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Portland cement

Index Portland cement

Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout. [1]

112 relations: AEA Technology, Air permeability specific surface, Alite, Alkali, American Concrete Institute, Anhydrite, ASTM International, Bauxite, Belite, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Burn, Calcination, Calcium aluminoferrite, Calcium carbonate, Calcium oxide, Calcium silicate, Calcium silicate hydrate, Calcium sulfate, Carbon dioxide, Cement chemist notation, Cement kiln, Cement mill, Clay, Clinker (cement), Compressive strength, Concrete, Construction aggregate, Coplay Cement Company Kilns, Coplay, Pennsylvania, Corrosive substance, Deutsches Institut für Normung, Dioxin, Dorset, Energetically modified cement, Environment, health and safety, Environmental impact of concrete, European Committee for Standardization, Exothermic process, Flux (metallurgy), Fly ash, Frederick Ransome, Gravel, Greenhouse gas, Ground granulated blast-furnace slag, Grout, Gypsum, Hexavalent chromium, Hoffmann kiln, Hydration reaction, Hydraulic lime, ..., Immediately dangerous to life or health, Isaac Charles Johnson, Isle of Portland, James Frost (cement maker), James Parker (cement maker), John Smeaton, Joseph Aspdin, Kiln, Lime mortar, Limestone, London sewerage system, Loss on ignition, Louis Vicat, Magnesium oxide, Meat and bone meal, Mortar (masonry), Mucous membrane, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NOx, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Particle-size distribution, Parts-per notation, Permissible exposure limit, Plaster, Portland Cement Association, Portland stone, Portlandite, Powder, Pozzolan, Pozzolana, Railroad tie, Recommended exposure limit, Rice hulls, Roman cement, Rosendale cement, Rotary kiln, Sand, Saraburi Province, Scandinavia, Screed, Shale, Silica fume, Silicon dioxide, Sintering, Skokie, Illinois, Slag, Slaughterhouse, Sludge, Smeaton's Tower, Specific surface area, Spent potlining, Street furniture, Stucco, Sugarcane, Sulfate, Sulfur dioxide, Thailand, Tire, Trass, Tricalcium aluminate, William Aspdin, World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Expand index (62 more) »

AEA Technology

Ricardo-AEA was formed on November 8, 2012, when Ricardo acquired the business, operating assets and employees engaged in the business of AEA Technology Plc (in administration) (“AEA Europe”), for a total cash consideration of £18.0 million.

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Air permeability specific surface

The air permeability specific surface of a powder material is a single-parameter measurement of the fineness of the powder.

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Alite is a name for tricalcium silicate, Ca3SiO5, sometimes formulated as 3CaO·SiO2 (C3S in cement chemist notation, CCN).

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In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.

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American Concrete Institute

The American Concrete Institute (ACI, formerly National Association of Cement Users or NACU) is a non-profit technical society and standards developing organization.

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Anhydrite is a mineral—anhydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO4.

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ASTM International

ASTM International is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.

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Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.

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Belite is an industrial mineral important in Portland cement manufacture.

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Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and fatal neurodegenerative disease in cattle that may be passed to humans who have eaten infected flesh.

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A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.

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The IUPAC defines calcination as "heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen".

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Calcium aluminoferrite

Calcium aluminoferrite (Ca2(Al,Fe)2O5) is a dark brown crystalline phase commonly found in cements.

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Calcium oxide

Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.

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Calcium silicate

Calcium silicate is the chemical compound Ca2SiO4, also known as calcium orthosilicate and is sometimes formulated as 2CaO·SiO2.

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Calcium silicate hydrate

Calcium silicate hydrate (or C-S-H) is the main product of the hydration of Portland cement and is primarily responsible for the strength in cement based materials.

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Calcium sulfate

Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Cement chemist notation

Cement chemist notation (CCN) was developed to simplify the formulas cement chemists use on a daily basis.

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Cement kiln

Cement kilns are used for the pyroprocessing stage of manufacture of Portland and other types of hydraulic cement, in which calcium carbonate reacts with silica-bearing minerals to form a mixture of calcium silicates.

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Cement mill

A cement mill (or finish mill in North American usage) is the equipment used to grind the hard, nodular clinker from the cement kiln into the fine grey powder that is cement.

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Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.

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Clinker (cement)

Typical clinker nodules Hot clinker In the manufacture of Portland cement, clinker occurs as lumps or nodules, usually to in diameter, produced by sintering (fused together without melting to the point of liquefaction) limestone and aluminosilicate materials such as clay during the cement kiln stage.

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Compressive strength

Compressive strength or compression strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength, which withstands loads tending to elongate.

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Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.

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Construction aggregate

Construction aggregate, or simply "aggregate", is a broad category of coarse to medium grained particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates.

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Coplay Cement Company Kilns

Coplay Cement Company Kilns, also known as the Saylor Park Industrial Museum, is an open-air historic site located at Coplay, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania.

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Coplay, Pennsylvania

Coplay is a borough in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, six miles (10 km) northwest of Allentown.

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Corrosive substance

A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.

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Deutsches Institut für Normung

Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is the German ISO member body.

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Dioxin may refer to.

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Dorset (archaically: Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast.

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Energetically modified cement

Energetically modified cements (EMC) are a class of cementitious materials made from pozzolans (e.g. fly ash, volcanic ash, pozzolana), silica sand, blast furnace slag, or Portland cement (or blends of these ingredients).

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Environment, health and safety

Environment, health and safety (EHS) is a discipline and specialty that studies and implements practical aspects of environmental protection and safety at work.

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Environmental impact of concrete

The environmental impact of concrete, its manufacture and applications, are complex.

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European Committee for Standardization

The European Committee for Standardization (CEN, Comité Européen de Normalisation) is a public standards organization whose mission is to foster the economy of the European Union (EU) in global trading, the welfare of European citizens and the environment by providing an efficient infrastructure to interested parties for the development, maintenance and distribution of coherent sets of standards and specifications.

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Exothermic process

In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).

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Flux (metallurgy)

In metallurgy, a flux (derived from Latin fluxus meaning “flow”) is a chemical cleaning agent, flowing agent, or purifying agent.

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Fly ash

Fly ash, also known as "pulverised fuel ash" in the United Kingdom, is a coal combustion product that is composed of the particulates (fine particles of burned fuel) that are driven out of coal-fired boilers together with the flue gases.

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Frederick Ransome

Frederick Ransome (1818–1893) was a British inventor and industrialist, creator of Ransome's artificial stone.

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Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.

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Ground granulated blast-furnace slag

Ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS or GGBFS) is obtained by quenching molten iron slag (a by-product of iron and steel-making) from a blast furnace in water or steam, to produce a glassy, granular product that is then dried and ground into a fine powder.

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Grout is a fluid form of concrete used to fill gaps.

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Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.

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Hexavalent chromium

Hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI), Cr(VI), chromium 6) is any chemical compound that contains the element chromium in the +6 oxidation state (thus hexavalent).

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Hoffmann kiln

The Hoffmann kiln is a series of batch process kilns.

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Hydration reaction

In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water.

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Hydraulic lime

Hydraulic lime (HL) is a general term for varieties of lime (calcium oxide), or slaked lime (calcium hydroxide), used to make lime mortar which set through hydration.

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Immediately dangerous to life or health

The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.

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Isaac Charles Johnson

Isaac Charles Johnson (28 January 1811 – 29 November 1911) was a British cement manufacturer, and a pioneer of the Portland cement industry.

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Isle of Portland

The Isle of Portland is a limestone tied island, long by wide, in the English Channel.

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James Frost (cement maker)

James Frost (1780?-1840?) was a British cement manufacturer who invented processes that led to the eventual development of Portland cement.

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James Parker (cement maker)

James Parker was a British clergyman and cement manufacturer who invented one of the pioneering new cements of the late eighteenth century.

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John Smeaton

John Smeaton (8 June 1724 – 28 October 1792) was a British civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses.

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Joseph Aspdin

Joseph Aspdin (December 1778 – 20 March 1855) was an English cement manufacturer who obtained the patent for Portland cement on 21 October 1824.

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A kiln (or, originally pronounced "kill", with the "n" silent) is a thermally insulated chamber, a type of oven, that produces temperatures sufficient to complete some process, such as hardening, drying, or chemical changes.

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Lime mortar

Lime mortar is composed of lime and an aggregate such as sand, mixed with water.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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London sewerage system

The London sewerage system is part of the water infrastructure serving London, England.

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Loss on ignition

Loss on ignition is a test used in inorganic analytical chemistry, particularly in the analysis of minerals.

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Louis Vicat

Louis Vicat (31 March 1786, Nevers – 10 April 1861, Grenoble) French engineer.

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Magnesium oxide

Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).

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Meat and bone meal

Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a product of the rendering industry.

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Mortar (masonry)

Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.

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Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.

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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.

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In atmospheric chemistry, is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide.

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Occupational Safety and Health Administration

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.

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Particle-size distribution

The particle-size distribution (PSD) of a powder, or granular material, or particles dispersed in fluid, is a list of values or a mathematical function that defines the relative amount, typically by mass, of particles present according to size.

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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Permissible exposure limit

The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.

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Plaster is a building material used for the protective and/or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.

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Portland Cement Association

Portland Cement Association is a non-profit organization that promotes the use of concrete.

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Portland stone

Portland stone is a limestone from the Tithonian stage of the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset.

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Portlandite is an oxide mineral.

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A powder is a dry, bulk solid composed of a large number of very fine particles that may flow freely when shaken or tilted.

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Pozzolans are a broad class of siliceous or siliceous and aluminous materials which, in themselves, possess little or no cementitious value but which will, in finely divided form and in the presence of water, react chemically with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperature to form compounds possessing cementitious properties.

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Pozzolana, also known as pozzolanic ash (pulvis puteolanus in Latin), is a natural siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material which reacts with calcium hydroxide in the presence of water at room temperature (cf. pozzolanic reaction).

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Railroad tie

A railroad tie/railway tie/crosstie (North America) or railway sleeper (Britain, Ireland, South Asia, Australasia, and Africa) is a rectangular support for the rails in railroad tracks.

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Recommended exposure limit

A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.

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Rice hulls

Rice hulls (or rice husks) are the hard protecting coverings of grains of rice.

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Roman cement

Roman cement is a substance developed by James Parker in the 1780s, being patented in 1796.

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Rosendale cement

Rosendale cement generally refers to a type of natural cement that was produced in and around Rosendale, New York, from argillaceous limestone, but is a term that has had different definitions at different times.

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Rotary kiln

A rotary kiln is a pyroprocessing device used to raise materials to a high temperature (calcination) in a continuous process.

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Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.

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Saraburi Province

Saraburi (สระบุรี) is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand.

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Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Screed has three meanings in building construction.

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Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.

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Silica fume

Silica fume, also known as microsilica, (CAS number 69012-64-2, EINECS number 273-761-1) is an amorphous (non-crystalline) polymorph of silicon dioxide, silica.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.

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Skokie, Illinois

Skokie (formerly Niles Center) is a village in Cook County, Illinois, United States.

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Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.

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A slaughterhouse or abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered for consumption as food.

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Sludge is a semi-solid slurry and can be produced as sewage sludge from wastewater treatment processes or as a settled suspension obtained from conventional drinking water treatment and numerous other industrial processes.

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Smeaton's Tower

Smeaton's Tower is a memorial to celebrated civil engineer John Smeaton, designer of the third and most notable Eddystone Lighthouse.

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Specific surface area

Specific surface area (SSA) is a property of solids defined as the total surface area of a material per unit of mass, (with units of m2/kg or m2/g) or solid or bulk volume (units of m2/m3 or m−1).

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Spent potlining

Spent Potlining (SPL) is a waste material generated in the primary aluminium smelting industry.

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Street furniture

Street furniture is a collective term (used in the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada) for objects and pieces of equipment installed along streets and roads for various purposes.

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Stucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder and water.

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Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.

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The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.

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Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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A tire (American English) or tyre (British English; see spelling differences) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over.

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Trass is the local name of a volcanic tuff occurring in the Eifel, where it is worked for hydraulic mortar.

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Tricalcium aluminate

Tricalcium aluminate Ca3Al2O6, often formulated as 3CaO·Al2O3 to highlight the proportions of the oxides from which it is made, is the most basic of the calcium aluminates.

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William Aspdin

William Aspdin (23 September 1815 – 11 April 1864) was an English cement manufacturer, and a pioneer of the Portland cement industry.

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World Business Council for Sustainable Development

The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) is a CEO-led, global advocacy association of some 200 international companies dealing exclusively with business and sustainable development.

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Environmental effects of Portland cement, Ordinary Portland Cement, Portland Cement, Portland cement concrete, Portland cement producer, Raw mix, Rawmix, Rawmix preparation.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portland_cement

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