186 relations: A List Apart, Adam7 algorithm, Adobe Fireworks, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems, AdvanceCOMP, Algorithm, Alpha compositing, Amiga, AmigaOS 4, Android (operating system), APNG, Apple Icon Image format, Apple Inc., Apple Photos, AROS Research Operating System, ASCII, Aspect ratio, Attribute–value pair, Bicubic interpolation, Binary image, Bit field, Blink (web engine), Byte, Camino (web browser), Cascading Style Sheets, Case sensitivity, Channel (digital image), Channel 9 (Microsoft), Chris Lilley (computer scientist), Chromaticity, Chunk (information), CMYK color model, Codec, Color, Color depth, Color management, Color space, Comparison of browser engines (graphics support), Computation of cyclic redundancy checks, Computer animation, Computer graphics, Corel, Corel Photo-Paint, CorelDRAW, Cyclic redundancy check, Data compression, Data compression ratio, Data stream, DEFLATE, ..., Differential pulse-code modulation, Digital container format, Digital Negative, Discrete wavelet transform, DOS, Dr. Dobb's Journal, End-of-file, Exif, Extensible Metadata Platform, File format, Firefox, Forward compatibility, FourCC, Free Software Foundation, Gamma correction, GD Graphics Library, Generation loss, GIF, GIMP, GNOME, GNU, Google Chrome, GraphicConverter, Graphics software, Grayscale, Group 4 compression, Haar wavelet, Helicon Filter, Huffman coding, ICC profile, ICO (file format), Icon (computing), IETF language tag, Image editing, Image file formats, ImageMagick, Indexed color, Inkscape, Interchange File Format, Interlacing (bitmaps), International Color Consortium, International Electrotechnical Commission, International Organization for Standardization, Internet, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, Internet Engineering Steering Group, Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet Explorer, Internet Explorer 7, Internet Explorer 8, Internet Explorer 9, IOS, IOS 8, IPhoto, IrfanView, ISO/IEC 8859-1, ISO/IEC JTC 1, Jean-loup Gailly, Joint Photographic Experts Group, JPEG, JPEG Network Graphics, Ken Silverman, Lee Daniel Crocker, Lempel–Ziv–Markov chain algorithm, Lempel–Ziv–Welch, Libpng, Library (computing), Linux, List of International Organization for Standardization standards, Lossless compression, Lossless JPEG, Lossy compression, LZ77 and LZ78, MacOS, Macromedia, Mark Adler, Media type, Metadata, Microsoft, Microsoft Paint, Microsoft Windows, MorphOS, Multiple-image Network Graphics, Netscape, Newline, Opacity (optics), Open-source model, Opera (web browser), Operating system, OS X Yosemite, Paint.net, PaintShop Pro, Pale Moon (web browser), Palette (computing), Patent, PC Magazine, Perl, Permissive software licence, Photography, PlayStation Portable, Pngcrush, PNGOUT, Posterization, Preview (macOS), Primary color, Proprietary software, Raster graphics, Recursive acronym, Reference implementation, Relative luminance, Request for Comments, RGB color model, RGBA color space, Safari (web browser), Scalable Vector Graphics, SRGB, Stereoscopy, TIFF, Tom Lane (computer scientist), Transparency (data compression), Trichromacy, TYPE (DOS command), Unisys, Usenet newsgroup, UTF-8, WebP, White point, Windows Vista, World Wide Web, World Wide Web Consortium, X PixMap, Xara Photo & Graphic Designer, Zlib, Zopfli, 7-Zip, 8-bit clean. Expand index (136 more) » « Shrink index
A List Apart is a webzine that explores the design, development, and meaning of web content, with a special focus on web standards and best practices.
Adam7 is an interlacing algorithm for raster images, best known as the interlacing scheme optionally used in PNG images.
Adobe Fireworks (formerly Macromedia Fireworks) is a discontinued bitmap and vector graphics editor, which Adobe acquired in 2005.
Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Systems for macOS and Windows.
Adobe Systems Incorporated, commonly known as Adobe, is an American multinational computer software company.
AdvanceCOMP is a set of cross-platform command line data (re-)compression tools.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
In computer graphics, alpha compositing is the process of combining an image with a background to create the appearance of partial or full transparency.
The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985.
AmigaOS 4 (abbreviated as OS4 or AOS4) is a line of Amiga operating systems which runs on PowerPC microprocessors.
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
The Animated Portable Network Graphics (APNG) file format is an extension to the Portable Network Graphics (PNG) specification.
The Apple Icon Image format is the icon format used in Apple Inc.'s macOS.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
Photos is a photo management and editing application developed by Apple.
AROS Research Operating System (AROS pronounced "AR-OS") is a free and open source multi media centric implementation of the AmigaOS 3.1 APIs.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
The aspect ratio of a geometric shape is the ratio of its sizes in different dimensions.
A name–value pair, key–value pair, field–value pair or attribute–value pair is a fundamental data representation in computing systems and applications.
In mathematics, bicubic interpolation is an extension of cubic interpolation for interpolating data points on a two-dimensional regular grid.
A binary image is a digital image that has only two possible values for each pixel.
A bit field is a data structure used in computer programming.
The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.
Camino (from the Spanish word meaning "path") is a discontinued free, open source, GUI-based Web browser based on Mozilla's Gecko layout engine and specifically designed for the OS X operating system.
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML.
In computers, upper case and lower case text may be treated as distinct (case sensitivity) or equivalent (case insensitivity).
Color digital images are made of pixels, and pixels are made of combinations of primary colors represented by a series of code.
Channel 9 is a Microsoft community site for Microsoft customers created in 2004.
Chris Lilley (born 1959 in the UK) was educated at Broxburn Academy in West Lothian, Scotland.
Chromaticity is an objective specification of the quality of a color regardless of its luminance.
A chunk is a fragment of information which is used in many multimedia formats, such as PNG, IFF, MP3 and AVI.
The CMYK color model (process color, four color) is a subtractive color model, used in color printing, and is also used to describe the printing process itself.
A codec is a device or computer program for encoding or decoding a digital data stream or signal.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
Color depth or colour depth (see spelling differences), also known as bit depth, is either the number of bits used to indicate the color of a single pixel, in a bitmapped image or video frame buffer, or the number of bits used for each color component of a single pixel.
In digital imaging systems, color management is the controlled conversion between the color representations of various devices, such as image scanners, digital cameras, monitors, TV screens, film printers, computer printers, offset presses, and corresponding media.
A color space is a specific organization of colors.
This article compares graphics support for several browser engines.
Computation of a cyclic redundancy check is derived from the mathematics of polynomial division, modulo two.
Computer animation is the process used for generating animated images.
Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.
Corel Photo-Paint is a raster graphics editor developed and marketed by Corel since 1992.
CorelDraw (styled CorelDRAW) is a vector graphics editor developed and marketed by Corel Corporation.
A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is an error-detecting code commonly used in digital networks and storage devices to detect accidental changes to raw data.
In signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.
Data compression ratio, also known as compression power, is a computer science term used to quantify the reduction in data-representation size produced by a data compression algorithm.
In connection-oriented communication, a data stream is a sequence of digitally encoded coherent signals (packets of data or data packets) used to transmit or receive information that is in the process of being transmitted.
In computing, Deflate is a lossless data compression algorithm and associated file format that uses a combination of the LZ77 algorithm and Huffman coding.
Differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) is a signal encoder that uses the baseline of pulse-code modulation (PCM) but adds some functionalities based on the prediction of the samples of the signal.
A container or wrapper format is a metafile format whose specification describes how different elements of data and metadata coexist in a computer file.
Digital Negative (DNG) is a patented, open, non-free lossless raw image format written by Adobe used for digital photography.
In numerical analysis and functional analysis, a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is any wavelet transform for which the wavelets are discretely sampled.
DOS is a family of disk operating systems.
In computing, end-of-file (commonly abbreviated EOF) is a condition in a computer operating system where no more data can be read from a data source.
Exchangeable image file format (officially Exif, according to JEIDA/JEITA/CIPA specifications) is a standard that specifies the formats for images, sound, and ancillary tags used by digital cameras (including smartphones), scanners and other systems handling image and sound files recorded by digital cameras.
The Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) is an ISO standard, originally created by Adobe Systems Inc., for the creation, processing and interchange of standardized and custom metadata for digital documents and data sets.
A file format is a standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file.
Mozilla Firefox (or simply Firefox) is a free and open-source web browser developed by Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation.
Forward compatibility or upward compatibility is a design characteristic that allows a system to accept input intended for a later version of itself.
A FourCC (literally, four-character code) is a sequence of four bytes used to uniquely identify data formats.
The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License.
Gamma correction, or often simply gamma, is a nonlinear operation used to encode and decode luminance or tristimulus values in video or still image systems.
The GD Graphics Library is a graphics software library by Thomas Boutell and others for dynamically manipulating images.
Generation loss is the loss of quality between subsequent copies or transcodes of data.
The Graphics Interchange Format, better known by its acronym GIF, is a bitmap image format that was developed by a team at the bulletin board service (BBS) provider CompuServe led by American computer scientist Steve Wilhite on June 15, 1987.
GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) is a free and open-source raster graphics editor used for image retouching and editing, free-form drawing, converting between different image formats, and more specialized tasks.
GNOME is a desktop environment composed of free and open-source software that runs on Linux and most BSD derivatives.
GNU is an operating system and an extensive collection of computer software.
Google Chrome is a freeware web browser developed by Google LLC.
GraphicConverter is computer software that displays and edits raster graphics files.
In computer graphics, graphics software refers to a program or collection of programs that enable a person to manipulate images or models visually on a computer.
In photography, computing, and colorimetry, a grayscale or greyscale image is one in which the value of each pixel is a single sample representing only an amount of light, that is, it carries only intensity information.
CCITT Group 4 compression, also referred to as G4 or Modified Modified READ (MMR), is a lossless method of image compression used in Group 4 fax machines defined in the ITU-T T.6 fax standard.
In mathematics, the Haar wavelet is a sequence of rescaled "square-shaped" functions which together form a wavelet family or basis.
Helicon Filter, also referred to as Helicon, Filter, or as HF, was a proprietary commercial and shareware photo editing software program for Microsoft Windows, similar to such programs as Adobe Photoshop and GIMP, developed and published by Helicon Soft Ltd.
In computer science and information theory, a Huffman code is a particular type of optimal prefix code that is commonly used for lossless data compression.
In color management, an ICC profile is a set of data that characterizes a color input or output device, or a color space, according to standards promulgated by the International Color Consortium (ICC).
The ICO file format is an image file format for computer icons in Microsoft Windows.
In computing, an icon is a pictogram or ideogram displayed on a computer screen in order to help the user navigate a computer system or mobile device.
An IETF language tag is an abbreviated language code (for example, en for English, pt-BR for Brazilian Portuguese, or nan-Hant-TW for Min Nan Chinese as spoken in Taiwan using traditional Han characters) defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in the BCP 47 document series, which is currently composed of normative RFC 5646 (referencing the related RFC 5645) and RFC 4647, along with the normative content of the IANA Language Subtag Registry.
Image editing encompasses the processes of altering images, whether they are digital photographs, traditional photo-chemical photographs, or illustrations.
Image file formats are standardized means of organizing and storing digital images.
ImageMagick is a free and open-source software suite for displaying, converting, and editing raster image and vector image files.
In computing, indexed color is a technique to manage digital images' colors in a limited fashion, in order to save computer memory and file storage, while speeding up display refresh and file transfers.
Inkscape is a free and open-source vector graphics editor; it can be used to create or edit vector graphics such as illustrations, diagrams, line arts, charts, logos and complex paintings.
Interchange File Format (IFF), is a generic container file format originally introduced by the Electronic Arts company in 1985 (in cooperation with Commodore/Amiga) in order to facilitate transfer of data between software produced by different companies.
Interlacing (also known as interleaving) is a method of encoding a bitmap image such that a person who has partially received it sees a degraded copy of the entire image.
The International Color Consortium was formed in 1993 by eight vendors in order to create an open, vendor-neutral color management system which would function transparently across all operating systems and software packages.
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology".
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a function of ICANN, a nonprofit private American corporation that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and Internet numbers.
The Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) is a body composed of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) chair and area directors.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Internet Explorer, commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included in the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995.
Windows Internet Explorer 7 (IE7) (codenamed Rincon) is a web browser for Windows.
Windows Internet Explorer 8 (IE8) is a web browser developed by Microsoft in the Internet Explorer browser series, released on October 22, 2009.
Internet Explorer 9 or IE9 (officially Windows Internet Explorer 9) is a version of the Internet Explorer web browser from Microsoft.
iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware.
iOS 8 is the eighth major release of the iOS mobile operating system developed by Apple Inc., being the successor to iOS 7.
iPhoto is a discontinued digital photograph manipulation software application developed by Apple Inc. It was included with every Macintosh personal computer from 2002 to 2015, when it was replaced with Apple's Photos application.
IrfanView is an image viewer, editor, organiser and converter program for Microsoft Windows.
ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin alphabet No.
ISO/IEC JTC 1 is a joint technical committee of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).
Jean-loup Gailly is an author of gzip.
The Joint Photographic Experts Group is the joint committee founded by Jim Judkins between ISO/IEC JTC 1 and ITU-T (formerly CCITT) that created the JPEG, JPEG 2000, and JPEG XR standards.
JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.
JPEG Network Graphics (JNG) is a JPEG-based graphics file format which is closely related to PNG: it uses the PNG file structure (with a different signature) as a container format to wrap JPEG-encoded image data.
Ken Silverman (born November 1, 1975) is an American game programmer, best known for writing the Build engine used in Duke Nukem 3D, Shadow Warrior, Blood, and more than a dozen other games in the mid- to late-1990s.
Lee Daniel Crocker (born July 3, 1963) is an American computer programmer.
The Lempel–Ziv–Markov chain algorithm (LZMA) is an algorithm used to perform lossless data compression.
Lempel–Ziv–Welch (LZW) is a universal lossless data compression algorithm created by Abraham Lempel, Jacob Ziv, and Terry Welch.
libpng is the official Portable Network Graphics (PNG) reference library (originally called pnglib).
In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
This is a list of publishedThis list generally excludes draft versions.
Lossless compression is a class of data compression algorithms that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data.
Lossless JPEG is a 1993 addition to JPEG standard by the Joint Photographic Experts Group to enable lossless compression.
In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content.
LZ77 and LZ78 are the two lossless data compression algorithms published in papers by Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv in 1977 and 1978.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
Macromedia was an American graphics, multimedia, and web development software company (1992–2005) headquartered in San Francisco, California that produced such products as Flash and Dreamweaver.
Mark Adler (born April 3, 1959) is an American software engineer, and has been heavily involved in space exploration.
A media type (formerly known as MIME type) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet.
Metadata is "data that provides information about other data".
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Paint (formerly Paintbrush), commonly known as Microsoft Paint or MS Paint, was a simple raster graphics editor that has been included with all versions of Microsoft Windows.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
MorphOS is an AmigaOS-like computer operating system.
Multiple-image Network Graphics (MNG) is a graphics file format, published in 2001, for animated images.
Netscape is a brand name associated with the development of the Netscape web browser.
Newline (frequently called line ending, end of line (EOL), line feed, or line break) is a control character or sequence of control characters in a character encoding specification, e.g. ASCII or EBCDIC.
Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
Opera is a web browser for Windows, macOS, and Linux operating systems developed by Opera Software AS.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
OS X Yosemite (version 10.10) is the eleventh major release of OS X (now named macOS), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.
Paint.net (stylized as Paint.NET or paint.net) is a freeware raster graphics editor program for Microsoft Windows, developed on the.NET Framework.
PaintShop Pro (PSP) is a raster and vector graphics editor for Microsoft Windows.
Pale Moon is an open-source web browser with an emphasis on customizability; its motto is "Your browser, Your way".
In computer graphics, a palette is a finite set of colors.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
PC Magazine (shortened as PCMag) is an American computer magazine published by Ziff Davis.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
A permissive software license, sometimes also called BSD-like or BSD-style license, is a free software software license with minimal requirements about how the software can be redistributed.
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
The PlayStation Portable (PSP) is a handheld game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment.
pngcrush is a free and open source command-line utility for optimizing PNG image files.
PNGOUT is a freeware command line optimizer for PNG images written by Ken Silverman.
Posterization or posterisation of an image entails conversion of a continuous gradation of tone to several regions of fewer tones, with abrupt changes from one tone to another.
Preview is the image viewer and PDF viewer of the macOS operating system; it enables users to view and print digital images and Portable Document Format (PDF) files.
A set of primary colors is, most tangibly, a set of real colorants or colored lights that can be combined in varying amounts to produce a gamut of colors.
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.
In computer graphics, a raster graphics or bitmap image is a dot matrix data structure that represents a generally rectangular grid of pixels (points of color), viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.
A recursive acronym is an acronym that refers to itself.
In the software development process, a reference implementation (or, less frequently, sample implementation or model implementation) is the standard from which all other implementations and corresponding customizations are derived.
Relative luminance follows the photometric definition of luminance, but with the values normalized to 1 or 100 for a reference white.
In information and communications technology, a Request for Comments (RFC) is a type of publication from the technology community.
The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.
RGBA stands for red green blue alpha.
Safari is a web browser developed by Apple based on the WebKit engine.
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an XML-based vector image format for two-dimensional graphics with support for interactivity and animation.
sRGB (standard Red Green Blue) is an RGB color space that HP and Microsoft created cooperatively in 1996 to use on monitors, printers, and the Internet.
Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision.
Tagged Image File Format, abbreviated TIFF or TIF, is a computer file format for storing raster graphics images, popular among graphic artists, the publishing industry, and photographers.
Thomas G. (Tom) Lane is a computer scientist dedicated to open source software.
In data compression and psychoacoustics, transparency is the result of lossy data compression accurate enough that the compressed result is perceptually indistinguishable from the uncompressed input.
Trichromacy or trichromatism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye.
In computing, type is a command in various RT-11, VMS, AmigaDOS, CP/M, DOS, OS/2 and Microsoft Windows command line interpreters (shells) such as COMMAND.COM, cmd.exe, 4DOS/4NT and Windows PowerShell.
A Usenet newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users in different locations using Internet.
UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.
WebP is an image format employing both lossy and lossless compression.
A white point (often referred to as reference white or target white in technical documents) is a set of tristimulus values or chromaticity coordinates that serve to define the color "white" in image capture, encoding, or reproduction.
Windows Vista (codenamed Longhorn) is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).
X PixMap (XPM) is an image file format used by the X Window System, created in 1989 by Daniel Dardailler and Colas Nahaboo working at Bull Research Center at Sophia Antipolis, France, and later enhanced by Arnaud Le Hors.
Xara Photo & Graphic Designer is an image editing program incorporating photo editing and vector illustration tools created by British software company Xara, which was acquired by German company MAGIX AG in 2007, and now operates as a wholly owned subsidiary.
zlib is a software library used for data compression.
Zopfli is data compression software that encodes data into DEFLATE, gzip and zlib formats.
7-Zip is a free and open-source file archiver, a utility used to place groups of files within compressed containers known as "archives".
8-bit clean describes a computer system that correctly handles 8-bit character encodings, such as the ISO 8859 series and the UTF-8 encoding of Unicode.
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