is the Edward P. Bass Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Yale University.
A synonymous substitution (often called a silent substitution though they are not always silent) is the evolutionary substitution of one base for another in an exon of a gene coding for a protein, such that the produced amino acid sequence is not modified.
The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection is a book by Ronald Fisher which combines Mendelian genetics with Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection, with Fisher being the first to argue that "Mendelism therefore validates Darwinism" and stating with regard to mutations that "The vast majority of large mutations are deleterious; small mutations are both far more frequent and more likely to be useful", thus refuting orthogenesis.
Theodosius Grygorovych Dobzhansky (Теодо́сій Григо́рович Добжа́нський; Феодо́сий Григо́рьевич Добржа́нский; January 25, 1900 – December 18, 1975) was a prominent Ukrainian-American geneticist and evolutionary biologist, and a central figure in the field of evolutionary biology for his work in shaping the modern synthesis.
Toward a New Philosophy of Biology: Observations of an Evolutionist (published by Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1988) is a book by Harvard evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.
In genetics, underdominance (referred to in some texts as "negative overdominance") is the opposite of overdominance.
A viral quasispecies is a group of viruses related by a similar mutation or mutations, competing within a highly mutagenic environment.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
William Donald Hamilton, FRS (1 August 1936 – 7 March 2000) was an English evolutionary biologist, widely recognised as one of the most significant evolutionary theorists of the 20th century.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
William Ball "Will" Provine (February 19, 1942 – September 1, 2015) was an American historian of science and of evolutionary biology and population genetics.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Animal population study, DNA genealogy, Evolutionary genetics, Genetic migration, Genetic populations, Genetics, population, History of population genetics, Population Genetics, Population biologist, Population genetic, Population geneticist, Population geneticists.