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Index Porcelain

Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between. [1]

213 relations: Alabaster, Aluminia, Antenna (radio), Arabia (brand), Arita, Saga, Augustus II the Strong, Austria, Aynsley China, Ball clay, Belleek Pottery, Bertrand Philip, Count of Gronsveld, Bing & Grøndahl, Bisque porcelain, Blue and white pottery, Blue Ridge (dishware), Boerenbont, Bone ash, Bone china, Bow porcelain factory, Brazil, Brisbane, California, Building material, Capodimonte porcelain, Cast iron, Ceramic, Ceramic engineering, Ceramic glaze, Chantilly porcelain, Chelsea porcelain factory, China stone, Chinese export porcelain, Coalport porcelain, Colditz, Columbia Encyclopedia, CoorsTek, Cornwall, Cowry, Czech Republic, Dakin Building, Davenport Pottery, De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles, Denmark, Ding ware, Doccia porcelain, Dresden, Dubí, Dutch East India Company, Earthenware, Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, Elasticity (physics), ..., Faience, Feldspar, Figgjo (company), Figurine, Finland, Fiskars, Florence, François Xavier d'Entrecolles, France, Franciscan Ceramics, Franz-porcelains, Frit, Germany, Goss crested china, Gouda (pottery), Gustavsberg porcelain, Gzhel, Gzhel (rural locality), Han dynasty, Hardness, Haviland & Co., Herend Porcelain Manufactory, Herrebøe porcelain, High voltage, High-voltage cable, Historical fiction, Hollóháza Porcelain Manufactory, Horní Slavkov, Hungary, Imari ware, Imperial Porcelain Factory, Industrial porcelain enamel, Iran, Italy, Japan, Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98), Jingdezhen, Joannes de Mol, Johann Friedrich Böttger, Josiah Spode, JPMorgan Chase Building (Houston), Kakiemon, Kaolinite, Kastrup Værk, Kütahya Porselen, Kiln, Klášterec nad Ohří, Lenox (company), Limoges porcelain, Lithophane, Lithuania, Liverpool porcelain, Longquan celadon, Lotus Ware, Lowestoft Porcelain Factory, Malaysia, Manifattura Italiana Porcellane Artistiche Fabris, Manufacture nationale de Sèvres, Marco Polo, Marketing, Medici porcelain, Meissen, Meissen porcelain, Mennecy, Mennecy-Villeroy porcelain, Ming dynasty, Mintons, Mullite, Museo di Capodimonte, Muslim world, Nabeshima ware, Narumi, Netherlands, Nevers manufactory, Noritake, Norway, Nové Sedlo (Sokolov District), Oranienbaum, Russia, Oxford English Dictionary, Patent, Permeability (earth sciences), Petuntse, Plasticity (physics), Plymouth porcelain, Poland, Porcelain manufacturing companies in Europe, Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, Porcelænshaven, Porsgrund, Portmeirion Pottery, Portugal, Pottery, Property, Quartz, Rörstrand, Real Fábrica del Buen Retiro, Regina (pottery), Resonance, Revol Porcelaine, Rockingham Pottery, Romania, Rouen, Rouen manufactory, Royal Academy of Arts, Royal Copenhagen, Royal Crown Derby, Royal Doulton, Royal Palace of Aranjuez, Royal Palace of Madrid, Royal Selangor, Royal Society, Royal Tichelaar Makkum, Royal Worcester, Rudolf Kämpf, Russia, Sabauda Gallery, Saint-Cloud porcelain, Sea pottery, Sesto Fiorentino, Shang dynasty, Silicon dioxide, Silk Road, Soapstone, Society of Jesus, Soil mechanics, Song dynasty, South Korea, Spain, Spode, Sri Lanka, Stavangerflint, Stoneware, Strasbourg faience, Strength of materials, Sui dynasty, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tang dynasty, The Travels of Marco Polo, Thermal shock, Tile, Tin-glazed pottery, Toughness, Transformer, Transparency and translucency, Turin, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Upsala-Ekeby, Viennese Porcelain Manufactory, Vietnam, Vincennes porcelain, Vista Alegre (company), Vitreous enamel, Wedgwood, William Cookworthy, William Watson (sinologist), Yixing ware, Yongle Emperor, Zsolnay. Expand index (163 more) »


Alabaster is a mineral or rock that is soft, often used for carving, and is processed for plaster powder.

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Aluminia was a Danish factory of faience or earthenware pottery, established in Copenhagen in 1863.

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Antenna (radio)

In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.

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Arabia (brand)

Arabia is a Finnish ceramics company, founded in 1873 by Rörstrand, and currently owned by Fiskars.

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Arita, Saga

is a town located in Nishimatsuura District, Saga Prefecture, Japan.

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Augustus II the Strong

Augustus II the Strong (August II.; August II Mocny; Augustas II; 12 May 16701 February 1733) of the Albertine line of the House of Wettin was Elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I), Imperial Vicar and elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Aynsley China

Aynsley China Ltd. was a British manufacturer of bone china tableware, giftware and commemorative items.

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Ball clay

Ball clays are kaolinitic sedimentary clays that commonly consist of 20–80% kaolinite, 10–25% mica, 6–65% quartz.

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Belleek Pottery

Belleek Pottery Ltd is a porcelain company that began trading in 1884 as the Belleek Pottery Works Company Ltd in Belleek, County Fermanagh, in what was to become Northern Ireland.

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Bertrand Philip, Count of Gronsveld

Bertrand Philip Sigismund Albrecht, Count of Gronsveld-van Diepenbroick-Impel (19 November 1715, Empel – 15 November 1772, Amsterdam) was a former Dutch envoy in Berlin to Frederick the Great.

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Bing & Grøndahl

Bing & Grøndahl was a Danish porcelain manufacturer founded in 1853 by the sculptor Frederik Vilhelm Grøndahl and merchant brothers Meyer Hermann Bing and Jacob Herman Bing.

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Bisque porcelain

Bisque porcelain or bisque is a type of unglazed, white porcelain, with a matte appearance and texture to the touch.

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Blue and white pottery

"Blue and white pottery" covers a wide range of white pottery and porcelain decorated under the glaze with a blue pigment, generally cobalt oxide.

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Blue Ridge (dishware)

Blue Ridge is a type of American dishware manufactured by Southern Potteries Incorporated from the 1930s until 1957.

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Boerenbont is a traditional pattern used on pottery from the Netherlands.

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Bone ash

Bone ash is a white material produced by the calcination of bones.

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Bone china

Bone china is a type of soft-paste porcelain that is composed of bone ash, feldspathic material, and kaolin.

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Bow porcelain factory

The Bow porcelain factory (active c. 1747–64 and closed in 1776) was an emulative rival of the Chelsea porcelain factory in the manufacture of early soft-paste porcelain in Great Britain.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Brisbane, California

This article is about a California City in the Bay Area.

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Building material

Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes.

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Capodimonte porcelain

Capodimonte porcelain is porcelain created by the Capodimonte porcelain manufactory, which was established in Naples, Italy, in 1743.

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Cast iron

Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.

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A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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Ceramic engineering

Ceramic engineering is the science and technology of creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials.

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Ceramic glaze

Ceramic glaze is an impervious layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused to a ceramic body through firing.

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Chantilly porcelain

Chantilly porcelain is French soft-paste porcelain produced between 1730 and 1800 by the manufactory of Chantilly in Oise, France.

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Chelsea porcelain factory

The Chelsea porcelain manufactory (established around 1743-45) is the first important porcelain manufactory in England; its earliest soft-paste porcelain, aimed at the aristocratic market—cream jugs in the form of two seated goats—are dated 1745.

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China stone

China stone is a medium grained, feldspar-rich partially kaolinised granite characterized by the absence of iron-bearing minerals.

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Chinese export porcelain

Chinese export porcelain includes a wide range of Chinese porcelain that was made (almost) exclusively for export to Europe and later to North America between the 16th and the 20th century.

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Coalport porcelain

The Coalport porcelain manufactory (or Coalport China), the first porcelain factory in the Ironbridge Gorge, England, was founded by the practical and enterprising John Rose in 1795, at Coalport, served by the Coalport Canal, which had been completed in 1792.

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Colditz is a small town in the district of Leipzig, in Saxony, Germany.

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Columbia Encyclopedia

The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.

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CoorsTek, Inc. is a privately owned manufacturer of technical ceramics for semiconductor, medical, automotive, oil and gas, and many other industries.

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Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.

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Cowry or cowrie, plural cowries, is the common name for a group of small to large sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Cypraeidae, the cowries.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Dakin Building

The Dakin Building is an architectural award-winning class A office building on the San Francisco Bay in Brisbane, California.

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Davenport Pottery

Davenport Pottery was an English earthenware and porcelain manufacturer based in Longport, Staffordshire.

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De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles

The Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles (aka, Royal Delft) is the only remaining factory of the 32 earthenware factories that were established in Delft during the 17th century.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Ding ware

Ding ware, Ting ware or Dingyao were Chinese ceramics, mostly porcelain, produced in the prefecture of Dingzhou (formerly romanized as "Ting-chou") in Hebei in northern China.

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Doccia porcelain

The Doccia porcelain manufactory, at Doccia, a frazione of Sesto Fiorentino, near Florence, was founded in 1735 by marchese Carlo Ginori near his villa.

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Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.

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Dubí (Eichwald) is a town in the Ústí nad Labem Region, in the Czech Republic, near Teplice in the Ore Mountains, with 7,792 residents.

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Dutch East India Company

The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.

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Earthenware is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery that has normally been fired below 1200°C.

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Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus

Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (or Tschirnhausen,; 10 April 1651 – 11 October 1708) was a German mathematician, physicist, physician, and philosopher.

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Elasticity (physics)

In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.

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Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed pottery on a delicate pale buff earthenware body.

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Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.

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Figgjo (company)

Figgjo AS is a Norwegian porcelain manufacturing company based in Figgjo in the municipality of Sandnes, Norway.

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A figurine (a diminutive form of the word figure) or statuette is a small statue that represents a human, deity or animal, or in practice a pair or small group of them.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Fiskars Oyj Abp is a consumer goods company founded in 1649 in Fiskars Village (Finnish: Fiskarsin Ruukki), a locality now in the town of Raseborg, Finland, about 100 kilometres (62 mi) west of Helsinki.

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Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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François Xavier d'Entrecolles

François Xavier d'Entrecolles (1664 in Lyon – 1741 in Beijing; Chinese name: 殷弘绪, Yin Hongxu) was a French Jesuit priest, who learned the Chinese technique of manufacturing porcelain through his investigations in China at Jingdezhen with the help of Chinese Catholic converts between 1712 and 1722, during the rule of the Kangxi Emperor.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Franciscan Ceramics

Franciscan Ceramics are ceramic tabletop and tile products produced by Gladding, McBean & Co. in Los Angeles, California, from 1934–1962, International Pipe and Ceramics (Interpace) from 1962–1979, and Wedgwood from 1979-1983.

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Franz Collection is a Taiwanese porcelain brand named after the founder's German name "Franz".

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A frit is a ceramic composition that has been fused in a special fusing oven, quenched to form a glass, and granulated.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Goss crested china

Goss crested china is typically in the form of small white glazed porcelain models, made from 1858 to 1939, carrying the coat of arms of the place where they were sold as a souvenir, thus being a form of model heraldic china.

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Gouda (pottery)

Gouda is a style of Dutch pottery named after the city of Gouda, where it was historically manufactured.

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Gustavsberg porcelain

Gustavsberg is a Swedish porcelain company that originated in 1826.

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Gzhel is a Russian style of ceramics which takes its name from the village of Gzhel and surrounding area, where it has been produced since 1802.

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Gzhel (rural locality)

Gzhel (Гжель) is the name of several rural localities in Russia.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.

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Haviland & Co.

Haviland & Co. is a manufacturer of Limoges porcelain.

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Herend Porcelain Manufactory

The Herend Porcelain Manufactory (Hungarian: Herendi Porcelánmanufaktúra Zrt.) is a Hungarian manufacturing company, specializing in luxury hand painted and gilded porcelain.

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Herrebøe porcelain

Herrebøe porcelain (Herrebøefabrikken) was a porcelain manufacture located in Idd, (now Halden), Norway.

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High voltage

The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm on living organisms.

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High-voltage cable

A high-voltage cable (HV cable) is a cable used for electric power transmission at high voltage.

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Historical fiction

Historical fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past.

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Hollóháza Porcelain Manufactory

Hollóháza porcelain is produced by the Porcelain Manufactory of Hollóháza, Hungary.

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Horní Slavkov

Horní Slavkov (Schlaggenwald) is a town in Sokolov District, Karlovy Vary Region, Czech Republic.

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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Imari ware

is a type of traditionally made in the town of Arita, in the former Hizen Province, northwestern Kyūshū.

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Imperial Porcelain Factory

The Imperial Porcelain Factory (Imperatorskii Farforovyi Zavod), also known as the Imperial Porcelain Manufactory (abbreviated as IPM), is a producer of hand-painted ceramics in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Industrial porcelain enamel

Industrial porcelain enamel (also known as glass lining, glass-lined steel, or glass fused to steel) is the use of porcelain enamel (also known as vitreous enamel) for industrial, rather than artistic, applications.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98)

The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597.

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Jingdezhen (or the Town of Jingde) is a prefecture-level city, previously a town, in northeastern Jiangxi province, China, with a total population of 1,554,000 (2007), bordering Anhui to the north.

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Joannes de Mol

Joannes de Mol (September 15, 1726 – November 22, 1782) was a Dutch minister, Patriot and porcelain manufacturer in the second half of the 18th century.

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Johann Friedrich Böttger

Johann Friedrich Böttger (also Böttcher or Böttiger; February 4, 1682 – March 13, 1719) was a German alchemist.

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Josiah Spode

Josiah Spode (23 March 1733 – 18 August 1797) was an English potter and the founder of the English Spode pottery works which became famous for the quality of its wares.

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JPMorgan Chase Building (Houston)

The JPMorgan Chase Building, formerly the Gulf Building, is a 37-story Art Deco skyscraper in downtown Houston, Texas.

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is a style of Japanese porcelain, with overglaze decoration called "enameled" ceramics.

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Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.

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Kastrup Værk

Kastrup Værk (English: Kastrup Works) was a pottery and tile works in Kastrup, now a suburb of Copenhagen, on the Danish island of Amager.

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Kütahya Porselen

Kütahya Porselen is a Turkish porcelain and ceramics manufacturer in the city of Kütahya.

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A kiln (or, originally pronounced "kill", with the "n" silent) is a thermally insulated chamber, a type of oven, that produces temperatures sufficient to complete some process, such as hardening, drying, or chemical changes.

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Klášterec nad Ohří

Klášterec nad Ohří (Klösterle an der Eger) is a town in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic.

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Lenox (company)

Lenox is an American company that sells tabletop, giftware and collectible products under the Lenox, Dansk and Gorham brands.

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Limoges porcelain

Limoges porcelain designates hard-paste porcelain produced by factories near the city of Limoges, France beginning in the late 18th century, but does not refer to a particular manufacturer.

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A lithophane (French: lithophanie) is an etched or molded artwork in very thin translucent porcelain that can only be seen clearly when back lit with a light source.

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Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.

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Liverpool porcelain

Liverpool porcelain is mostly of the soft-paste porcelain type and was produced between 1756 and 1804 in various factories in Liverpool.

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Longquan celadon

Longquan celadon (龍泉青瓷) is a type of green-glazed Chinese ceramic, known in the West as celadon or greenware, produced from about 950 to 1550.

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Lotus Ware

Lotus Ware is a type of porcelain produced from approximately 1892 to 1896 at the Knowles, Taylor & Knowles (KT&K) pottery of East Liverpool, Ohio, United States.

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Lowestoft Porcelain Factory

The Lowestoft Porcelain Factory was a soft-paste porcelain factory on Crown Street in Lowestoft, Suffolk, active from 1757 to 1802,, Lowestoft Porcelain.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Manifattura Italiana Porcellane Artistiche Fabris

The Manifattura Italiana Porcellane Artistiche Fabris was created by sculptor Luigi Fabris from Bassano del Grappa who, after acquiring Raffaele Passarin's pottery factory in Bassano, made the ceramic facade of Grand Hotel Ausonia & Hungaria at Lido di Venezia, which was finished in 1916.

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Manufacture nationale de Sèvres

The manufacture nationale de Sèvres is one of the principal European porcelain manufactories.

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Marco Polo

Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.

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Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.

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Medici porcelain

Medici porcelain was the first successful attempt in Europe to make imitations of Chinese porcelain.

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Meissen (in German orthography: Meißen) is a town of approximately 30,000 about northwest of Dresden on both banks of the Elbe river in the Free State of Saxony, in eastern Germany.

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Meissen porcelain

Meissen porcelain or Meissen china was the first European hard-paste porcelain.

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Mennecy is a commune in the Essonne department in Île-de-France in northern France.

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Mennecy-Villeroy porcelain

Mennecy-Villeroy porcelain (or Mennecy porcelain) is a French soft-paste porcelain from the manufactory established under the patronage of Louis-François-Anne de Neufville, duc de Villeroy (1695-1766) and — from 1748 — housed in outbuildings ("les petites maisons") in the park of his château de Villeroy, and in the nearby village of Mennecy (Île-de-France).

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Mintons was a major ceramics manufacturing company, originated with Thomas Minton (1765–1836) the founder of "Thomas Minton and Sons", who established his pottery factory in Stoke-upon-Trent, Staffordshire, England, in 1793, producing earthenware.

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Mullite or porcelainite is a rare silicate mineral of post-clay genesis.

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Museo di Capodimonte

Museo di Capodimonte is an art museum located in the Palace of Capodimonte, a grand Bourbon palazzo in Naples, Italy.

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Muslim world

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.

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Nabeshima ware

is a type of Japanese pottery, specifically an unusually high-quality porcelain Arita ware.

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is a Japanese word for "the roaring of the sea".

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Nevers manufactory

The Nevers manufactory (French: "Manufacture de faïence de Nevers") was a French manufacturing centre for faience in the city of Nevers.

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, commonly known as "Noritake," is a tableware and technology company headquartered in Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Nové Sedlo (Sokolov District)

Nové Sedlo (Neusattl) is a town in the Czech Republic.

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Oranienbaum, Russia

Oranienbaum (Ораниенба́ум) is a Russian royal residence, located on the Gulf of Finland west of St. Petersburg.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.

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Permeability (earth sciences)

Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.

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Petuntse (from 白墩子 in pinyin: bai2 dun1 zi0), also spelled petunse and bai dunzi, baidunzi, is a historic term for a wide range of micaceous or feldspathic rocks.

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Plasticity (physics)

In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.

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Plymouth porcelain

Plymouth porcelain was a hard paste porcelain made in the English county of Devon in the 18th century.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Porcelain manufacturing companies in Europe

Porcelain manufacturing companies are firms which manufacture porcelain.

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Porcelain Tower of Nanjing

The Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, part of the former Bao'en Temple, is a historical site located on the south bank of external Qinhuai River in Nanjing, China.

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Porcelænshaven in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark, is the former premises of the Royal Porcelain Manufactury, an industrial complex dating from the 1880s which was converted into a mixed-use neighbourhood in the 2000s.

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Porsgrund Porcelain Factory (Porsgrunds Porselænsfabrik, abbreviated PP) is a porcelain flatware company located at Porsgrunn in Telemark county, Norway.

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Portmeirion Pottery

Portmeirion is a British pottery company based in Stoke-on-Trent.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.

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Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.

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Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.

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Rörstrand porcelain was one of the most famous Swedish porcelain manufacturers, with production initially at Karlberg Sea on Kungsholmen in Stockholm.

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Real Fábrica del Buen Retiro

Real Fábrica del Buen Retiro (popularly called La China; translation, "Buen Retiro Porcelain Factory"; alternate, Real Fabrica de Porcelana del Buen Retiro) was a porcelain manufacturing factory in Spain.

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Regina (pottery)

The Regina pottery factory, Kunstaardewerkfabriek Regina, existed from 1898 to 1979.

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In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.

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Revol Porcelaine

Revol Porcelaine S.A. was founded in 1768 by brothers Joseph-Marie and François Revol in France's Rhone Valley, where they discovered a deposit of white kaolin.

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Rockingham Pottery

The Rockingham Pottery was a 19th-century manufacturer of porcelain of international repute, supplying fine wares and ornamental pieces to royalty and the aristocracy in Britain and overseas, as well as manufacturing porcelain and earthenware items for ordinary use.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.

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Rouen manufactory

The Rouen manufactory (1673-96) was an early French manufactory for faience and soft-paste porcelain, located in Rouen, Normandy.

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Royal Academy of Arts

The Royal Academy of Arts (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London.

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Royal Copenhagen

Royal Copenhagen, officially the Royal Porcelain Factory (Den Kongelige Porcelænsfabrik), is a Danish manufacturer of porcelain products and was founded in Copenhagen on 1 May 1775 under the protection of Danish Dowager Queen Juliane Marie.

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Royal Crown Derby

The Royal Crown Derby Porcelain Company is the oldest or second oldest remaining English porcelain manufacturer, based in Derby, England (disputed by Royal Worcester, who claim 1751 as their year of establishment).

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Royal Doulton

Royal Doulton was an English ceramic manufacturing company producing tableware and collectables, dating from 1815.

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Royal Palace of Aranjuez

The Royal Palace of Aranjuez (Palacio Real de Aranjuez) is a former Spanish royal residence.

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Royal Palace of Madrid

The Royal Palace of Madrid (Palacio Real de Madrid) is the official residence of the Spanish Royal Family at the city of Madrid, but it is only used for state ceremonies.

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Royal Selangor

Royal Selangor International Sdn Bhd (doing business as Royal Selangor) is a Malaysian pewter manufacturer and retailer, the largest of its type in the world.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Royal Tichelaar Makkum

Royal Tichelaar Makkum is a Dutch pottery company, based in Makkum.

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Royal Worcester

Royal Worcester is believed to be the oldest or second oldest remaining English porcelain brand still in existence today, established in 1751 (this is disputed by Royal Crown Derby, which claims 1750 as its year of establishment).

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Rudolf Kämpf

Yipl Rudolf Kämpf is a porcelain manufacturer in the Czech Republic.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Sabauda Gallery

The Sabauda Gallery (Galleria Sabauda) is an art collection in Turin, Italy, which contains the royal art collections amassed by the House of Savoy over the centuries.

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Saint-Cloud porcelain

Saint-Cloud porcelain was a type of soft-paste porcelain produced in the French town of Saint-Cloud from the late 17th to the mid 18th century.

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Sea pottery

Sea pottery (also known as "sea china" or "sea porcelain" or "beach pottery") is pottery which is broken into worn pieces and shards and found on beaches along oceans or large lakes.

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Sesto Fiorentino

Sesto Fiorentino, known locally as just Sesto, is a municipality (comune) in the Metropolitan City of Florence, Tuscany, central Italy.

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Shang dynasty

The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.

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Soapstone (also known as steatite or soaprock) is a talc-schist, which is a type of metamorphic rock.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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Soil mechanics

Soil mechanics is a branch of soil physics and applied mechanics that describes the behavior of soils.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spode is a well-known English brand of pottery and homewares produced by the company of the same name which is based in Stoke-on-Trent.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Stavangerflint AS was an earthenware factory that was in operation from 1949 until 1979 in Stavanger, Norway.

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--> Stoneware is a rather broad term for pottery or other ceramics fired at a relatively high temperature.

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Strasbourg faience

Strasbourg faience or Strasbourg ware is a form of faience produced by the Strasbourg-Haguenau company in Strasbourg in the 18th century.

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Strength of materials

Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains.

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Sui dynasty

The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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The Travels of Marco Polo

Book of the Marvels of the World (French: Livre des Merveilles du Monde) or Description of the World (Devisement du Monde), in Italian Il Milione (The Million) or Oriente Poliano and in English commonly called The Travels of Marco Polo, is a 13th-century travelogue written down by Rustichello da Pisa from stories told by Marco Polo, describing Polo's travels through Asia between 1271 and 1295, and his experiences at the court of Kublai Khan.

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Thermal shock

Thermal shock occurs when a thermal gradient causes different parts of an object to expand by different amounts.

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A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal, or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, showers, or other objects such as tabletops.

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Tin-glazed pottery

Tin-glazed pottery is earthenware covered in glaze containing tin oxide which is white, shiny and opaque (see tin-glazing for the chemistry); usually this provides a background for brightly painted decoration.

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In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing.

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A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.

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Transparency and translucency

In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.

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Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Upsala-Ekeby AB was a porcelain, tile, brick, and glass company founded in 1886 in Uppsala, Sweden.

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Viennese Porcelain Manufactory

The Viennese Porcelain Manufactory (German: Kaiserlich privilegierte Porcellain Fabrique) was a porcelain manufacturer in Alsergrund in Vienna, Austria.

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Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Vincennes porcelain

The Vincennes porcelain manufactory was established in 1740 in the disused royal Château de Vincennes, in Vincennes, east of Paris, which was from the start the main market for its wares.

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Vista Alegre (company)

Vista Alegre is a Portuguese porcelain manufacturer located in Ílhavo in the district of Aveiro.

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Vitreous enamel

Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.

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Josiah Wedgwood and Sons, commonly known as Wedgwood, is a fine china, porcelain, and luxury accessories company founded on 1 May 1759 by English potter and entrepreneur Josiah Wedgwood.

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William Cookworthy

He was born of Quaker parents in Kingsbridge, Devon on 12 April 1705.

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William Watson (sinologist)

William Watson CBE (–) was a British art historian who was Professor of Chinese art and archaeology at the University of London.

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Yixing ware

Yixing clay is a type of clay from the region near the city of Yixing in Jiangsu Province, China, used in Chinese pottery since the Song dynasty (960–1279) when Yixing clay was first mined around China's Lake Tai.

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Yongle Emperor

The Yongle Emperor (Yung-lo in Wade–Giles; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.

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Zsolnay, or formally Zsolnay Porcelánmanufaktúra Zrt (Zsolnay Porcelain Manufactory Private Limited) is a Hungarian manufacturer of porcelain, tiles, and stoneware.

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China (material), China (porcelain), China plates, Porcelain china, Porcelan, Porcelein, Porcelin.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porcelain

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