1268 relations: A Portuguesa, Abbadid dynasty, Abbasid Caliphate, Abd al-Rahman I, Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute, Aeminium, Aeneid, Aerospace, Aerospace manufacturer, Afonso de Albuquerque, Afonso I of Portugal, Afonso IV of Portugal, Afonso VI of Portugal, Africa, Age of Discovery, Agir (singer), Agribusiness, Agriculture in Portugal, Aguçadoura Wave Farm, Airbus, Airbus A320 family, Airsoft, Al-Andalus, Alans, Alcácer do Sal, Alcochete, Alenquer, Portugal, Alentejo, Alentejo wine, Alfonso III of Asturias, Alfonso VI of León and Castile, Alfonso VII of León and Castile, Algarve, Algarve Cup, Algarve International Circuit, Allied Joint Force Command Lisbon, Almeida Garrett, Almohad Caliphate, Almoravid dynasty, Alqueva Dam, Altice Arena, Altice Portugal, Aluminium, Alverca do Ribatejo, Amadeo de Souza Cardoso, Amar pelos dois, Amareleja, Amália Rodrigues, Ambassador, American wine, ..., Americas, ANA Aeroportos de Portugal, Ancient Carthage, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Anglo-Portuguese Alliance, Annexation of Goa, António Chainho, António Costa, António de Almeida Santos, António de Oliveira Salazar, António Egas Moniz, António Guterres, António Lobo Antunes, António Lopes Ribeiro, António Reis, António-Pedro Vasconcelos, Antero de Quental, Aquae Flaviae, Aquarium, Archipelago, Arianism, Armoured personnel carrier, Artur Pizarro, Assembly of the Republic (Portugal), Association football, Asturias, Atlantic Europe, Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic Ocean, Atlas Mountains, Audeca, Aurea (singer), Australian wine, Autódromo Fernanda Pires da Silva, AutoEuropa, Automotive industry, Autonomous administrative division, Autonomous Regions of Portugal, Aveiro District, Aveiro, Portugal, Azores, Águas de Portugal, Álvaro Siza Vieira, Évora, Évora District, Bacalhau, Badger, Bahá'í Faith, Bairrada DOC, Baixo Mondego, Baixo Vouga, Banco de Portugal, Banco Português de Negócios, Banco Privado Português, Bankruptcy, Barcelos, Portugal, Barley, Bartolomeu Dias, 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"A Portuguesa" (The Portuguese) is the national anthem of Portugal.
The Abbadid dynasty or Abbadids (Arabic,بنو عباد) was an Arab Muslim dynasty which arose in Al-Andalus on the downfall of the Caliphate of Cordoba (756–1031).
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abd al-Rahman I, more fully Abd al-Rahman ibn Mu'awiya ibn Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (731–788), was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries (including the succeeding Caliphate of Córdoba).
The Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute (in Portuguese, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar) is a graduate medical and life sciences school of the University of Porto.
Aeminium was the ancient name of the city of Coimbra, in Portugal.
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).
An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, or spacecraft.
Afonso de Albuquerque, Duke of Goa (1453 – 16 December 1515) (also spelled Aphonso or Alfonso), was a Portuguese general, a "great conqueror",, Vol.
Afonso IOr also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), sometimes rendered in English as Alphonzo or Alphonse, depending on the Spanish or French influence.
Afonso IVEnglish: Alphonzo or Alphonse, or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin).
Afonso VI (English: Alphonzo or Alphonse, Old Portuguese: Affonso; 21 August 164312 September 1683), known as "the Victorious" (o Vitorioso), was the second King of Portugal and the Algarves of the House of Braganza from 1656 until his death.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Bernardo Correia Ribeiro de Carvalho Costa, most known as Agir (Lisbon, 18 March 1988) is a Portuguese singer and composer.
Agribusiness is the business of agricultural production.
Agriculture in Portugal is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units, however, the sector also includes larger scale intensive farming export-oriented agrobusinesses backed by companies (like Grupo RAR's Vitacress, Sovena, Lactogal, Vale da Rosa, Companhia das Lezírias and Valouro).
The Aguçadoura Wave Farm was the world's first wave farm.
Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.
The Airbus A320 family consists of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus.
Airsoft is a competitive team sport in which participants shoot opponents with spherical plastic BBs launched via replica weapons called airsoft guns.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
Alcácer do Sal is a municipality in Portugal, located in Setúbal District.
Alcochete is a municipality in Portugal.
Alenquer is a municipality in the Oeste Subregion in Portugal.
The Alentejo is a geographical, historical and cultural region of south-central and southern Portugal.
Alentejo (Vinho do Alentejo, Alentejo wines) is a Portuguese wine region located in the Alentejo region of the country.
Alfonso III (20 December 910), called the Great (el Magno), was the king of León, Galicia and Asturias from 866 until his death.
Alfonso VI (1 July 1109), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was the son of King Ferdinand I of León and Queen Sancha, daughter of Alfonso V and sister of Bermudo III.
Alfonso VII (1 March 110521 August 1157), called the Emperor (el Emperador), became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126.
The Algarve (from الغرب "the west") is the southernmost region of continental Portugal.
The Algarve Cup, nicknamed the Mini FIFA Women's World Cup, is a global invitational tournament for national teams in women's association football hosted by the Portuguese Football Federation (FPF).
The 100,000 capacity Algarve International Circuit (Autódromo Internacional do Algarve), commonly referred to as Portimao Circuit, is a race circuit located in Portimão, Portugal.
Joint Force Command Lisbon was one of the biggest NATO bases in south Europe Allied Command Operations.
João Baptista da Silva Leitão de Almeida Garrett, Viscount of Almeida Garrett (4 February 1799 – 9 December 1854) was a Portuguese poet, playwright, novelist and politician.
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.
The Alqueva Dam is an arch dam and the centrepiece of the Alqueva Multipurpose Project.
Altice Arena (formerly MEO Arena, and also referred to as Pavilhão Atlântico) is a multi-purpose indoor arena in Lisbon, Portugal.
Altice Portugal (formerly known as Portugal Telecom or PT) is the largest telecommunications service provider in Portugal.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Alverca do Ribatejo is a city (cidade) and a former civil parish in the municipality of Vila Franca de Xira, Portugal.
Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso (14 November 1887 – 25 October 1918) was a Portuguese painter.
"Amar pelos dois" (English: Love for both of us) is a song performed by Portuguese singer Salvador Sobral and written and produced by his sister Luísa Sobral.
Amareleja is a Portuguese civil parish of the municipality of Moura, in the district of Beja.
Amália Rebordão Rodrigues GCSE, GCIH (23 July 1920 – 6 October 1999), better known as Amália Rodrigues or popularly as Amália, was a Portuguese fadista (fado singer) and actress.
An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment.
American wine has been produced for over 300 years.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
ANA Aeroportos de Portugal is the airport authority of Portugal.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance (or Aliança Luso-Britânica, "Luso-British Alliance", also known in Portugal as Aliança Inglesa, "English Alliance"), ratified at the Treaty of Windsor in 1386, between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal, is the oldest alliance in the world that is still in force – with the earliest treaty dating back to the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373.
The Annexation of Goa was the process in which the Republic of India annexed the former Portuguese Indian territories of Goa, Daman and Diu, starting with the "armed action" carried out by the Indian Armed Forces in December 1961.
António Chainho (born Santiago do Cacém, 1938) is a Portuguese fado guitarist.
António Luís Santos da Costa GCIH (born 17 July 1961) is a Portuguese lawyer and politician serving as the 119th and current Prime Minister of Portugal since 26 November 2015.
António de Almeida Santos, GCC, GCIH, GCL (15 February 1926 – 18 January 2016), was a Portuguese lawyer, politician and government minister.
António de Oliveira Salazar (28 April 1889 – 27 July 1970) was a Portuguese statesman who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968.
António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (29 November 1874 – 13 December 1955), known as Egas Moniz, was a Portuguese neurologist and the developer of cerebral angiography.
António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres GCC GCL (born 30 April 1949) is a Portuguese politician and diplomat who is serving as the ninth Secretary-General of the United Nations.
António Lobo Antunes, GCSE, MD (born 1 September 1942) is a Portuguese novelist and medical doctor.
António Filipe Lopes Ribeiro (16 April 1908 in Lisbon – 1995) was a Portuguese film director.
António Ferreira Gonçalves dos Reis, known as António Reis (1927–1991), was a Portuguese film director, screenwriter and producer, poet, sculptor and ethnographer.
António-Pedro Saraiva de Barros e Vasconcelos, GCIH (born 10 March 1939 in Leiria), is a Portuguese film director.
Antero Tarquínio de Quental (old spelling Anthero) (18 April 184211 September 1891), was a Portuguese poet, philosopher and writer, whose works became a milestone in the Portuguese language, alongside those of Camões, Bocage and Pessoa.
Aquae Flaviae (or Aquæ Flaviæ) is the ancient Roman city and former bishopric (now a Latin Catholic titular see) of Chaves, a municipality in the Portuguese district of Vila Real.
An aquarium (plural: aquariums or aquaria) is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).
An armoured personnel carrier (APC) is a type of armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) designed to transport infantry to the battlefield.
Artur Pizarro (born Lisbon, 1968) is a Portuguese pianistKennedy, Michael and Joyce Bourne.
The Assembly of the Republic (Portuguese: Assembleia da República) is the parliament of the Portuguese Republic.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
Atlantic Europe is a geographical and anthropological term for the western portion of Europe which borders the Atlantic Ocean.
The Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), also known as Boston mackerel, Norwegian mackerel, Scottish mackerel or just mackerel, is a species of mackerel found in the temperate waters of the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, and the northern Atlantic Ocean, where it is extremely common and occurs in huge shoals in the pelagic zone down to about.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlas Mountains (jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb.
Audeca or Andeca (Audacer) was the last Suevic King of Galicia from 584 until his deposition in 585.
Áurea Isabel Ramos de Sousa (born 7 September 1987), publicly known as Aurea, is a Portuguese soul singer from Santiago do Cacém, Alentejo.
The Australian wine industry is the world's fourth largest exporter of wine with approximately 750 million litres a year to the international export market with only about 40% of production consumed domestically.
The Autódromo do Estoril, officially known as Autódromo Fernanda Pires da Silva, is a motorsport race track in Portugal, owned by state-run holding management company Parpública.
AutoEuropa Automóveis, Lda. is an automotive assembly plant, located in the city of Palmela, near Lisbon, Portugal.
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal (Regiões Autónomas de Portugal) are the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores) and Madeira (Região Autónoma da Madeira).
Aveiro District (Distrito de Aveiro) is located in the central coastal region of Portugal.
Aveiro is a city and a municipality in Portugal.
The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.
Águas de Portugal (AdP Group) is a Portuguese state-owned company that operates in the.
Álvaro Joaquim de Melo Siza Vieira, (born 25 June 1933), is a Portuguese architect, and architectural educator.
Évora (Ebora) is a city and a municipality in Portugal.
Évora District (Distrito de Évora) is located in Alentejo, in southern Portugal.
Bacalhau is the Portuguese word for cod and—in a culinary context—dried and salted cod.
Badgers are short-legged omnivores in the family Mustelidae, which also includes the otters, polecats, weasels, and wolverines.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Bairrada is a Portuguese wine region located in the Beira Litoral Province.
Baixo Mondego (Lower Mondego in English) is a Portuguese NUTS3 subregion that comprises the lower part of the Mondego River.
Baixo Vouga is a Portuguese subregion integrated in the Centro Region.
The Banco de Portugal (English: Bank of Portugal) is the central bank of the Portuguese Republic.
Banco Português de Negócios (English: Portuguese Bank of Business), or simply BPN, was a Portuguese banking institution.
Banco Privado Português (BPP) was a private Portuguese bank, based in Lisbon.
Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors.
Barcelos is a city and a municipality in Braga District in the Minho Province, in the north of Portugal.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Bartolomeu Dias (Anglicized: Bartholomew Diaz; c. 1450 – 29 May 1500), a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The Monastery of Batalha (Mosteiro da Batalha), literally the Monastery of the Battle, is a Dominican convent in the municipality of Batalha, in the district of Leiria, in the Centro Region of Portugal.
The Battle of Alcácer Quibir (also known as "Battle of Three Kings" (معركة الملوك الثلاثة) or "Battle of Oued al-Makhazin" (معركة وادي المخازن) in Morocco) was fought in northern Morocco, near the town of Ksar-el-Kebir (variant spellings: Ksar El Kebir, Alcácer-Quivir, Alcazarquivir, Alcassar, etc.) and Larache, on 4 August 1578.
The Battle of Aljubarrota was a battle fought between the Kingdom of Portugal and the Crown of Castile on 14 August 1385.
The Battle of Covadonga was the first victory by Christian military forces in Iberia since the Islamic conquest of Hispania in 711–718.
The Battle of Ourique (25 July 1139: St. James Day) saw the forces of Portuguese Prince Afonso Henriques (of the House of Burgundy) defeat the Almoravid led by Ali ibn Yusuf.
The Battle of Sagrajas (23 October 1086), also called Zalaca or Zallaqa (translit), was a battle between the Almoravid army led by the Almoravid king Yusuf ibn Tashfin and an army led by the Castilian King Alfonso VI.
The Battle of São Mamede (Batalha de São Mamede) took place on 24 June, 1128 near Guimarães and is considered the seminal event for the foundation of the Kingdom of Portugal and the battle that ensured Portugal's Independence.
The Bay of Biscay (Golfe de Gascogne, Golfo de Vizcaya, Pleg-mor Gwaskogn, Bizkaiko Golkoa) is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beatrice (Beatriz;; Coimbra, 7–13 February 1373 – Castile, c. 1420), was the only surviving child of King Ferdinand I of Portugal and his wife, Leonor Teles, and would become Queen consort of Castile.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
Beira is the name given by 20th-century folklorist Donald Alexander Mackenzie to the Cailleach Bheur, the personification of winter and the mother of all the gods and goddesses in Scottish mythology.
Beira Litoral is a former province (provincia) of Portugal, formally instituted in an administrative reform of 1936.
The Beira Railroad Corporation (CCFB) is a railway company formed by a lease from the Mozambique Ports and Railways (CFM) to the Indian Rites and Ircon International consortium to operate a railroad that originates from the port of Beira, Mozambique as a terminal.
Beira is the third largest city in Mozambique.
The Beja District is located in southern Portugal.
Beja is a city and a municipality in the Alentejo region, Portugal.
Belém Tower (Torre de Belém) or the Tower of St Vincent is a fortified tower located in the civil parish of Santa Maria de Belém in the municipality of Lisbon, Portugal.
Benguela (São Felipe de Benguela, formerly spelled Benguella) is a city in western Angola, south of Luanda, and capital of Benguela Province.
The Benguela railway (Caminho de Ferro de Benguela (CFB)) is a Cape gauge railway in Angola that connects the Atlantic port of Lobito to the eastern border town of Luau.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
The Big Three (Os Três Grandes) is the nickname of the three most successful sport clubs in Portugal.
Bilberries are any of several primarily Eurasian species of low-growing shrubs in the genus Vaccinium (family Ericaceae), bearing edible, nearly black berries.
Biocant or Biocant Park, is a Portuguese science park entirely devoted to biotechnology.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Bissau is the capital city of the African Republic of Guinea-Bissau.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Blasted Mechanism is a Portuguese electro-rock band known for its highly theatrical live shows involving elaborated alien-themed costumes as a backdrop to their music.
Boccia is a precision ball sport, similar to bocce, and related to bowls and pétanque.
The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications.
The Boom Festival is a biennial transformational festival in Portugal.
The Bracari or Callaeci Bracari were an ancient Celtic tribe of Gallaecia, living in the northwest of modern Portugal, in the province of Minho, between the rivers Tâmega and Cávado.
Braga (Bracara) is a city and a municipality in the northwestern Portuguese district of Braga, in the historical and cultural Minho Province.
The district of Braga (Distrito de Braga) is a district in the northwest of Portugal.
Bragança District (Distrito de Bragança; Çtrito de Bergáncia) is a traditional political division of Portugal, in the northeast corner bordering on Spain, covering 7.4% of the nation's continental landmass.
Bragança (Bergáncia; Brigantia, Braganza) is a city and municipality in north-eastern Portugal, capital of the district of Bragança, in the Alto Trás-os-Montes subregion of Portugal.
The Bravia Chaimite is an armored vehicle with all wheel drive axles built by the Portuguese company Bravia and used by the Portuguese Army in the Portuguese colonial wars in Angola, Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea, from 1967 to 1974 when it ended.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brazilians (brasileiros in Portuguese) are citizens of Brazil.
Brisa – Auto-estradas de Portugal, S.A. is a Portugal-based international transportation company.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buraka Som Sistema was an electronic dance music project from Portugal, specializing in a fusion of techno beats with the African zouk and kuduro genre.
The Buri were a Germanic tribe mentioned in the Germania of Tacitus, where they initially "close the back" of the Marcomanni and Quadi of Bohemia and Moravia.
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.
Cabo da Roca (Cape Roca) is a cape which forms the westernmost extent of mainland Portugal, continental Europe and the Eurasian land mass.
In Gaelic mythology (Irish, Scottish and Manx) the Cailleach is a divine hag, a creator deity and weather deity, and an ancestor deity.
Caixa Geral de Depósitos (CGD) is a Portuguese state-owned banking corporation, and the second largest bank in Portugal.
Caldeirada is a Portuguese and Galician (Northwestern Spain region) fish stew consisting of a wide variety of fish and potatoes, along with other ingredientsIlí Lacerda, The Secrets of Portuguese Cookery (2009), p. 45.
The Caliphate of Córdoba (خلافة قرطبة; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty.
The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation is a Portuguese institution under private law and of general public utility, perpetual in nature, with its statutory purposes spanning the arts, beneficence, science, and education.
A calvary (calvaire in French) is a type of monumental public crucifix, sometimes encased in an open shrine, most commonly found across northern France from Brittany east, through Belgium and Galicia (North West of Spain), where they are called "cruceiro" or "crucero".
Camilo Castelo Branco,1st Viscount of Correia Botelho (16 March 1825 – 1 June 1890), was a prolific Portuguese writer of the 19th century, having produced over 260 books (mainly novels, plays and essays).
Caminha is a municipality in the north-west of Portugal, 21 km north from Viana do Castelo, located in the Viana do Castelo District.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
The Cantabrian Mountains or Cantabrian Range (Cordillera Cantábrica) are one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.
Cantanhede is a city and municipality in the Coimbra District, in the Centro Region, Portugal.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
The Cape to Cairo Railway is an uncompleted project to cross Africa from south to north by rail.
Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.
The Capelinhos (from Capelo + -inhos diminutive, which literally means "little Capelos" or the "little cape") is a monogenetic volcano located on the western coast of the island of Faial in the Azores.
A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Carlos Botelho (18 September 1899, Lisbon – 18 August 1982, Lisbon) was a Portuguese painter, illustrator, and caricaturist, whose works are shown at the Chiado Museum and at the Modern Art Centre José de Azeredo Perdigão / Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, in Lisbon.
Carlos Manuel de Ascenção do Carmo de Almeida ComIH (born; 21 December 1939 in Lisbon, Mouraria) better known as Carlos do Carmo is a Portuguese fado singer, one of the finest in the "Lisbon Song".
Dom Carlos I of Portugal (English: Charles) known as the Diplomat (also known as the Martyr); o Diplomata and o Martirizado; 28 September 1863 – 1 February 1908) was the King of Portugal and the Algarves. He was the first Portuguese king to be murdered since Sebastian of Portugal in 1578.
Carlos Paredes, ComSE, (16 February 1925 – 23 July 2004) was a virtuoso Portuguese guitar player and composer, born in Coimbra, son of the equally famous Artur Paredes.
José António Carlos de Seixas (June 11, 1704 – August 25, 1742) was a pre-eminent Portuguese composer of the 18th century.
The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos), also referred to as the 25th of April (vinte e cinco de Abril), was initially a military coup in Lisbon, Portugal, on 25 April 1974 which overthrew the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo.
Carne de Porco à Alentejana is one of the most traditional and popular pork dishes of Portuguese cuisine.
Carris (Companhia Carris de Ferro de Lisboa) (Lisbon Tramways Company) is a public transportation company in Lisbon, Portugal.
The Casa da Música (literally the House of Music) is a Portuguese concert hall in civil parish of Cedofeita, Santo Ildefonso, Sé, Miragaia, São Nicolau e Vitória, in the municipality of Porto, in northern Portugal.
Cascais is a coastal town and a municipality in Portugal, west of Lisbon.
Castanea sativa, or sweet chestnut, is a species of flowering plant in the family Fagaceae, native to Southern Europe and Asia Minor, and widely cultivated throughout the temperate world.
Castelo Branco District (Distrito de Castelo Branco) is located in Central Portugal, the district capital is Castelo Branco, which is now also the most populous city, although the city of Covilhã was once the largest city.
The Castle of Silves is a castle in the civil parish of Silves in the municipality of Silves in the Portuguese Algarve.
Castro culture (cultura castrexa, cultura castreja, cultura castriega, cultura castreña) is the archaeological term for the material Celtic culture of the north-western regions of the Iberian Peninsula (present-day northern Portugal together with Galicia, Asturias, Castile and León, Cantabria and Basque Country) from the end of the Bronze Age (c. 9th century BC) until it was subsumed by Roman culture (c. 1st century BC).
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Comunidade Intermunicipal do Cávado is an administrative division in northern Portugal.
The Celtici (in Portuguese, Spanish, and Galician languages, Célticos) were a Celtic tribe or group of tribes of the Iberian peninsula, inhabiting three definite areas: in what today are the regions of Alentejo and the Algarve in Portugal; in the Province of Badajoz and north of Province of Huelva in Spain, in the ancient Baeturia; and along the coastal areas of Galicia.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology (CNC) is a nonprofit research institute founded in 1990, aiming to foster research in biomedicine and biotechnology and multidisciplinary graduate teaching at the University of Coimbra.
The Centro Region (Região Centro) is a region in central Portugal.
Cerebral angiography is a form of angiography which provides images of blood vessels in and around the brain, thereby allowing detection of abnormalities such as arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms.
Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.
Chameleons or chamaeleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are a distinctive and highly specialized clade of Old World lizards with 202 species described as of June 2015.
The Champalimaud Foundation (Fundação Champalimaud) is a private biomedical research foundation.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).
Chilean wine has a long history for a New World wine region, as it was the 16th century when the Spanish conquistadors brought Vitis vinifera vines with them as they colonized the region.
Chimoio is the capital of Manica Province in Mozambique.
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
The Sanctuary of Christ the King (Santuário de Cristo Rei) is a Catholic monument and shrine dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ overlooking the city of Lisbon situated in Almada, in Portugal. It was inspired by the Christ the Redeemer statue of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil, after the Cardinal Patriarch of Lisbon visited that monument. The project was inaugurated on 17 May 1959, while Portugal was ruled by the authoritarian President of the Council of Ministers António de Oliveira Salazar who gave his final permission for the project. The giant statue in cement was erected to express gratitude because the Portuguese were spared the effects of World War II.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
Christian monasticism is the devotional practice of individuals who live ascetic and typically cloistered lives that are dedicated to Christian worship.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Church attendance is a central religious practice for many Christians; some Christian denominations, such as the Catholic Church require church attendance on the Lord's Day (Sunday); the Westminster Confession of Faith is held by the Reformed Churches and teaches first-day Sabbatarianism, thus proclaiming the duty of public worship in keeping with the Ten Commandments.
Churrasco is a Spanish and Portuguese term referring to beef or grilled meat more generally, differing across Latin America and Europe, but a prominent feature in the cuisine of Uruguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Nicaragua, Peru and other Latin American countries.
The cicadas are a superfamily, the Cicadoidea, of insects in the order Hemiptera (true bugs).
The Cinema of Portugal started with the birth of the medium in the late 19th century.
Circuito da Boavista was a street circuit in Oporto (Porto), Portugal used twice for the Formula One Portuguese Grand Prix.
Cisplatina Province or Cisplatine Province (Província Cisplatina) was a Brazilian province in existence from 1821 to 1828 created by the Luso-Brazilian annexation of the Oriental Province.
The Citânia de Briteiros is an archaeological site of the Castro culture located in the Portuguese civil parish of Briteiros São Salvador e Briteiros Santa Leocádia in the municipality of Guimarães; important for its size, "urban" form and developed architecture, it is one of the more excavated sites in northwestern Iberian Peninsula.
Citizenship of the European Union (EU) is afforded to qualifying citizens of European Union member states.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
A civet is a small, lithe-bodied, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests.
Cividade de Terroso was an ancient city of the Castro culture in North-western coast of the Iberian Peninsula, situated near the present bed of the Ave river, in the suburbs of present-day Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal.
Closed list describes the variant of party-list proportional representation where voters can (effectively) only vote for political parties as a whole and thus have no influence on the party-supplied order in which party candidates are elected.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.
The Coelerni were an ancient Celtic tribe of Gallaecia in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula), part of Calaician or Gallaeci people, living in what was to become the Roman Province of Hispania Citerior, convent of Bracara Augusta (the modern Portuguese city of Braga), in what is now the southern part of the province of Ourense (in Galicia).
Coimbra (Corumbriga)) is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population at the 2011 census was 143,397, in an area of. The fourth-largest urban centre in Portugal (after Lisbon, Porto, Braga), it is the largest city of the district of Coimbra, the Centro region and the Baixo Mondego subregion. About 460,000 people live in the Região de Coimbra, comprising 19 municipalities and extending into an area. Among the many archaeological structures dating back to the Roman era, when Coimbra was the settlement of Aeminium, are its well-preserved aqueduct and cryptoporticus. Similarly, buildings from the period when Coimbra was the capital of Portugal (from 1131 to 1255) still remain. During the Late Middle Ages, with its decline as the political centre of the Kingdom of Portugal, Coimbra began to evolve into a major cultural centre. This was in large part helped by the establishment the University of Coimbra in 1290, the oldest academic institution in the Portuguese-speaking world. Apart from attracting many European and international students, the university is visited by many tourists for its monuments and history. Its historical buildings were classified as a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 2013: "Coimbra offers an outstanding example of an integrated university city with a specific urban typology as well as its own ceremonial and cultural traditions that have been kept alive through the ages.".
Coimbra District (Distrito de Coimbra) is located in the Centro Region, the district capital is the city of Coimbra.
Coimbra Fado (Portuguese: Fado de Coimbra) is a genre of fado originating in the city of Coimbra, Portugal.
The Coimbra Innovation Park (iParque) is a science and technology park located in Coimbra (Portugal) – a city that has one of the most dynamic innovation ecosystems in Portugal and is well-known, especially in the Portuguese-speaking world, for its scientific and cultural excellence.
Colonial Brazil (Brasil Colonial) comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (Almada, 21 November 1857 – Lisbon, 6 November 1929), who is usually referred to as Columbano, was a Portuguese Realist painter.
CP — Comboios de Portugal, EPE (CP; English: Trains of Portugal) is a state-owned company which operates passenger trains in Portugal.
The Commandos (Comandos) are a special forces unit in the Portuguese Army.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Portuguese: Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa; abbreviated as CPLP), occasionally known in English as the Lusophone Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organization of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language, mostly of former colonies of the Portuguese Empire.
The Companhia das Lezírias (Lezírias Company) or CL for short (the only two letters in the company logotype), is a state-run agriculture and forestry company located in the Lezíria do Tejo subregion, and headquartered in Samora Correia, Benavente municipality, Portugal.
Conímbriga is one of the largest Roman settlements excavated in Portugal, and was classified as a National Monument in 1910.
Concelho, is the Portuguese-language term for municipality, referring to the territorial division.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
Ramirez & Cia (Filhos), SA is a Portuguese producer of canned fish products, such as tuna and sardines with tomato sauce.
The present Constitution of Portugal was adopted in 1976 after the Carnation Revolution.
The Constitutional Court (Tribunal Constitucional) is a special court, defined by the Portuguese Constitution as part of the judicial branch of the Portuguese political organization.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.
Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
Continental Portugal (Portugal continental) or mainland Portugal are terms used for the bulk of the Portuguese Republic, namely that part on the Iberian Peninsula and so in Continental Europe; having approximately 95% of the total population and 96.6% of the country's land.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber (the cork oak), which is endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa.
Corvo Island (Ilha do Corvo), literally the Island of the Crow, is the smallest and the northernmost island of the Azores archipelago and the northernmost in Macaronesia, has a population of approximately 468 inhabitants (in 2006) constituting the smallest single municipality in Azores and in Portugal, and lies within the North American Plate.
The Council of Ministers (Conselho de Ministros, or) is a collegial executive body within the Government of Portugal.
The Council of State (Conselho de Estado) is an organ in Portugal.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.
The County of Portugal (Condado de Portugal, Condado Portucalense, Condado de Portucale; in documents of the period the name used was Portugalia) refers to two successive medieval counties in the region around Braga and Porto, today corresponding to littoral northern Portugal. It is the first state within which the identity of the Portuguese people formed, there the first Portuguese nation state and a predecessor to modern Portugal. The county existed from the mid-ninth to the mid-eleventh centuries as a vassalage of the Kingdom of Asturias and later the Kingdoms of Galicia and León, before being abolished as a result of a rebellion against the king of Galicia. A larger entity under the same name was then reestablished by the king of León in the late 11th century and lasted until the mid-12th century when its count elevated it into an independent Kingdom of Portugal.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.
Covilhã is a city and a municipality in the Centro region, Portugal.
Cozido à portuguesa or Portuguese boiled dinner is a type of cozido, traditional Portuguese stew.
Credit (from Latin credit, "(he/she/it) believes") is the trust which allows one party to provide money or resources to another party where that second party does not reimburse the first party immediately (thereby generating a debt), but instead promises either to repay or return those resources (or other materials of equal value) at a later date.
Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro (born 5 February 1985) is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays as a forward for Spanish club Real Madrid and the Portugal national team.
Postal Services of Portugal, plc (CTT Correios de Portugal, S.A.) is the national postal service of Portugal.
Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.
The Cultural Centre of Belém (Centro Cultural de Belém (CCB)), located in the civil parish of Santa Maria de Belém (in the municipality of Lisbon), is the largest building with cultural facilities in Portugal.
Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.
The Cynetes or Conii were one of the pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, living in today's Algarve and Lower Alentejo regions of southern Portugal and southern of province of Badajoz and northwest of provinces of Córdoba and Ciudad Real in Spain before the 6th century BCE (in what part of this become the southern part of the Roman province of Lusitania).
Dadra and Nagar Haveli (DNH in initials) is a union territory in Western India.
The Kingdom of Dahomey was an African kingdom (located within the area of the present-day country of Benin) that existed from about 1600 until 1894, when the last king, Béhanzin, was defeated by the French, and the country was annexed into the French colonial empire.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
Daman and Diu is a union territory in Western India.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing.
Daniela Sofia Korn Ruah (born December 2, 1983) is a Portuguese-American actress best known for playing NCIS Special Agent Kensi Blye in the CBS police procedural series NCIS: Los Angeles.
The Dassault/Dornier Alpha Jet is a light attack jet and advanced jet trainer co-manufactured by Dassault Aviation of France and Dornier Flugzeugwerke of Germany.
David Araújo Antunes (born 30 July 1991), better known by his artistic name David Carreira, is a Portuguese pop, dance, hip hop and R&B singer, an actor and model.
Dão is a Portuguese wine region situated in the Região Demarcada do Dão with the Dão-Lafões sub region of the Centro, Portugal.
Dão-Lafões is a Portuguese NUTS III sub-region in the Centro Region.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
The population of Africa has grown rapidly over the past century, and consequently shows a large youth bulge, further reinforced by a low life expectancy of below 50 years in some African countries.
Denis (9 October 1261 – 7 January 1325 in Santarém), called the Farmer King (Rei Lavrador) and the Poet King (Rei Poeta), was King of Portugal and the Algarve.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Diário da República (DR) is the official gazette of Portugal.
Diário de Notícias is a Portuguese daily tabloid newspaper published in Lisbon, Portugal.
Diogo Nuno Infante de Lacerda (born 28 May 1967 in Lisbon) is a Portuguese theatre, cinema and television actor and television presenter.
Diogo Morgado (born 17 January 1981), is a Portuguese actor who may be best known for his portrayal of Jesus Christ in the History Channel epic mini-series The Bible and in the film Son of God.
Diogo Miguel Ramires Piçarra (born 19 October 1990) is a Portuguese singer.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
A disc jockey, often abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays existing recorded music for a live audience.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.
The Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship) was the name of the Portuguese regime that started in 1928 after re-election of General Óscar Carmona to the post of President.
DJ Magazine (also known as DJ Mag) is a British monthly magazine dedicated to electronic dance music and DJs.
Domingos António de Sequeira (Lisbon; 10 March 1768Rome; 8 March 1837) was a famous Portuguese painter at the Royal Court of King John VI of Portugal.
The Douro (Douro; Duero; translation) is one of the major rivers of the Iberian Peninsula, flowing from its source near Duruelo de la Sierra in Soria Province across northern-central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Porto.
Douro is a Portuguese wine region centered on the Douro River in the Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro region.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
A druid (derwydd; druí; draoidh) was a member of the high-ranking professional class in ancient Celtic cultures.
The Dukedom of Aveiro was an aristocratic Portuguese title, granted in 1535 by King John III of Portugal to his 4th cousin, John of Lencastre, son of Infante George of Lencastre, a natural son of King John II of Portugal.
The title Duke of Braganza (Duque de Bragança) in the House of Braganza is one of the most important titles in the peerage of Portugal.
Dulce José Silva Pontes (born April 8, 1969) is a Portuguese songwriter and singer who performs in many musical styles, including pop, folk, and classical music.
The Dutch–Portuguese War was an armed conflict involving Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, against the Portuguese Empire.
The ease of doing business index is an index created by Simeon Djankov at the World Bank Group.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eboric or Euric was the last legitimate Suevic King of Galicia.
The Ecologist Party "The Greens" (Partido Ecologista "Os Verdes",, PEV) is a Portuguese green and eco-socialist party.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Economic globalization is one of the three main dimensions of globalization commonly found in academic literature, with the two others being political globalization and cultural globalization, as well as the general term of globalization.
The economic history of Portugal covers the development of the economy throughout the course of Portuguese history.
An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area.
The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.
Edgar Henrique Clemente Pêra (born 19 November 1960) is a Portuguese filmmaker.
Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi (fungi which bear fruiting structures that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye).
Eduardo Luís Barreto Ferro Rodrigues, GCL (born 3 November 1949) is a Portuguese politician and economist who has been President of the Assembly of the Republic since 2015.
Eduardo Elísio Machado Souto de Moura (born 25 July 1952, better known as Eduardo Souto de Moura, is a Portuguese architect. Along with Fernando Távora and Álvaro Siza, he is one of the alumni of the Porto School of Architecture, where he was appointed Professor. Souto de Moura was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 2011 and the Wolf Prize in Arts in 2013.
The EF English Proficiency Index (EF EPI) attempts to rank countries by the average level of English language skills amongst those adults who took the EF test.
The Eighty Years' War (Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.
Electronic dance music (also known as EDM, dance music, club music, or simply dance) is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made largely for nightclubs, raves, and festivals.
The electronics industry, especially meaning consumer electronics, emerged in the 20th century and has now become a global industry worth billions of dollars.
Embraer S.A. is a Brazilian aerospace conglomerate that produces commercial, military, executive and agricultural aircraft and provides aeronautical services.
A substantial emigration from Kosovo has been taken place in various phases during the second half of the 20th century.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
The Emirate of Córdoba (إمارة قرطبة, Imārat Qurṭuba) was an independent emirate in the Iberian Peninsula ruled by the Umayyad dynasty with Córdoba as its capital.
Emmanuel Nunes (31 August 1941 – 2 September 2012) was a Portuguese composer who lived and worked in Paris from 1964.
EDP - Energias de Portugal (formerly Electricidade de Portugal) ranks among Europe's major electricity operators, as well as being one of Portugal's largest business groups.
Engineered wood, also called composite wood, man-made wood, or manufactured board, includes a range of derivative wood products which are manufactured by binding or fixing the strands, particles, fibres, or veneers or boards of wood, together with adhesives, or other methods of fixation to form composite materials.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The European Union (EU) has expanded a number of times throughout its history by way of the accession of new member states to the Union.
The Equaesi were an ancient Celtic tribe of Gallaecia, living in the north of modern Portugal, between the provinces of Minho and Trás-os-Montes, near the border of modern Galicia (Spain).
Ericeira is a civil parish and seaside resort/fishing community on the western coast of Portugal, in the municipality of Mafra, about northwest of the capital, Lisbon.
The Estado Novo ("New State"), or the Second Republic, was the corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal in 1933, which was considered fascist.
Estoril is a town and a former civil parish in the municipality of Cascais, Portugal, on the Portuguese Riviera.
The Estrela Mountain Dog is a large breed of dog which has been used for centuries in the Estrela Mountains of Portugal to guard herds and homesteads.
Estremadura Province is one of the six historical provinces of Portugal.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), also known as the European otter, Eurasian river otter, common otter, and Old World otter, is a semiaquatic mammal native to Eurasia.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).
Euronext Lisbon is a stock exchange in Lisbon, Portugal.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European bee-eater (Merops apiaster) is a near passerine bird in the bee-eater family Meropidae.
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism (EFSM) is an emergency funding programme reliant upon funds raised on the financial markets and guaranteed by the European Commission using the budget of the European Union as collateral.
The European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) is a special purpose vehicle financed by members of the eurozone to address the European sovereign-debt crisis.
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.
The European polecat (Mustela putorius) – also known as the common ferret, black or forest polecat, or fitch (as well as some other names) – is a species of mustelid native to western Eurasia and north Morocco.
The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is a 15-nation intergovernmental research organization for ground-based astronomy.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
The European System of Central Banks (ESCB) consists of the European Central Bank (ECB) and the national central banks (NCBs) of all 28 member states of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2017 was the 62nd edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2018 was the 63rd edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
Eusébio da Silva Ferreira GCIH GCM (25 January 1942 – 5 January 2014) was a Portuguese footballer who played as a striker.
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
This article is a comprehensive list of all the actual possessions of the Portuguese Empire.
An ex officio member is a member of a body (a board, committee, council, etc.) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office.
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
Portugal has 5th the largest exclusive economic zone (EEZ) within Europe, 4th largest of the EU and the 20th largest EEZ in the world, at 1,727,408 km2.
Expo '98 (1998 Lisbon World Exposition) was an official specialised World's Fair held in Lisbon, Portugal from Friday, 22 May to Wednesday, 30 September 1998.
''Expresso'' (April 2006), (bottom left) Expresso is the flagship publication of the Group Impresa and is published weekly in Lisbon, Portugal.
A faculty is a division within a university or college comprising one subject area, or a number of related subject areas.
Fado ("destiny, fate") is a music genre that can be traced to the 1820s in Lisbon, Portugal, but probably has much earlier origins.
The Spanish–Portuguese War between 1762 and 1763 was fought as part of the Seven Years' War. Because no major battles were fought, even though there were numerous movements of troops and huge losses among the invaders—utterly defeated in the end—the war is known in the Portuguese historiography as the Fantastic War (Portuguese and Spanish: Guerra Fantástica).
Faro Airport (Portuguese: Aeroporto Internacional de Faro), also known as Algarve Airport, is located to the westAIP of Faro in Portugal.
Faro District (Distrito de Faro) is the southernmost district of Portugal, coincident with the Algarve.
Faro is a municipality and bishopric, the southernmost city and seat of the district of the same name, in the Algarve region of southern Portugal.
Favaios is a civil parish of the municipality of Alijó, in northern Portugal.
Fátima is a civil parish in the municipality of Ourém, in the Portuguese Santarém District, Beira Litoral Province.
Futebol Clube do Porto, MHIH, OM, commonly known as FC Porto or simply Porto, is a Portuguese sports club based in Porto.
Feijoada is a stew of beans with beef and pork of Portuguese origin.
Fencing is a group of three related combat sports.
Dom Ferdinand I (Portuguese: Fernando; 31 October 1345 – 22 October 1383), sometimes called the Handsome (o Formoso or o Belo) or occasionally the Inconstant (o Inconstante), was the King of the Kingdom of Portugal from 1367 until his death in 1383.
Dom Ferdinand II (Portuguese: Fernando II) (29 October 1816 – 15 December 1885) was a German prince of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry, and King of Portugal jure uxoris as the husband of Queen Maria II, from the birth of their son in 1837 to her death in 1853.
Ferdinand IV of Castile (6 December 1285 – 7 September 1312) called the Summoned (el Emplazado), was a King of Castile and León from 1295 until his death.
Fernando Lopes, GCIH (28 December 1935 – 2 May 2012) was a Portuguese film director.
Fernando Lopes-Graça, GOSE, GCIH (Tomar, 17 December 1906 – Parede, near Cascais, November 27, 1994) was a Portuguese composer, conductor and musicologist.
Fernando (or Fernán) Pérez de Traba (c.1090–1 November 1155), also Fernão Peres de Trava in Portuguese, was a nobleman and count of the Kingdom of León who for a time held power over all Galicia.
Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa (13 June 1888 – 30 November 1935), commonly known as Fernando Pessoa, was a Portuguese poet, writer, literary critic, translator, publisher and philosopher, described as one of the most significant literary figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest poets in the Portuguese language.
Fernando Manuel Fernandes da Costa Santos (born 10 October 1954) is a retired Portuguese footballer who played as a defender, and is the manager of the Portugal national team.
Captain Fernão Pires de Andrade (also spelled as Fernão Peres de Andrade; in contemporary sources, Fernam (Fernã) Perez Dandrade) (died 1552) was a Portuguese merchant, pharmacist, and official diplomat under the explorer and Portuguese Malacca governor Afonso de Albuquerque.
The FIFA Ballon d'Or ("Golden Ball") was an annual association football award presented to the world's best men's player from 2010 to 2015.
The FIFA U-20 World Cup is the biennial football world championship for male players under the age of 20, organised by FIFA.
The FIFA World Player of the Year was an association football award presented annually by the sport's governing body, FIFA, between 1991 and 2015.
Figueira da Foz, also known as Figueira for short, is a city and a municipality in the Coimbra District, in Portugal.
A film score (also sometimes called background score, background music, film soundtrack, film music, or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a film.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The First Portuguese Republic (Primeira República Portuguesa; officially: República Portuguesa, Portuguese Republic) spans a complex 16-year period in the history of Portugal, between the end of the period of constitutional monarchy marked by the 5 October 1910 revolution and the 28 May ''coup d'état'' of 1926.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Fishing is a major economic activity in Portugal.
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.
Flores Island (Ilha das Flores); is an island of the Western group (Grupo Ocidental) of the Azores.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.
Association football (futebol), the most popular sport in Portugal, has a long and storied history in the country, following its 1875 introduction in cities such as Funchal, Lisbon, Porto and Coimbra by English merchants and Portuguese students arriving back home from studying in England.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The France national football team (Équipe de France de football) represents France in international football and is controlled by the French Football Federation, also known as FFF, or in Fédération française de football.
Francesinha (meaning Little Frenchie or simply Frenchie in Portuguese) is a Portuguese sandwich originally from Porto, made with bread, wet-cured ham, linguiça, fresh sausage like chipolata, steak or roast meat and covered with melted cheese and a hot thick tomato and beer sauce served with french fries.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Freguesia, usually translated as "parish" or "civil parish", is the third-level administrative subdivision of Portugal, as defined by the 1976 Constitution.
French wine is produced all throughout France, in quantities between 50 and 60 million hectolitres per year, or 7–8 billion bottles.
Frumar (or Frumarius) (died 464) was a Suevic warlord who succeeded Maldras (who was assassinated in February 460), as leader of the Suevic group then raiding Lusitania.
Funchal is the largest city, the municipal seat and the capital of Portugal's Autonomous Region of Madeira, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean.
The Foundation for Science and Technology (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia), FCT, is an organization within the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior in Portugal which evaluates and funds scientific research activities, in particular in the areas of natural sciences, exact sciences, social sciences and humanities.
Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds).
Futsal is a variant of association football played on a hard court, smaller than a football pitch, and mainly indoors.
Futurism (Futurismo) was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Galician-Portuguese (galego-portugués or galaico-portugués, galego-português or galaico-português), also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Gallaeci or Callaeci were a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia, the north-western corner of Iberia, a region roughly corresponding to what is now northern Portugal, Galicia, western Asturias and western Castile and León in Spain, before and during the Roman period.
Gallaecia or Callaecia, also known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province in the north-west of Hispania, approximately present-day Galicia, northern Portugal, Asturias and Leon and the later Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia.
The Galp Group is a Portuguese corporation which consists of more than 100 companies engaged in activities such as natural gas supply, regasification, transport, storage, and distribution; petroleum products exploration, production, refining, trading, logistics and retailing; co-generation and renewable energy.
Garcia de Orta (or Garcia d'Orta) (1501? – 1568) was a Portuguese Renaissance Sephardi Jewish physician, herbalist and naturalist.
Gaspar Corte-Real (1450 – 1501) was a Portuguese explorer who alongside his father João Vaz Corte-Real (c. 1420-1496) and brother Miguel, participated in various exploratory voyages sponsored jointly by the Portuguese and Danish Crowns.
The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.
Wrong info! --> A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
Gender identity is one's personal experience of one's own gender.
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) for the United States Air Force (USAF).
Gerardo Ribeiro (born 1950, Oporto, Portugal) is a violinist who serves on the faculty of the Bienen School of Music at Northwestern University.
German wine is primarily produced in the west of Germany, along the river Rhine and its tributaries, with the oldest plantations going back to the Roman era.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Gil Vicente (c.1465 – c. 1536), called the Trobadour, was a Portuguese playwright and poet who acted in and directed his own plays.
The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
Goa Medical College (GMC) is a government medical college and hospital in Goa, India.
Goa trance is an electronic music style that originated during the late 1980s in Goa, India.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
A golden share is a nominal share which is able to outvote all other shares in certain specified circumstances, often held by a government organization, in a government company undergoing the process of privatization and transformation into a stock-company.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
Gonçalo Byrne, GCIH (b. Alcobaça 1941) is a Portuguese architect.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
The Government of Portugal is one of the four sovereignty bodies of the Portuguese Republic, together with the President of the Republic, the Assembly of the Republic and the courts.
The Gradiva, The woman who walks, has become a modern 20th century mythological figure, from the novella Gradiva by the German writer Wilhelm Jensen, as she has sprung out of the imagination of a fictional character she may be considered unreal twice over.
Grande Lisboa (Greater Lisbon in English) is a Portuguese NUTS III subregion integrated in the Lisboa Region.
Grande Porto or Greater Porto is a Portuguese NUTS3 subregion, integrating the NUTS2 region of Norte, in Portugal.
The term Great Work (magnum opus) is a term used in Hermeticism and in certain occult traditions and religions such as Thelema.
Greater Metropolitan Area of Minho (Grande Área Metropolitana do Minho) is a former administrative division in Portugal.
Groupe PSA (informally PSA; PSA Group in English; formerly known as PSA Peugeot Citroën from 1991 to 2016) is a French multinational manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles sold under the Peugeot, Citroën, DS, Opel and Vauxhall brands.
The Grovii were an ancient tribe in Coastal Northern Portugal, in the province of Minho and spreading into modern day Galicia (Spain).
Refinarias de Açúcar Reunidas (Grupo RAR) is a Portugal-based international industrial and agribusiness conglomerate headquartered in Porto, and active in several businesses, including sugar and fresh salads (Vitacress) production and distribution.
The Guadiana River, or Odiana, is an international river defining a long stretch of the Portugal-Spain border, separating Extremadura and Andalucia (Spain) from Alentejo and Algarve (Portugal).
The district of Guarda (Distrito de Guarda) is located in the Centro Region of Portugal, except Vila Nova de Foz Côa, which is in the Norte Region.
Guilhermina Augusta Xavier de Medim Suggia Carteado Mena, known as Guilhermina Suggia, (27 June 1885 – 30 July 1950) was a Portuguese cellist.
Guimarães is a city and municipality located in northern Portugal, in the district of Braga.
Gurúè (also spelt Gurué; known before independence as Vila Junqueiro) is a town located in the northern part of Mozambique, near the center of the province of Zambezia.
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
The Hasdingi were the southern tribes of the Vandals, an East Germanic tribe.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
Henry (Portuguese: Henrique, French: Henri; 10661112), Count of Portugal, was the first member of the Capetian House of Burgundy to rule Portugal and the father of the country's first king, Afonso Henriques.
Cardinal Henry (Henrique; 31 January 1512 – 31 January 1580) was King of Portugal and the Algarves and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
Hermeric (died 441) was the king of the Suevi in Galicia from perhaps as early as 406 and certainly no later than 419 until his retirement in 438.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
High technology, often abbreviated to high tech (adjective forms high-technology, high-tech or hi-tech) is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology available.
A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage.
There is relatively little history of active practice of Hinduism in Portugal.
The history of Brazil starts with indigenous people in Brazil.
The history of Portugal can be traced from circa 400,000 years ago, when the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Homo heidelbergensis.
The Kingdom of Portugal in the 15th century was the first European power to begin building a colonial empire.
The history of the Jews in Belmonte, Portugal, reaches back over six hundred years.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A holding company is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Horseball is a game played on horseback where a ball is handled and points are scored by shooting it through a hoop with a diameter of 1m.
In geology, the places known as hotspots or hot spots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle.
The House of Aviz (modern Portuguese: Avis) known as the Joanine Dynasty was the second dynasty of the kings of Portugal.
The Most Serene House of Braganza (Sereníssima Casa de Bragança), or the Brigantine Dynasty (Dinastia Brigantina), also known in the Empire of Brazil as the Most August House of Braganza (Augustíssima Casa de Bragança), is a dynasty of emperors, kings, princes, and dukes of Portuguese origin, a branch of the House of Aviz.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
Huambo, formerly Nova Lisboa (English: New Lisbon, 1928–1975), is the capital of the province of Huambo in Angola.
The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual milestone published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Hydatius, also spelled Idacius (c. 400 – c. 469), bishop of Aquae Flaviae in the Roman province of Gallaecia (almost certainly the modern Chaves, Portugal, in the modern district of Vila Real) was the author of a chronicle of his own times that provides us with our best evidence for the history of Hispania (that is, the Iberian Peninsula in Roman times) in the 5th century.
Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Ibercivis is a distributed computing platform which allows internet users to participate in scientific research by donating unused computer cycles to run scientific simulations and other tasks.
The Iberian ibex, Spanish ibex, Spanish wild goat, or Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica) is a species of ibex with four subspecies.
The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a wild cat species native to the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe that is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Crown of Portugal and the Spanish Crown between 1580 and 1640, bringing the entire Iberian Peninsula, as well as Spanish and Portuguese overseas possessions, under the Spanish Habsburg kings Philip II, Philip III and Philip IV of Spain.
The Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) is a subspecies of grey wolf that inhabits the forest and plains of northern Portugal and northwestern Spain.
The Iberians (Hibērī, from Ίβηρες, Iberes) were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among others, Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodotus and Strabo) identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC.
Idanha-a-Nova is a municipality in the district of Castelo Branco in east-central Portugal.
IKEA is a Swedish-founded multinational group, that designs and sells, kitchen appliances and home accessories.
As of 2007 Portugal had 10,617,575 inhabitants of whom 332,137, or 3.13%, were legal immigrants (51,7% female, 48,3% male).
The Independence of Brazil comprised a series of political and military events that occurred in 1821–1824, most of which involved disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Empire.
The following is a list of Portugal-related articles.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Armed Forces (Hindi (in IAST): Bhāratīya Saśastra Senāeṃ) are the military forces of the Republic of India.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Indonesian occupation of East Timor began in December 1975 and lasted until October 1999.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
Infante Fernando of Portugal (Fernando Maria Luís de Saxe-Coburgo-Gotha e Bragança; 23 July 1846 in Lisbon – 6 November 1861 in Lisbon) was the fourth son of Queen Maria II of Portugal and King-consort Fernando II and a member of the House of Braganza.
Infante João, Duke of Beja (John; 16 March 1842 – 27 December 1861) was a Portuguese infante (prince) and member of the House of Braganza.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
The Institute for Economics & Peace (IEP), is a global think tank headquartered in Sydney, Australia with branches in New York City, Mexico City and The Hague.
The Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto, best known by its acronym IPATIMUP (Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto), is a Portuguese non-profit institution of public utility dedicated to the health sciences research.
The Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IBMC - Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular) in Porto, Portugal, was founded in the 1990s as a multidisciplinary research institution in the fields of genetic diseases, infectious diseases and immunology, neuroscience, stress and structural biology.
The Instituto de Medicina Molecular (Institute of Molecular Medicine), or IMM for short, is an associated research institution of the University of Lisbon, in Lisbon, Portugal.
The Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência (IGC) is an international centre for biological and biomedical research and graduate training.
The Instituto Militar de Engenharia (Military Institute of Engineering, IME) is an engineering institute maintained by the Brazilian Army with Federal support.
The Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovação (National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation), usually known as INETI for short, is a state-run R&D institution in Lisbon, Portugal, with scientific and technological activities in areas like new systems, processes and products; environmental and sustainable management; geological resources and risks; citizen protection, health and safety; space and defence; laboratory support and testing; etc.
The Instituto Nacional de Estatística (INE) is the National Statistical Institute of Portugal.
Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biológicos (INRB) is the Portuguese state-run institute for research on biological resources.
The Instituto Português do Mar e da Amosfera (Portuguese Institute of the Sea and the Atmosphere) or IPMA is the national meteorological, seismic, sea and atmospheric organization of Portugal.
Intensive farming involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area.
The Interamici were an pre-Roman people of unkonwn ethnic, living in the north of modern Portugal, in the province of Trás-os-Montes, near the border with Galicia (Spain).
The International Energy Agency (IEA) (Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), in Braga, Portugal, a fully international research organization in Europe in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
These are the international rankings of Portugal.
Foreign students are those who travel to a country different from their own for the purpose of tertiary study.
The Intervention Brigade (Brigada de Intervenção) or BrigInt is an infantry brigade in service with the Portuguese Army.
The Invasion of Portugal (19–30 November 1807) saw an Imperial French corps under Jean-Andoche Junot invade the Kingdom of Portugal, which was headed by its Prince Regent John of Braganza.
In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
According to the Instituto Nacional de Estatística (the National Statistical Institute of Portugal), there were, according to the 1991 census, 9,134 Muslims in Portugal, about 0.1% of the total population, even though the Islamic Community of Lisbon presently points to a number of about 40,000 according to 2011 estimates.
The Island of Mozambique (Ilha de Moçambique) lies off northern Mozambique, between the Mozambique Channel and Mossuril Bay, and is part of Nampula Province.
Italy is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world, and Italian wines are known worldwide for their broad variety.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
ITER (Latin for "the way") is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world's largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Júlio Artur da Silva Pomar, GOL, GCM (Lisbon, January 10, 1926 – Lisbon, May 22, 2018) was a Portuguese painter and visual artist.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jerónimo Martins SGPS, SA (JM) is a Portuguese corporate group that operates in food distribution and specialised retail.
The Jerónimos Monastery or Hieronymites Monastery (Mosteiro dos Jerónimos), is a former monastery of the Order of Saint Jerome near the Tagus river in the parish of Belém, in the Lisbon Municipality, Portugal; it was secularised on 28 December 1833 by state decree and its ownership transferred to the charitable institution, Real Casa Pia de Lisboa.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joana Vasconcelos, ComIH (born 8 December 1971), is a Portuguese artist.
Joaquim António Portugal Baptista de Almeida (born 15 March 1957) is a Portuguese actor.
João Botelho (born 1949) is a Portuguese film director.
João César Monteiro Santos was a Portuguese film director, actor, writer and film critic.
João de Sousa Carvalho (22 February 1745c. 1798) was the foremost Portuguese composer of his generation.
João Domingos Bomtempo (also Buontempo; Lisbon, December 28, 1775 – Lisbon, August 18, 1842) was a Portuguese classical pianist, composer and pedagogue.
João Paulo II Airport, named after Pope John Paul II, is an international airport located on the island of São Miguel, in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.
Jogo do pau ("game of the stick") is a Galician and Portuguese martial art which developed along the Minho river and its surrounding regions (Minho, Trás-os-Montes, Pontevedra and Ourense), focusing on the use of a staff of fixed measures and characteristics.
John I (Juan I; 24 August 1358 – 9 October 1390) was King of the Crown of Castile from 1379 until 1390.
John I (João, ʒuˈɐ̃w̃; 11 April 1357 – 14 August 1433) was King of Portugal and the Algarve in 1385–1433.
John II (Portuguese: João II,; 3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495), the Perfect Prince (o Príncipe Perfeito), was the king of Portugal and the Algarves in 1477/1481–1495.
John IV (João IV de Portugal,; 19 March 1604 – 6 November 1656) was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 1640 to his death.
Dom John V (Portuguese: João V; 22 October 1689 – 31 July 1750), known as the Magnanimous (Portuguese: o Magnânimo) and the Portuguese Sun King (Portuguese: o Rei-Sol Português), was a monarch of the House of Braganza who ruled as King of Portugal and the Algarves during the first half of the 18th century.
John VI (Portuguese: João VI; –), nicknamed "the Clement", was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves from 1816 to 1825.
José Manuel Joly Braga Santos, ComSE (May 14, 1924July 18, 1988) was a Portuguese composer and conductor, who was born and died in Lisbon.
José Sobral de Almada Negreiros (April 7, 1893 – June 15, 1970) was a Portuguese artist.
José Vital Branco Malhoa, known simply as José Malhoa (Caldas da Rainha, 28 April 1855 - Figueiró dos Vinhos, 26 October 1933) was a Portuguese painter.
José Manuel Durão Barroso (born 23 March 1956) is a Portuguese politician who is the current non-executive chairman at Goldman Sachs International.
José Maria de Eça de Queiroz (25 November 1845 – 16 August 1900) is generally considered to have been the greatest Portuguese writer in the realist style.
José Mário dos Santos Mourinho Félix, GOIH (born 26 January 1963), known as José Mourinho, is a Portuguese football manager and former football player.
José de Sousa Saramago, GColSE (16 November 1922 – 18 June 2010), was a Portuguese writer and recipient of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Literature.
José Vianna da Motta (sometimes spelt 'Viana da Mota') (22 April 18681 June 1948) was a distinguished Portuguese pianist, teacher, and composer.
Joseph I (José I,, 6 June 1714 – 24 February 1777), "The Reformer" ("o Reformador"), was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 31 July 1750 until his death.
Juan de Castilla (1460–1510) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Salamanca (1498–1510) and Bishop of Astorga (1494–1498).
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The Judiciary of Portugal is a system of courts that together constitute one of the four organs of Sovereignty as defined by the Portuguese Constitution.
was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).
Julião Sarmento (born in Lisbon, 1948) is a Portuguese multimedia artist and painter.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
The Kingdom of Asturias (Regnum Asturorum) was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula founded in 718 by the Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias (Asturian: Pelayu, Spanish: Pelayo).
The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of Galicia (Reino de Galicia, or Galiza; Reino de Galicia; Reino da Galiza; Galliciense Regnum) was a political entity located in southwestern Europe, which at its territorial zenith occupied the entire northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of León (Astur-Leonese: Reinu de Llïón, Reino de León, Reino de León, Reino de Leão, Regnum Legionense) was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Kingdom of the Suebi (Regnum Suevorum), also called the Kingdom of Gallæcia (Regnum Gallæciae), was a Germanic post-Roman kingdom that was one of the first to separate from the Roman Empire.
Kiteboarding is an action sport combining aspects of wakeboarding, snowboarding, windsurfing, surfing, paragliding, skateboarding and sailing into one extreme sport.
Kuito (also Cuito) is a city located in central Angola.
Rúben de Almeida (born August 21, 1987) better known as KURA or just DJ Kura is a Portuguese American electro house music DJ and producer.
Kurt Josef Waldheim (21 December 1918 – 14 June 2007) was an Austrian diplomat and politician.
Lactogal is a Portuguese food products company focused on dairy products, milk, fruit juice and mineral water.
Lagoa das Sete Cidades ("Lagoon of the Seven Cities") is a twin lake situated in the crater of a dormant volcano on the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.
Lajes Field or Lajes Air Base (Base Aérea das Lajes), officially designated Air Base No.
Lamego (Lamecum) is a city and municipality in the Viseu District, in the Norte Region of the Douro in northern Portugal.
Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.
The languages of Portugal are the languages spoken or once spoken in the territory of the country of Portugal.
The larger urban zone (LUZ), or Functional Urban Area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan areas in Europe and OECD countries.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin Union was an international organization of nations that used Romance languages that existed as a functional institution from 1983 to 2012.
Laurel forest, also called laurisilva or laurissilva, is a type of subtropical forest found in areas with high humidity and relatively stable, mild temperatures.
Ana Lúcia Pereira Moniz (born September 9, 1976) is a Portuguese singer and actress.
Leaf vegetables, also called leafy greens, salad greens, pot herbs, vegetable greens, or simply greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots.
Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) is a collection of poems and prose narratives that purports to be a history of Ireland and the Irish from the creation of the world to the Middle Ages.
The Left Bloc (Bloco de Esquerda) is a left-wing political party in Portugal founded in 1999.
The Legatum Prosperity Index is an annual ranking developed by the Legatum Institute, a division of the private investment firm Legatum.
The District of Leiria (Distrito de Leiria) is located in Central Portugal.
The Port of Leixões (Porto de Leixões) is one of Portugal's major seaports, located 4 km north of the mouth of the Douro River, in Matosinhos municipality, near the city of Porto.
Leonel Vieira (born 1969 in Miranda do Douro) is a Portuguese film director.
The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the 1970s for the West German Army.
Count Leopold Joseph von Daun (Reichsgraf von und zu Daun; 24 September 17055 February 1766), later Prince of Thiano, was an Austrian field marshal of the Imperial Army in the War of the Austrian Succession and Seven Years' War.
The Leuni were an ancient Celtic tribe of Gallaecia, living in the north of modern Portugal, in the province of Minho, between the rivers Lima and Minho.
LGBT adoption is the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) rights in Portugal have improved substantially in the past decade and are now among the best in the world.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social movements are social movements that advocate for LGBT+ people in society.
The Liberal Revolution of 1820 (Revolução Liberal) was a Portuguese political revolution that erupted in 1820.
The Liberal Wars, also known as the Portuguese Civil War, the War of the Two Brothers or Miguelite War, was a war between progressive constitutionalists and authoritarian absolutists in Portugal over royal succession that lasted from 1828 to 1834.
Lichinga is the capital city of Niassa Province of Mozambique.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Life imprisonment (also known as imprisonment for life, life in prison, a life sentence, a life term, lifelong incarceration, life incarceration or simply life) is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled.
The Limici were an ancient Celtic tribe of Gallaecia, living in the swamps of the river Lima, in the border region between Minho (Portugal) and Galicia (Spain).
Lisboa Region (Região de Lisboa) is one of the seven NUTS II designated regions of Portugal, which includes two NUTS III subregions: Greater Lisbon and Peninsula of Setúbal.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
The Lisbon Academy of Sciences (Academia das Ciências de Lisboa) is Portugal's national academy dedicated to the advancement of sciences and learning, with the goal of promoting academic progress and prosperity in Portugal.
Humberto Delgado Airport, also known as Lisbon Airport and Portela Airport, is an international airport located 7 km from the city centre of Lisbon, the capital of Portugal.
The Lisbon Astronomical Observatory (Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa) is an astronomical observatory located in Tapada da Ajuda, in the civil parish of Alcântara, municipality of Lisbon.
Lisbon District (Distrito de Lisboa) is a district located in the South Central Portugal, the district capital is the city of Lisbon, also the national capital.
The Lisbon Metro (Metropolitano de Lisboa) is the metro (subway) system of Lisbon, Portugal.
Lisbon metropolitan area (Área Metropolitana de Lisboa, or AML) is an administrative division that includes 18 municipalities (concelhos) in Portugal and is a designated Level II and Level III Portuguese NUTS region.
The Lisbon Oceanarium (Oceanário de Lisboa) is an oceanarium in Lisbon, Portugal.
The Lisbon Regicide (O Regicídio de 1908) was the murder of King Carlos I of Portugal and the Algarves and his heir-apparent, Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal, by assassins sympathetic to Republican interests and aided by elements within the Portuguese Carbonária, disenchanted politicians and anti-monarchists.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries by order of appearance in the Fragile States Index (formerly the Failed States Index) of the United States think tank Fund for Peace.
This is a collection of lists of countries by average life expectancy at birth.
This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.
The national monuments of Portugal (Monumentos Nacionais) were constructed throughout the Portuguese territory, and date back to the period of pre-historic settlement of occupation.
This is a list of artists from, or associated with Portugal.
The monarchs of Portugal ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution.
The complete list of Presidents of the Portuguese Republic consists of the 20 heads of state in the history of Portugal since the 5 October 1910 revolution that installed a republican regime.
This is a list of Presidents of the Assembly of the Republic, the unicameral legislative body of Portugal.
The Prime Minister of the Portuguese Republic (Primeiro-Ministro da República Portuguesa) is the head of the country's Government.
This is a list of the Pre-Roman people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania, i. e., modern Portugal, Spain and Andorra).
This is a list of countries located on more than one continent, known as transcontinental states or intercontinental states.
This list of universities and colleges in Portugal gives the Portuguese institutions providing higher education.
This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll.
The UNESCO World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Liuvigild, Leuvigild, Leovigild, or Leovigildo (Spanish and Portuguese), (519 – 21 April 586) was a Visigothic King of Hispania and Septimania from 568 to April 21, 586.
Lobito is a town and municipality in Benguela Province in Angola.
Lobotomy, also known as leucotomy, is a neurosurgical and form of psychosurgery. Operation that involves severing connections in the brain's prefrontal lobe.
Generally, a local administrative unit (LAU) is a low level administrative division of a country, ranked below a province, region, or state.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Luanda, formerly named São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda, is the capital and largest city in Angola, and the country's most populous and important city, primary port and major industrial, cultural and urban centre.
The Luanqvi were an ancient Celtic tribe of Gallaecia, living in the north of modern Portugal, in the province of Trás-os-Montes, between the rivers Tâmega and Tua.
Luís Vaz de Camões (sometimes rendered in English as Camoens or Camoëns (e.g. by Byron in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers),; c. 1524 or 1525 – 10 June 1580), is considered Portugal's and the Portuguese language's greatest poet.
Luís Maria da Costa de Freitas Branco (Lisbon, 12 October 1890 – Lisbon, 27 November 1955) was a Portuguese composer, musicologist, and professor of music who played a pre-eminent part in the development of Portuguese music in the first half of the 20th century.
Dom Luís de Vasconcelos e Sousa, 3rd Count of Castelo Melhor (1636 – 15 August 1720) was a Portuguese politician and prime minister.
Luís Filipe Madeira Caeiro Figo OIH (born 4 November 1972) is a retired Portuguese footballer who played as a midfielder for Sporting CP, Barcelona, Real Madrid and Inter Milan before retiring on 31 May 2009.
D. Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal, Duke of Braganza, (21 March 1887 – 1 February 1908) was the eldest son and heir-apparent of King Carlos I of Portugal.
Dom Luís I (31 October 1838 in Lisbon – 19 October 1889 in Cascais) was a member of the House of Braganza,"While remaining patrilineal dynasts of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha according to pp.
Lubango is the capital city of the Angolan province of Huíla.
Lusitania (Lusitânia; Lusitania) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province located where most of modern Portugal (south of the Douro river) and part of western Spain (the present autonomous community of Extremadura and a part of the province of Salamanca) lie.
The Lusitanians (or Lusitani) were an Indo-European people living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula prior to its conquest by the Roman Republic and the subsequent incorporation of the territory into the Roman province of Lusitania (most of modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of the province of Salamanca).
The Lusitano, also known as the Pure Blood Lusitano or PSL (Puro Sangue Lusitano), is a Portuguese horse breed, closely related to the Spanish Andalusian horse.
Lusophones (lusófonos) are people who speak the Portuguese language, either as native speakers or as learners.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
The M113 is a fully tracked armored personnel carrier (APC) that was developed by Food Machinery Corp (FMC).
Macaronesia is a collection of four archipelagos in the North Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the continents of Europe and Africa.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.
Madeira International Airport Cristiano Ronaldo, commonly known as Madeira Airport (Aeroporto da Madeira), or Funchal Airport (Aeroporto do Funchal), is an international airport in the civil parish of Santa Cruz in the Portuguese archipelago and autonomous region of Madeira.
Madeira Tecnopolo is a Free Science Park in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal,.
Madeira is a fortified wine made in the Portuguese Madeira Islands, off the coast of Africa.
Madredeus is a Portuguese musical ensemble formed in 1985.
Maia is a municipality in the Porto Metropolitan Area, Grande Porto subregion, in Norte Region, Portugal.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.
Malanje (often misspelled Malange) is the capital city of Malanje Province in Angola with a population of approximately 222,000.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Maldras (or Masdras) (died February 460) was the Suevic King of Galicia from 456 until his death.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Manifestis Probatum was a papal bull dated May 23, 1179, in which Pope Alexander III officially recognised Afonso Henriques as the first King of Portugal.
Manoel Cândido Pinto de Oliveira GCSE, GCIH (11 December 1908 – 2 April 2015) was a Portuguese film director and screenwriter born in Cedofeita, Porto.
Dom Manuel II (15 November 1889 – 2 July 1932), "the Patriot" ("o Patriota") or "the Unfortunate" ("o Desventurado"), was the last King of Portugal, ascending the throne after the assassination of his father, King Carlos I, and his elder brother, Luís Filipe, the Prince Royal.
The Manueline (estilo manuelino), or Portuguese late Gothic, is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and representations of the discoveries brought from the voyages of Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral.
Maputo (formerly named Lourenço Marques until 1976) is the capital and most populous city of Mozambique.
María Alfonso Téllez de Meneses (c. 1265 – 1321), known as María de Molina, was queen consort of Castile and León from 1284 to 1295 by marriage to Sancho IV of Castile, and served as regent for her minor son Ferdinand IV (1295 - c.1301) and later her grandson Alfonso XI of Castile (1312-1321).
Marcello José das Neves Alves Caetano (GCTE, GCC; 17 August 1906 – 26 October 1980) was a Portuguese politician and scholar, who was the last prime minister of the Estado Novo regime, from 1968 until his overthrow in the Carnation Revolution of 1974.
Marcelo Nuno Duarte Rebelo de Sousa, ComSE, GCIH (born 12 December 1948) is a Portuguese politician serving as the 20th and current President of Portugal since 9 March 2016.
Maria Anna of Austria (Maria Anna Josepha Antonia Regina; 7 September 1683 – 14 August 1754) was Queen consort of Portugal by marriage to King John V of Portugal.
Maria Esteves de Medeiros Victorino de Almeida, DamSE (born 19 August 1965), known as Maria de Medeiros, is a Portuguese actress, director, and singer who has been involved in both European and American film productions.
D. Maria Francisca of Savoy (Marie Françoise Élisabeth; 21 June 1646 – 27 December 1683) was twice queen consort of Portugal as the spouse of two Portuguese kings: Afonso VI and Peter II of Portugal.
Maria Helena Vieira da Silva (13 June 1908 – 6 March 1992) was a Portuguese abstractionist painter.
Dona Maria I (English: Mary I; 17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816) was Queen of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
Dona Maria II (4 April 1819 – 15 November 1853) "the Educator" ("a Educadora") or "the Good Mother" ("a Boa Mãe"), was Queen regnant of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from 1826 to 1828, and again from 1834 to 1853.
Maria João Alexandre Barbosa Pires (born 23 July 1944) is a classical pianist.
Mariza, ComIH, born Marisa dos Reis Nunes (born 16 December 1973), is a popular Mozambican fado singer.
Market share is the percentage of a market (defined in terms of either units or revenue) accounted for by a specific entity.
Marrakesh (or; مراكش Murrākuš; ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.
Saint Martin of Braga (in Latin Martinus Bracarensis, 520–580 AD) was an archbishop of Bracara Augusta in Gallaecia (now Braga in Portugal), a missionary, a monastic founder, and an ecclesiastical author.
Matosinhos is a city and a municipality in the northern Porto district of Portugal, bordered in the south by the city of Porto.
Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares, GColTE, GCC, GColL (7 December 1924 – 7 January 2017) was a Portuguese politician who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1976 to 1978 and from 1983 to 1985, and subsequently as the 17th President of Portugal from 1986 to 1996.
Mísia (born Susana Maria Alfonso de Aguiar, in 1955 in Porto, Portugal) is a Portuguese fado singer.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The MEKO 200 is a frigate design by the Blohm + Voss shipyard of Germany, as part of the MEKO family of warships.
MEO Sudoeste (currently also known as Sudoeste) is a large, five-day music festival, currently sponsored by telcoms company Meo, that began in 1997 and takes place every August in Odemira, in southern Portugal.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Porto Metropolitan Area (Área Metropolitana do Porto) is a metropolitan area in coastal northern Portugal which covers 17 municipalities, including the City of Porto, making up the second biggest urban area in the country.
The metropolitan area (área metropolitana) is a type of administrative division in Portugal.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) is a mid-ocean ridge, a divergent tectonic plate or constructive plate boundary located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, and part of the longest mountain range in the world.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Dom Miguel I (English: Michael I; 26 October 1802 – 14 November 1866), "the Absolutist" ("o Absolutista") or "the Traditionalist" ("o Tradicionalista"), was the King of Portugal between 1828 and 1834, the seventh child and third son of King João VI (John VI) and his queen, Carlota Joaquina of Spain.
Miguel Torga, pseudonym of Adolfo Correia da Rocha (São Martinho de Anta, Sabrosa, Vila Real district, 12 August 1907 – Coimbra, 17 January 1995), is considered one of the greatest Portuguese writers of the 20th century.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Minho (Miniu) or Miño is the longest river in Galicia, sharing the border with Portugal, with a length of.
Minho was a former province of Portugal, established in 1936 and dissolved in 1976.
A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.
Mining in Portugal is regulated by the Portuguese Ministry of Economy and the Geology and Energy Resources authority under the state-run research institute INETI.
A minister is a politician who heads a government department, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers.
The Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior or MCTES) is a Portuguese government ministry.
Miranda do Douro or Miranda de l Douro is a town and a municipality in the district of Bragança, northeastern Portugal.
The Mirandese language (autonym: mirandés or lhéngua mirandesa; mirandês or língua mirandesa) is an Astur-Leonese language that is sparsely spoken in a small area of northeastern Portugal in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, Mogadouro and Vimioso.
Miróbriga (Mirobriga Celticorum) is an ancient Roman town located near the village and civil parish of Santiago do Cacém, in the municipality of the same name in the south-west of Portugal.
Miro (Mir, Mirio, Mirus) was the Suebian King of Galicia from 570 until his death in 583.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Moçâmedes (called Namibe between 1985 and 2016) is the capital city of Namibe Province in modern-day Angola.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
With a production of 124,200 tons of wine (as of 2009), Moldova has a well-established wine industry.
Moldovans or Moldavians (in Moldovan/Romanian moldoveni; Moldovan Cyrillic: Молдовень) are the largest population group of the Republic of Moldova (75.1% of the population, as of 2014), and a significant minority in Ukraine and Russia.
The moment magnitude scale (MMS; denoted as Mw or M) is one of many seismic magnitude scales used to measure the size of earthquakes.
The Monarchy of the North (Monarquia do Norte), officially the Kingdom of Portugal (Reino de Portugal), was a short-lived revolution and monarchist government that occurred in the North of Portugal, in early 1919.
Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa.
Monsaraz is a civil parish (freguesia) of the municipality of the Reguengos de Monsaraz, on the right margin of the Guadiana River in Portuguese Alentejo region, near its border with Spain.
The Montesinho Natural Park (Parque Natural de Montesinho) is a protected area located in the municipalities of Vinhais and Bragança, northeastern Portugal.
Moonspell is a Portuguese extreme gothic metal band.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mota-Engil is a Portuguese group in the sectors of civil construction, public works, port operations, waste, water, and logistics.
Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.
The Moura Photovoltaic Power Station (also known as Amareleja Photovoltaic Power Station) is a large photovoltaic power station in Amareleja, in the municipality of Moura, Portugal.
Moura is a city and a municipality in the District of Beja in Portugal.
The Mozarabs (mozárabes; moçárabes; mossàrabs; مستعرب trans. musta'rab, "Arabized") is a modern historical term that refers to the Iberian Christians who lived under Moorish rule in Al-Andalus.
An MTV Europe Music Award (commonly abbreviated as a EMAs) is an award presented by Viacom International Media Networks to honour artists and music in pop culture.
The Muladi (mulaˈði, pl. muladíes; mulɐˈði, pl. muladis; muɫəˈðitə or muladí, pl. muladites or muladís; مولد trans. muwallad, pl. مولدون muwalladūn or مولدين muwalladīn) were Muslims of local descent or of mixed Arab, Berber, and Iberian origin, who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages.
Multiple citizenship, dual citizenship, multiple nationality or dual nationality, is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states.
The municipality (município or concelho) is the second-level administrative subdivision of Portugal, as defined by the 1976 Constitution.
Muscat (مسقط) is the capital and largest city of Oman.
The Muscat family of grapes include over 200 grape varieties belonging to the Vitis vinifera species that have been used in wine production and as raisin and table grapes around the globe for many centuries.
Portuguese music includes many different styles and genres, as a result of its history.
Nacala, also known as Cidade de Nacala or Nacala-Porto is a city on the northern coast of Mozambique.
The or the in the history of Japan extends from the arrival of the first Europeans – Portuguese explorers, missionaries and merchants – to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1614, under the promulgation of the "Sakoku" Seclusion Edicts.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The Narbasi were an ancient Celtic tribe of Gallaecia, living in the province of Minho (north of modern Portugal) and nearby areas of modern Galicia (Spain).
Nasiriyah (الناصرية; BGN: An Nāşirīyah; also spelled Nassiriya or Nasiriya) is a city in Iraq.
The National Republican Guard (Guarda Nacional Republicana) or GNR is the national gendarmerie force of Portugal.
The National Salvation Junta (Junta de Salvação Nacional) was a group of military officers designated to maintain the government of Portugal in April 1974, after the Carnation Revolution had overthrown the Estado Novo dictatorial regime.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazaré is a town and a municipality in subregion Oeste and Leiria District, in historical Estremadura province of Portugal.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
The Nemetati were an ancient Celtic tribe of Gallaecia, living in the north of modern Portugal between the Cávado and Ave Rivers, in the province of Minho, north of the Douro.They lived near the valley of the Ave River and may have some link with inscriptions to the war god Cosus Nemedecus.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
In business, net income (total comprehensive income, net earnings, net profit, informally, bottom line) is an entity's income minus cost of goods sold, expenses and taxes for an accounting period.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Neves-Corvo mine is a zinc-copper mine in Castro Verde Municipality, Portugal.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
New Zealand wine is produced in several mostly maritime, cool climate wine growing regions of New Zealand, an island country in the South Pacific Ocean.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
The Classification of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS; French: Nomenclature des unités territoriales statistiques) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of countries for statistical purposes.
A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non-infectious or non-transmissible).
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Norte (Região Norte,; "North Region") or Northern Portugal is the most populous region in Portugal, ahead of Lisboa, and the third most extensive by area.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
NOS Alive (formerly Optimus Alive!) is a music and arts festival which takes place in the Algés riverside, in Oeiras, Portugal.
Novabase is a Portuguese IT company established in 1989.
Numerus clausus ("closed number" in Latin) is one of many methods used to limit the number of students who may study at a university.
Nuno Gonçalves was a 15th-century Portuguese court painter for King Afonso V of Portugal.
Nuno Miguel Pereira Lopes (Lisboa, 6 May 1978) is a Portuguese actor.
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.
NYSE Euronext, Inc. was a Euro-American multinational financial services corporation that operated multiple securities exchanges, including the New York Stock Exchange, Euronext and NYSE Arca (formerly known as ArcaEx).
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Oeiras is a municipality in western part of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, subregion of Greater Lisbon, in continental Portugal.
OGMA – Indústria Aeronáutica de Portugal S.A. is a Portuguese aerospace company providing maintenance services and manufacture of aerostructures.
Olaf II Haraldsson (995 – 29 July 1030), later known as St.
Olhão, or Olhão da Restauração, is a municipality and urban community in the Algarve region of southern Portugal.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
Olivenza or Olivença is a town situated on a disputed section of the Portugal–Spain border.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Ordoño II (c. 873 – June 924, León) was a king of Galicia from 910, and king of Galicia and León from 914 until his death.
The Organization of Ibero-American States (Organização dos Estados Ibero-americanos, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos, usually abbreviated OEI), formally the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture, is an international organization whose members are the Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking nations of the Americas and Europe and Equatorial Guinea in Africa.
Orienteering is a group of sports that requires navigational skills using a map and compass to navigate from point to point in diverse and usually unfamiliar terrain whilst moving at speed.
The Kingdom of Ormus (also known as Ohrmuzd, Hormuz, and Ohrmazd; Portuguese Ormuz) was a 10th- to 17th-century kingdom located within the Persian Gulf and extending as far as the Strait of Hormuz.
Paulus Orosius (born 375, died after 418 AD) — less often Paul Orosius in English — was a Gallaecian Chalcedonian priest, historian and theologian, a student of Augustine of Hippo.
Os Lusíadas, usually translated as The Lusiads, is a Portuguese epic poem written by Luís Vaz de Camões (– 1580) and first published in 1572.
Ouidah or Whydah (Xwéda; Ouidah, Juida, and Juda by the French; Ajudá by the Portuguese; and Fida by the Dutch), formally the Kingdom of Whydah, is a city on the coast of the Republic of Benin.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Portugal: The Portuguese Republic, commonly known as Portugal, is a sovereign country principally located on the Iberian Peninsula in Southern Europe.
Ovos Moles de Aveiro ("soft eggs from Aveiro", literally) is a local delicacy from Aveiro District, Portugal, made of egg yolks and sugar.
Paços de Ferreira is a city in the Porto district, in the north of Portugal.
The Paesuri or Paesures were an ancient pre-Roman people of Lusitania, akin to the Lusitani, to whom they were a dependent tribe.
The Palace of Mafra (Palácio de Mafra) is a monumental Baroque and Italianized Neoclassical palace-monastery located in Mafra, Portugal, some 28 kilometres from Lisbon.
The Palace of Sintra (Palácio Nacional de Sintra), also called Town Palace (Palácio da Vila Vila.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Palmela is a town and a municipality in Portugal.
Minas da Panasqueira or Mina da Panasqueira (Panasqueira Mine) is the generic name for a set of mining operations between Cabeço do Pião (Fundão Municipality) and the village of Panasqueira (Covilhã Municipality), which operated in a technically integrated manner and continue practically since its discovery.
The Pandur II 8x8 is an improved modular all-wheel-drive version of the Pandur 6x6 APC wheeled armoured vehicle.
The Paralympic Games is a major international multi-sport event involving athletes with a range of disabilities, including impaired muscle power (e.g. paraplegia and quadriplegia, muscular dystrophy, post-polio syndrome, spina bifida), impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency (e.g. amputation or dysmelia), leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual impairment.
The Regimento de Paraquedistas (Formerly: Escola de Tropas Pára-Quedistas - Parachute Troops School), based in Tancos, Portugal, is a unit of the Portuguese Army and serves as the instruction center for recruitment and training of the Portuguese paratroopers.
Paredes de Coura is a municipality in Portugal.
Paredes de Coura Festival is a rock festival that is held every year in August at Praia do Taboão in Paredes de Coura, Portugal.
Parkurbis is a Portuguese science park in Covilhã.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
Parpública, officially Participações Públicas (SGPS) S.A., is a state holding company that can be characterized as a National Wealth Fund of the Portuguese Republic.
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.
Pastel de nata (plural: pastéis de nata), is a Portuguese egg tart pastry, originally from Portugal which can also be found in Brazil and other countries with significant Portuguese immigrant populations.
Pastry is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened.
Paul de Arzila (Arzila Bog) is a Portuguese natural reserve occupying an area in Coimbra municipality (in Arzila), and neighbouring municipalities of Condeixa-a-Nova and Montemor-o-Velho.
Dame Paula Rego, (born 26 January 1935), is a Portuguese visual artist who is particularly known for her paintings and prints based on storybooks.
Público (meaning Public in English) is a Portuguese daily national newspaper published in Lisbon, Portugal.
Pedro Álvares Cabral (or; c. 1467 or 1468 – c. 1520) was a Portuguese nobleman, military commander, navigator and explorer regarded as the discoverer of Brazil.
Pedro Costa (born 30 December 1958) is a Portuguese film director.
Dom Pedro I (English: Peter I; 12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834), nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil.
Pedro Nunes (Latin: Petrus Nonius; 1502 – 11 August 1578) was a Portuguese mathematician, cosmographer, and professor, from a New Christian (of Jewish origin) family.
Pedro Manuel Mamede Passos Coelho (born 24 July 1964) is a Portuguese politician who was the 118th Prime Minister of Portugal, in office from 2011 to 2015.
Dom Pedro V (English: Peter V; 16 September 1837 – 11 November 1861), nicknamed "the Hopeful" (o Esperançoso), was King of Portugal from 1853 to 1861.
Pelagius (c. 685 – 737) was a Visigothic nobleman who founded the Kingdom of Asturias, ruling it from 718 until his death.
Pemba is a port city in Mozambique.
The Pena Palace (Palácio da Pena) is a Romanticist castle in São Pedro de Penaferrim, in the municipality of Sintra, Portugal.
The current Penal Code of Portugal (Código Penal Português) was promulgated in 1982 and came into force in 1 January 1983 after the adoption of the Portuguese Constitution of 1976.
The Peneda-Gerês National Park (Parque Nacional da Peneda-Gerês), also known simply as Gerês, is the only national park in Portugal (although many natural parks, protected landscapes, and reserves exist across the nation).
Penhas da Saúde (English: Cliffs of the Health) is a village in the municipality of Covilhã, Portugal.
Peniche is a seaside municipality and a city in Portugal.
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
Peter I (Portuguese: Pedro I (8 April 1320 – 18 January 1367), called the Just or the Cruel) (Portuguese: o Justo, O Cruel), was King of Portugal and of the Algarves from 1357 until his death.
Dom Pedro II (26 April 1648 – 9 December 1706), nicknamed "the Pacific", was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 1683 until his death, previously serving as regent for his brother King Afonso VI from 1668 until his own accession.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Pico Island (Ilha do Pico), is an island in the Central Group of the Portuguese Azores.
The Pink Map, also known as the Rose-Coloured Map, was a document prepared in 1885 to represent Portugal's claim of sovereignty over a land corridor connecting their colonies of Angola and Mozambique during the "Scramble for Africa".
Pinus pinaster, the maritime pine or cluster pine, is a pine native to the Mediterranean region.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
The Polícia de Segurança Pública (PSP; Public Security Police) is the civil preventive police force of Portugal.
The Polícia Judiciária (PJ; Judicial Police) is the national criminal investigation police agency of Portugal, focused in fighting serious crimes, including homicides, kidnapping, organized crime, terrorism, illegal drug trade, corruption, cybercrime and financial crime.
Politics in Portugal takes place in a framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Portugal is the head of government.
The polytechnic is one of the two sub-systems of higher education of Portugal, the other being the university education.
Pombal is a city and a municipality in Leiria District in the sub region Pinhal Litoral in Portugal.
Ponte de Sor is a municipality in Portalegre District in Portugal.
Pope Alexander III (c. 1100/1105 – 30 August 1181), born Roland of Siena, was Pope from 7 September 1159 to his death in 1181.
Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo de Borja (de Borja, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
Port wine (also known as vinho do Porto,, Porto, and usually simply port) is a Portuguese fortified wine produced exclusively in the Douro Valley in the northern provinces of Portugal.
Portalegre District (Distrito de Portalegre) is located in the east of Portugal.
Portimão is a town (Portuguese: cidade) and a municipality in the district of Faro, in the Algarve region of southern Portugal.
Porto (also known as Oporto in English) is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula.
Francisco Sá Carneiro Airport or simply Porto Airport is an international airport near Porto (Oporto), Portugal.
Porto Amboim is a port town in Angola with a population of 65,000; it comprises an area of 4,638 km².
The District of Porto (Distrito do Porto), is located on the north-west coast of Portugal.
The Porto Metro (Metro do Porto), part of the public transport (mass transit) system of Porto, Portugal, is a light rail network that runs underground in central Porto and above ground into the city's suburbs.
Porto Santo Island is a Portuguese island northeast of Madeira Island in the North Atlantic Ocean; it is the northernmost and easternmost island of the archipelago of Madeira, located in the Atlantic Ocean west of Europe and Africa.
Portugal did not initially form part of the system of alliances involved in World War I and thus remained neutral at the start of the conflict in 1914.
The kingdom of Portugal was established from the county of Portugal in the 1130s, ruled by the Alfonsine Dynasty.
The Portugal national football team (Seleção Portuguesa de Futebol) represents Portugal in international men's association football competition since 1921.
The Portugal national rugby sevens team played for the first time in 1992, at the Catania Sevens, World Cup 1993 European Qualifier.
The Portugal national rugby union team is rated as a performance team in the new IRB four-band classification system, the second highest.
The Portuguese Air Force (Força Aérea Portuguesa) is the aerial warfare force of Portugal.
Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa.
The Portuguese Army (Exército Português) is the land component of the Armed Forces of Portugal and is also its largest branch.
Portuguese Brazilians (luso-brasileiros) are Brazilian citizens whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Portugal.
Cape Verde was a colony of the Portuguese Empire from the initial settlement of the Cape Verde Islands in 1462 until the independence of Cape Verde in 1975.
The current Portuguese Civil Code (Código Civil) was approved on 26 November 1966 and entered into force on 1 June 1967.
The Portuguese Colonial War (Guerra Colonial Portuguesa), also known in Portugal as the Overseas War (Guerra do Ultramar) or in the former colonies as the War of Liberation (Guerra de Libertação), was fought between Portugal's military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal's African colonies between 1961 and 1974.
Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century.
The Portuguese Communist Party (Partido Comunista Português,, PCP) is a major political party in Portugal.
The Portuguese Constituent Assembly election, 1975 was carried out in Portugal on 25 April 1975, exactly one year after the Carnation Revolution.
In the Medieval Kingdom of Portugal, the Cortes was an assembly of representatives of the estates of the realm - the nobility, clergy and bourgeoisie.
Portuguese discoveries (Portuguese: Descobrimentos portugueses) are the numerous territories and maritime routes discovered by the Portuguese as a result of their intensive maritime exploration during the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
The Portuguese escudo is the currency of Portugal prior to the introduction of the euro on 1 January 1999 and its removal from circulation on 28 February 2002.
The Portuguese Football Federation (Federação Portuguesa de Futebol; FPF) is the governing body of football in Portugal.
Portuguese Guinea (Guiné), called the Overseas Province of Guinea from 1951, was a West African colony of Portugal from the late 15th century until 10 September 1974, when it gained independence as Guinea-Bissau.
The Portuguese guitar or Portuguese guitarra (guitarra portuguesa) is a plucked string instrument with twelve steel strings, strung in six courses of two strings.
The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.
The Portuguese India Armadas (Armadas da Índia) were the fleets of ships, organized by the crown of the Kingdom of Portugal and dispatched on an annual basis from Portugal to India, principally Goa.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The Portuguese legislative election of 1976 took place on 25 April, exactly one year after the previous election, and two years after the Carnation Revolution.
The Portuguese local elections of 2013 took place on 29 September.
The Portuguese Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros, meaning literally "Corps of Fusiliers") is the special operations force of the Portuguese Navy.
The Mechanized Brigade (Portuguese: Brigada Mecanizada, BrigMec) is a unit in service with the Portuguese Army.
Portuguese Mozambique (Moçambique) or Portuguese East Africa (África Oriental Portuguesa) are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory.
The Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa, also known as Marinha de Guerra Portuguesa or as Armada Portuguesa) is the naval branch of the Portuguese Armed Forces which, in cooperation and integrated with the other branches of the Portuguese military, is charged with the military defense of Portugal.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
The Portuguese Renaissance refers to the cultural and artistic movement in Portugal during the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries.
The Portuguese Restoration War (Guerra da Restauração; Guerra de Restauración portuguesa) was the name given by nineteenth-century Romantic historians to the war between Portugal and Spain that began with the Portuguese revolution of 1640 and ended with the Treaty of Lisbon in 1668.
The Portuguese Riviera (Portuguese: Riviera Portuguesa) is the affluent coastal region to the west of Lisbon, Portugal, centered on the coastal cities of Cascais, Estoril, and Sintra.
São Tomé and Príncipe islands were a colony of the Portuguese Empire from its discovery in 1470 until 1975, when independence was granted by Portugal.
Portuguese Sign language is a sign language used mainly by Deaf people in Portugal.
The Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 (Crise de sucessão de 1580) came about as a result of the death of young King Sebastian I of Portugal in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in 1578.
Portuguese Timor (Timor Português) was a Portuguese colony that existed between 1702 and 1975.
Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have Portuguese as their substantial lexifier.
The Portuguese-speaking African countries (also referred to as Lusophone Africa) consist of six African countries in which the Portuguese language is an official language: Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and, since 2011, Equatorial Guinea.
Portus Cale (Latinised version for "Port of Cale", original Celtic name Callaici, Cale) was an ancient town and port in current-day northern Portugal, in the area of today's Grande Porto.
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.
Power in international relations is defined in several different ways.
Praia da Marinha (in English: Navy Beach) is one of the most emblematic and beautiful beaches of Portugal, located on the Atlantic coast in Caramujeira, Lagoa Municipality, Algarve, and considered by the Michelin Guide as one of the 10 most beautiful beaches in Europe and as one of the 100 most beautiful beaches in the world.
The pre-Celtic period in the prehistory of Central and Western Europe occurred before the expansion of the Celts or their culture in Iron Age Europe and Anatolia (9th to 6th centuries BC), but after the emergence of the Proto-Celtic language and cultures.
The prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula begins with the arrival of the first hominins 1.2 million years ago and ends with the Punic Wars, when the territory enters the domains of written history.
The President of the Portuguese Republic (Presidente da República Portuguesa) is the executive head of state of Portugal.
The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the:European Union.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
Prime Minister (Portuguese: Primeiro-Ministro) is the current title of the head of government of Portugal.
Infante D. Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (4 March 1394 – 13 November 1460), better known as Prince Henry the Navigator (Infante Dom Henrique, o Navegador), was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion.
A prince regent, or prince-regent, is a prince who rules a monarchy as regent instead of a monarch, e.g., as a result of the Sovereign's incapacity (minority or illness) or absence (remoteness, such as exile or long voyage, or simply no incumbent).
The Pritzker Architecture Prize is awarded annually "to honor a living architect or architects whose built work demonstrates a combination of those qualities of talent, vision and commitment, which has produced consistent and significant contributions to humanity and the built environment through the art of architecture." Founded in 1979 by Jay A. Pritzker and his wife Cindy, the award is funded by the Pritzker family and sponsored by the Hyatt Foundation.
The Processo Revolucionário Em Curso (English: Ongoing Revolutionary Process) was a period of the Portuguese transition to democracy which started after a failed right-wing coup d'état on March 11, 1975, and ended after a failed left-wing coup d'état on November 25, 1975.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.
The Protected areas of Portugal (Áreas protegidas de Portugal) are classified under a legal protection statue that allows for the adequate protection and maintenance of biodiversity, while providing services for ecosystem that maintains the natural and geological patrimony.
The PSI-20 (an acronym of Portuguese Stock Index) is a benchmark stock market index of companies that trade on Euronext Lisbon, the main stock exchange of Portugal.
The Public Prosecution Service (Ministério Público) or MP is the body of the Judiciary of Portugal responsible for the public prosecution and the representation of the State before the courts.
Public works (or internal improvements historically in the United States)Carter Goodrich, (Greenwood Press, 1960)Stephen Minicucci,, Studies in American Political Development (2004), 18:2:160-185 Cambridge University Press.
A public–private partnership (PPP, 3P or P3) is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors, typically of a long-term nature.
Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops, waste paper, or rags.
The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce pulp, paper, paperboard and other cellulose-based products.
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
The Punics (from Latin punicus, pl. punici), also known as Carthaginians, were a people from Ancient Carthage (now in Tunisia, North Africa) who traced their origins to the Phoenicians.
The Quaquerni were an ancient Celtic tribe of Gallaecia, living in the north of modern Portugal, province of Minho, in the mountains at the mouths of the rivers Tâmega and Cávado.
The quaternary sector of the economy is a way to describe a knowledge-based part of the economy, which typically includes services such as information technology, information-generation and -sharing, media, and research and development, as well as knowledge-based services like consultation, education, financial planning, blogging, and designing.
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).
Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon.
The Queima das Fitas (Portuguese for Ribbon Burning) is a traditional festivity of the students of some Portuguese universities, organized originally by the students of the University of Coimbra.
Quercus faginea, the Portuguese oak or Valencian oak, is a species of oak native to the western Mediterranean region in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands.
Quercus ilex, the evergreen oak, holly oak or holm oak, is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region.
Quercus pyrenaica, commonly known as Pyrenean oak, is a tree native to southwestern Europe and northwestern Africa.
Quercus robur, commonly known as common oak, pedunculate oak, European oak or English oak, is a species of flowering plant in the beech and oak family, Fagaceae.
Quercus suber, commonly called the cork oak, is a medium-sized, evergreen oak tree in the section ''Quercus'' sect. ''Cerris''.
Radio and Television of Portugal (Rádio e Televisão de Portugal) is the public service broadcasting organisation of Portugal.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
The Rally de Portugal (formerly: Rallye de Portugal) is a rally competition held in Portugal.
The Brigada de Reacção Rápida (Rapid Reaction Brigade) is a unit of the Portuguese Army which was known as BAI - Brigada Aerotransportada Independente (Independent Airborne Brigade) until 2006.
Rádio Popular–Boavista is a Portuguese UCI Continental cycling team based in Porto.
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
Rechiar or Rechiarius (after 415 – died December 456) was the Suevic king of Gallaecia from 448 until his death.
Rechila (died 448) was the Suevic King of Galicia from 438 until his death.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
REFER, Rede Ferroviária Nacional, EP (i.e. National Railway Network) was the Portuguese rail infrastructure manager.
REN - Redes Energéticas Nacionais, SGPS, S.A. (formerly Rede Eléctrica Nacional S.A.) is a Portuguese energy sector company which is the current concession holder of the country's two main energy infrastructure networks: the National Electricity Transmission Grid (RNT) and the National Natural Gas Transportation Grid (RNTGN).
The Comunidade Intermunicipal da Região de Aveiro is an administrative division in Portugal.
The Comunidade Intermunicipal da Região de Coimbra is an administrative division in Portugal.
In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography).
Remismund (or Rimismund) (died 469) was the Suevic king of Galicia from c. 464 until his death.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of Dahomey (République du Dahomey) was established on December 11, 1958, as a self-governing colony within the French Community.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government.
Ribeirinho, stage name of Francisco Carlos Lopes Ribeiro (Lisbon, 21 September 1911 – Lisbon, 7 February 1984) was a Portuguese actor and director.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Richie Campbell (born 1986) is the artistic name for the Portuguese reggae/dancehall singer Ricardo Dias de Lima Ventura da Costa.
The Rif or Riff (Berber: ⴰⵔⵉⴼ Arif or ⴰⵔⵔⵉⴼ Arrif or ⵏⴽⵔ Nkor) is a mainly mountainous region in the northern part of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value.
Roads in Portugal are defined by National Road Plan, which describes the existing and planned network of Portuguese roads.
Robert Delaunay (12 April 1885 – 25 October 1941) was a French artist who, with his wife Sonia Delaunay and others, co-founded the Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colours and geometric shapes.
Ruderic (also spelled Roderic, Roderik, Roderich, or Roderick; Spanish and Rodrigo, لذريق; died 711 or 712) was the Visigothic King of Hispania for a brief period between 710 and 712.
Roller hockey (in British English), rink hockey (in American English) or quad hockey is a team sport that enjoys significant popularity in a number of Latin countries.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation), in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms, indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire.
The Rooster of Barcelos (Portuguese, "Galo de Barcelos") is one of the most common emblems of Portugal.
Rowing, often referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times.
The royal fifth (quinto real or quinto del rey in Spanish and Portuguese) is an old royal tax that reserves to the monarch 20% of all precious metals and other commodities (including slaves) acquired by his subjects as war loot, found as treasure or extracted by mining.
Sport Lisboa e Benfica ComC MHIH OM, commonly known as Benfica, is a sports club based in Lisbon, Portugal.
Salvador Vilar Braamcamp Sobral (born 28 December 1989) is a Portuguese singer, who won the Eurovision Song Contest 2017 for Portugal with the song "Amar pelos dois", written and composed by his sister Luísa Sobral.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in Portugal since 5 June 2010.
The Sanctuary of Fátima (Santuário de Fátima), also known as Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima (Santuário de Nossa Senhora de Fátima), is a group of Catholic religious buildings and structures in Cova da Iria, in the civil parish of Fátima, in the municipality of Ourém, in Portugal.
A sandwich is a food typically consisting of vegetables, sliced cheese or meat, placed on or between slices of bread, or more generally any dish wherein two or more pieces of bread serve as a container or wrapper for another food type.
The District of Santarém (Distrito de Santarém) is a district of Portugal, located in Portugal's ''Centro Region''.
Santarém is a city and municipality located in the district of Santarém in Portugal.
"Sardine" and "pilchard" are common names used to refer to various small, oily fish in the herring family Clupeidae.
The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
The Savage Islands or Selvagens Islands (Ilhas Selvagens) are a small Portuguese archipelago in the North Atlantic, south of Madeira, and north of the Canary Islands.
São Jorge is a Portuguese island in the central Azorean archipelago of Portugal.
São Miguel Island (named for the Archangel Michael or, literally, Portuguese for Saint Michael), is also referred to locally as "The Green Island", is the largest and most populous island in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.
Sérgio Azevedo (born August 23, 1968) is a Portuguese composer of contemporary classical music.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
The Science Museum of the University of Coimbra (Museu da Ciência da Universidade de Coimbra) gathers the historical scientific collections of several units of the University of Coimbra, in Coimbra, Portugal.
A science park (also called a "university research park", or a "science and technology park") is defined as being a property-based development that accommodates and fosters the growth of tenant firms and that are affiliated with a university (or a government and private research bodies) based on proximity, ownership, and/or governance.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface.
Dom Sebastian I (Portuguese: Sebastião I; 20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578) was King of Portugal and the Algarves from 11 June 1557 to 4 August 1578 and the penultimate Portuguese monarch of the House of Aviz.
Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal, 1st Count of Oeiras (13 May 1699 – 8 May 1782), popularly known as Marquis of Pombal, was an 18th-century Portuguese statesman.
The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
Semapa - Sociedade de Investimento e Gestão (Semapa - Investment and Management Company) is a Portuguese conglomerate holding company with interests in the cement, pulp and paper and environmental services sectors.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
José Carlos de Sequeira Costa (born 18 July 1929 in Luanda, Angola) is a Portuguese pianist who is especially renowned for his interpretations of the Romantic repertoire.
Serra da Estrela ("Star Mountain Range") is the highest mountain range in Continental Portugal.
Serra da Estrela Natural Park is situated in the largest mountain range in Portugal - the Serra da Estrela, and is the source of the rivers Mondego, Zêzere (tributary of the Tagus), and Alva.
The Serra de Monchique (Monchique Range) is a chain of mountains in the western part of the Algarve region of Portugal, about 20 km inshore.
Serra do Marão located in the border between Trás-os-Montes(District of Vila Real) and Douro Litoral (Dristrict of Porto regions, is the sixth highest mountain in Continental Portugal, rising up to 1415 meters.
Serralves is a cultural institution located in Porto, Portugal, and one of the most important of all the country.
Sesimbra is a municipality of Portugal, in the Setúbal District, lying at the foothills of the Serra da Arrábida, a mountain range between Setúbal and Sesimbra.
Setúbal (or; Caetobrix) is a city and a municipality in Portugal.
The District of Setúbal (or, Distrito de Setúbal) is located in the south-west of Portugal, the District Capital is the city of Setúbal.
The Seurbi were an pre-Roman group of tribes living in the north of modern Portugal, in the province of Minho, between the rivers Cávado and Lima (or even reaching the river Minho).
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
The Silings or Silingi (Latin: Silingae, Ancient Greek Σιλίγγαι – Silingai) were a Germanic tribe, part of the larger Vandal group.
Silves is a municipality in the Portuguese Algarve of southern Portugal.
Sines is a Portuguese city of Setúbal District, the Alentejo region and subregion of the Alentejo coast, with about 18,298 inhabitants (2015 INE).
The Sines Tecnopolo is a Portuguese science park headquartered in Sines.
Sintra is a municipality in the Grande Lisboa subregion (Lisbon Region) of Portugal, considered part of the Portuguese Riviera.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
With regard to futures contracts as well as other financial instruments, slippage is the difference between where the computer signaled the entry and exit for a trade and where actual clients, with actual money, entered and exited the market using the computer’s signals.
The Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrata) is a liberal-conservative and liberal political party in Portugal.
The Social Progress Imperative is a US-based nonprofit created in 2012 best known for the Social Progress Index, a multi-indicator index that assesses the social and environmental performance of different countries.
The Social Progress Index (SPI) measures the extent to which countries provide for the social and environmental needs of their citizens.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Socialist economics refers to the economic theories, practices, and norms of hypothetical and existing socialist economic systems.
The Socialist Party (Partido Socialista,, PS) is a social-democratic political party in Portugal.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
The Soft Portuguese style (Estilo Português Suave) is an architectural model used in public and private buildings in Portugal, essentially during the 1940s and the early 1950s.
Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.
Sonae (Sonae SGPS, S.A.) is a Portuguese retail company (Sonae MC and Sonae SR) with two big partnerships in the shopping centres areas (Sonae Sierra) and the Software and Information Systems, Media and Telecommunications (Sonaecom).
Sonae Indústria is a manufacturer of engineered wood products, founded and headquartered in Maia, Portugal.
Sonia Delaunay (November 14, 1885 – December 5, 1979) was a Ukrainian-born French artist, who spent most of her working life in Paris and, with her husband Robert Delaunay and others, cofounded the Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colors and geometric shapes.
Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen (November 6, 1919 in Porto – July 2, 2004 in Lisbon) was a Portuguese poet and writer.
Soraia Chaves (born 22 June 1982 in Lisbon) is a Portuguese actress and model.
South African wine has a history dating back to 1659, with the first bottle produced in Cape Town by its founder Jan van Riebeeck.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
A souvenir (from French, for a remembrance or memory), memento, keepsake, or token of remembrance is an object a person acquires for the memories the owner associates with it.
Sovena Group is one of the largest Portuguese agribusiness holding companies, producing cooking oils, olive oils, olives and soap.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish wines are wines produced in Spain.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.
Spiritism is a spiritualistic religion codified in the 19th century by the French educator Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail, under the codename Allan Kardec; it proposed the study of "the nature, origin, and destiny of spirits, and their relation with the corporeal world".
Spodumene is a pyroxene mineral consisting of lithium aluminium inosilicate, LiAl(SiO3)2, and is a source of lithium.
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.
Sporting Clube de Portugal ComC MHIH OM, or Sporting CP, is a sports club based in Lisbon, Portugal, that is best known for its football team.
Sporting Clube de Portugal/Tavira is a Portuguese professional cycling team based in Tavira.
A sports club or sporting club, sometimes athletics club or sports society or sports association, is a group of people formed for the purpose of playing sports.
Stag beetles are a group of about 1,200 species of beetles in the family Lucanidae, presently classified in four subfamilies.
Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.
The State of Brazil (Estado do Brasil) was one of the states of the Portuguese Empire, in the Americas during the period of Colonial Brazil.
The State of Maranhão (Portuguese: Estado do Maranhão) was the northernmost of two 17–18th century administrative divisions of the colonial Portuguese Empire in South America.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
The states and federal territories of Malaysia are the principal administrative divisions of Malaysia.
Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (Stephanie Josepha Friederike Wilhelmine Antonia; Estefânia; 15 July 1837 – 17 July 1859) was the Queen consort of King Peter V of Portugal.
A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy.
A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.
A stock index or stock market index is a measurement of a section of the stock market.
The stone pine, botanical name Pinus pinea, also known as the Italian stone pine, umbrella pine and parasol pine, is a tree from the pine family (Pinaceae).
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز Tangeye Hormoz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.
The Structural Funds and the Cohesion Fund are financial tools set up to implement the regional policy of the European Union.
Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the older, previous one in a given area.
A suckling pig is a piglet fed on its mother's milk (i.e., a piglet which is still a "suckling").
The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.
Super Bock Super Rock is a rock festival in Portugal, created in 1994.
The Supreme Court of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justiça,, STJ) is the highest court of law in Portugal without prejudice to the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court.
Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) is the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Allied Command Operations (ACO).
Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave, which is usually carrying the surfer towards the shore.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of ones arms and legs to move the body through water.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Table grapes are grapes intended for consumption while fresh, as opposed to grapes grown for wine production, juice production, or for drying into raisins.
Taekwondo (from Korean 태권도, 跆拳道) is a Korean martial art, characterised by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.
The Tagus (Tajo,; Tejo) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula.
Taguspark is a science and technology park located in the municipality of Oeiras, Greater Lisbon subregion, Portugal.
In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.
The Taifa of Badajoz (from طائفة بطليوس) was a medieval Islamic Moorish kingdom located in what is now parts of Portugal and Spain.
The Taifa of Lisbon (from Arabic: طائفة لشبونة Taa'ifatu Lishbunah) was a medieval Islamic taifa kingdom of Gharb Al-Andalus.
The Taifa of Seville (Arabic: طائفة إشبيليّة, Ta'ifat-u Ishbiliyyah) was an Arab kingdom which belonged to the Abbadid family.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Tamagani were an ancient Celtic tribe of Gallaecia, living in the north of modern Portugal, in the province of Trás-os-Montes, in the area of Chaves, near the river Tâmega.
TAP Air Portugal is the flag carrier airline of Portugal, headquartered at Lisbon Airport which also serves as its hub.
The Tapoli or Tapori were an ancient Celtic tribe of Lusitania, akin to the Lusitanians, to whom they were a dependent tribe, living just north of the river Tagus, around the border area of modern-day Portugal and Spain.
Tartessos (Ταρτησσός) or Tartessus, was a semi-mythical harbor city and the surrounding culture on the south coast of the Iberian Peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River.
Tavira is a Portuguese town and municipality, capital of the Costa do Acantilado, situated in the east of the Algarve on the south coast of Portugal.
The Távora affair was a political scandal of the 18th century Portuguese court.
A teacher (also called a school teacher or, in some contexts, an educator) is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values.
Joaquim Teófilo Fernandes Braga (24 February 1843 – 28 January 1924) was a Portuguese writer, playwright, politician and the leader of the Republican Provisional Government after the overthrow of King Manuel II, as well as the second elected President of the First Portuguese Republic, after the resignation of President Manuel de Arriaga.
Portugal changed to a closed telephone numbering plan in 31 October 1999.
Terceira is an island in the Azores archipelago, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean.
Teresa of León (Portuguese: Teresa; Galician-Portuguese: Tareja) (1080 – 11 November 1130) was Countess and Queen of Portugal.
Terras de Bouro is a municipality in the district of Braga in Portugal.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
Tete is the capital city of Tete Province in Mozambique.
The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn, cloth and clothing.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Gift is a Portuguese alternative rock band, formed in 1994.
The Navigator Company (formerly known as Portucel Soporcel Group) is a Portuguese pulp and paper company.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Theodemir, Theodemar, Theudemer or Theudimer was a Germanic name common among the various Germanic peoples of early medieval Europe.
Theodemund was a Suevic King of Galicia between the years 469 and 550.
The theory of Portuguese discovery of Australia claims that early Portuguese navigators were the first Europeans to sight Australia between 1521 and 1524, well before the arrival of Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606 on board the Duyfken who is generally considered to be the first European discoverer.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Timor is an island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, north of the Timor Sea.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
Tomás Taveira (born 1938) is a Portuguese architect.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Tourism in Portugal' serves millions of international and domestic tourists.
The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.
The Lisbon tramway network (Rede de eléctricos de Lisboa) serves the municipality of Lisbon, capital city of Portugal. In operation since 1873, it presently comprises six urban lines.
The tram system of Porto in Portugal is operated by the Sociedade de Transportes Colectivos do Porto (STCP) and currently has three regular tram routes with 30 minute headways.
Transfer admissions in the United States refers to college students changing universities during their college years.
The transfer of sovereignty of Macau from the Portuguese Republic to the People's Republic of China (PRC) occurred on 20 December 1999.
The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil occurred with the strategic retreat of Queen Maria I of Portugal, Prince Regent John, also referred to as Dom João or Dom João VI, and the Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people from Lisbon on November 29, 1807.
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.
Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro is a historical province of Portugal located in the northeastern corner of the country.
The Treaty of Alcañices (1297) (Tratado de Alcanizes in Portuguese) was made in Alcañices between King Denis of Portugal and King Fernando IV of Castile.
The Treaty of Badajoz was signed by Spain and Portugal on 6 June 1801.
The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).
The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.
The Treaty of Windsor is the diplomatic alliance signed between Portugal and England on 9 May 1386 at Windsor and sealed by the marriage of King John I of Portugal (House of Aviz) to Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster.
The Treaty of Zamora (5 October 1143) recognized Portuguese independence from the Kingdom of León.
The Treaty of Zaragoza, or Treaty of Saragossa, also referred to as the Capitulation of Zaragoza, was a peace treaty between the Spanish Crown and Portugal, signed on 22 April 1529 by King John III and the Emperor Charles V, in the Aragonese city of Zaragoza.
A triathlon is a multiple-stage competition involving the completion of three continuous and sequential endurance disciplines.
A troubadour (trobador, archaically: -->) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350).
A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae).
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
The Turduli (Greek: Tourduloi) were an ancient Pre-Roman people of the Iberian Peninsula, which lived in the south and centre of modern Portugal, in the east of the provinces of Beira Litoral, coastal Estremadura and Alentejo along the Guadiana valley, and in Extremadura and Andalusia in Spain.
The Turduli Oppidani or Turdulorum Oppida (Latin: "oppidums of the Turduli" or "Strongholds of the Turduli"), were a pre-Roman people of Lusitania in present-day Portugal, akin to the Lusitanians.
The Turduli Veteres, translated as "Ancient Turduli" or "Old Turduli" were an ancient pre-Roman tribe of Lusitania, akin to the Lusitanians and possibly the Calaicians or Gallaeci.
The Turodi were an ancient Celtic tribe of Gallaecia, living in the north of modern Portugal, in the province of Trás-os-Montes and border areas in Galicia (Spain).
The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; Union des Associations Européennes de Football; Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia.
The 2004 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2004 or simply Euro 2004, was the 12th edition of the UEFA European Championship, a quadrennial football competition contested by the men's national teams of UEFA member associations.
The 2016 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2016 or simply Euro 2016, was the 15th UEFA European Championship, the quadrennial international men's football championship of Europe organised by UEFA.
The UEFA Euro 2016 Final was a football match that took place on 10 July 2016 at the Stade de France in Saint-Denis, France, to determine the winners of UEFA Euro 2016.
The UEFA European Championship (known informally as the Euros) is the primary association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), determining the continental champion of Europe.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
UNESCO established its Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage with the aim of ensuring better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance.
LA-MSS was a Portuguese UCI Continental cycling team originally based in Maia, Portugal, later in Póvoa de Varzim, that disbanded by mid 2008 after a police raid at the headquarters.
The Unitary Democratic Coalition (CDU – Coligação Democrática Unitária, PCP–PEV) is an electoral and political coalition between the Portuguese Communist Party (Partido Comunista Português or PCP) and the Ecologist Party "The Greens" (Portuguese: Partido Ecologista "Os Verdes" or PEV).
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was a pluricontinental monarchy formed by the elevation of the Portuguese colony named State of Brazil to the status of a kingdom and by the simultaneous union of that Kingdom of Brazil with the Kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of the Algarves, constituting a single state consisting of three kingdoms.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The University of Coimbra (UC; Universidade de Coimbra) is a Portuguese public university in Coimbra, Portugal.
The University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln) is a university in Cologne, Germany.
The University of Lisbon (ULisboa; Universidade de Lisboa) is a public research university in Lisbon, and the largest university in Portugal.
The University of Porto (Universidade do Porto) is a Portuguese public university located in Porto, and founded on 22 March 1911.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
The Urnfield culture (c. 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe, often divided into several local cultures within a broader Urnfield tradition.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
UTC−01:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of −01.
UTC±00:00 is the following time.
Vale da Rosa is a Portuguese company and table grape brand, headquartered in Ferreira do Alentejo.
Grupo Valouro (Valouro Group) or simply Valouro, is one of the largest economic groups in Portuguese agrobusiness industry and the biggest in the poultry sector.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
The Vasco da Gama Bridge (Ponte Vasco da Gama) is a cable-stayed bridge flanked by viaducts and rangeviews that spans the Tagus River in Parque das Nações in Lisbon, the capital of Portugal.
Vímara PeresVímara is an originally Visigothic name of Germanic origin (cognate with Weimar or Guimar) and Peres is a patronymic, meaning son of Pedro or Peter.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Venezuelan people are people identified with Venezuela.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
Freeway lane sign in the Portuguese A6 freeway/motorway (Marateca-Caia). The leftmost lane is for exclusive use by vehicles equipped with Via Verde tags. Via Verde lanes in the 25 April Bridge toll plaza, Almada. Via Verde (literally "Green Lane") is an electronic toll collection system used in Portugal since April 1991.
Viana do Castelo is a municipality and seat of the district of Viana do Castelo in the Norte Region of Portugal.
The Viana do Castelo District (Distrito de Viana do Castelo) is a district located in the northwest of Portugal, bordered by Spain from the north and Braga District from the south.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Vila Nova de Gaia, or simply Gaia (Cale) is a city and a municipality in Porto District in Norte Region, Portugal.
Vila Nova de Milfontes is a civil parish in the municipality of Odemira of the Portuguese Alentejo region.
Vila Real is a municipality and simultaneously the capital and largest city of the Vila Real District, northern Portugal.
The District of Vila Real (Distrito de Vila Real) is a district of northern Portugal.
Vilar de Mouros Festival is the oldest rock festival in Portugal.
Vinho Verde (literally 'green wine') is a Portuguese wine that originated in the historic Minho province in the far north of the country.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Viriathus (also spelled Viriatus; known as Viriato in Portuguese and Spanish; died 139 BC) was the most important leader of the Lusitanian people that resisted Roman expansion into the regions of western Hispania (as the Romans called it) or western Iberia (as the Greeks called it), where the Roman province of Lusitania would be finally established after the conquest.
Visão is a Portuguese news magazine published weekly in Lisbon, Portugal.
Viseu is a city and municipality in the Centro Region of Portugal and the capital of the district of the same name, with a population of 99.274 inhabitants, and center of the Viseu Dão Lafões intermunipical community, with 267.633 inhabitants.
The Comunidade Intermunicipal Viseu Dão Lafões is an administrative division in Portugal.
The District of Viseu (Distrito de Viseu) is located in the Central Inland of Portugal, the District Capital is the city of Viseu.
The Visigothic Kingdom or Kingdom of the Visigoths (Regnum Gothorum) was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Visionarium is a science museum with interactive displays in Portuguese and English covering subjects ranging from the Portuguese voyages of discoveries to the interiors of microchips and cells.
Vitacress Salads Ltd. is an agriculture company headquartered in St Mary Bourne, Andover, Hampshire, England.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
The Volta a Portugal em bicicleta is a long distance road bicycle race for professionals held in Portugal.
Wamba (Medieval Latin: VVamba, Vamba, Wamba; 643 – 687/688) was the king of the Visigoths from 672 to 680.
The War of Independence of Brazil (also known as the Brazilian War of Independence) was waged between the newly independent Brazilian Empire and United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves which had just undergone the Liberal Revolution of 1820.
The War of the Oranges (Guerra das Laranjas; Guerre des Oranges; Guerra de las Naranjas) was a brief conflict in 1801 in which Spanish forces, instigated by the government of France, and ultimately supported by the French military, invaded Portugal.
Water polo is a competitive team sport played in the water between two teams.
Wave power is the capture of energy of wind waves to do useful work – for example, electricity generation, water desalination, or pumping water.
A weasel is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae.
Western European Summer Time (WEST) is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Western European Time (WET, UTC±00:00) is a time zone covering parts of western and northwestern Europe.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
The wild goat (Capra aegagrus) is a widespread species of goat, with a distribution ranging from Europe and Asia Minor to Central Asia and the Middle East.
The wildcat is a small cat species complex comprising ''Felis silvestris'' and the ''Felis lybica''.
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.
Windsurfing is a surface water sport that combines elements of surfing and sailing.
Wittiza (Witiza, Witica, Witicha, Vitiza, or Witiges; 687 – probably 710) was the Visigothic King of Hispania from 694 until his death, co-ruling with his father, Egica, until 702 or 703.
Women's association football, also commonly known as women’s football, or women's soccer, is the most prominent team sport played by women around the globe.
Working equitation is an equestrian discipline.
A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,236 or more in 2016, calculated using the Atlas method.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
The World Health Organization (WHO) ranked the health systems of its 191 member states in its World Health Report 2000.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
As of June 2018, there are a total of 1,080 World Heritage Sites located in 167 "States Parties" Of the 1,080 sites, 839 are cultural, 206 are natural and 35 are mixed properties.
The World Index of Moral Freedom is an international index ranking one hundred and sixty countries on their performance on five categories of indicators: religious freedom (taking into account both the freedom to practice any religion or none, and the situation of religious control on the state); bioethical freedom (including the legal status of abortion, euthanasia and other practices pertaining to bioethics, like surrogacy or stem cell research); drugs freedom (including the legal status of cannabis and the country's general policy on hard drugs); sexual freedom (including the legal status of pornography and sex services among consenting adults, and the country's age of sexual consent), and family and gender freedom (including women's freedom of movement, the legal status of cohabitation of unmarried couples, same sex marriage and the situation of transgender people).
The World Rugby Sevens Series is an annual series of international rugby sevens tournaments run by World Rugby featuring national sevens teams.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
Xai-Xai is a city in the south of Mozambique.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
Zambujeira do Mar is a former civil parish in the municipality of Odemira, Alentejo region, Portugal.
José Manuel Cerqueira Afonso dos Santos, known as José Afonso, Zeca Afonso or just Zeca (2 August 1929 – 23 February 1987) is among the most influential folk and political musicians in Portuguese history.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
The Zoelae were an ancient Celtic tribe of Gallaecia, living in the north of modern Portugal, in the province of Trás-os-Montes, between the mountains of Serra da Nogueira and the mountains of Mogadouro.
.pt is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Portugal and is managed by Associação DNS.PT.
The 1383–1385 Portuguese interregnum was a time of civil war in Portuguese history when no crowned king reigned.
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon earthquake, occurred in the Kingdom of Portugal on the morning of Saturday, 1 November, the holy day of All Saints' Day, at around 09:40 local time.
The 1890 British Ultimatum was an ultimatum by the British government delivered on 11 January 1890 to Portugal.
The 1966 FIFA World Cup (officially: World Championship-Jules Rimet Cup-England 1966) was the eighth World Cup and it was held in England from 11 to 30 July.
The 1989 FIFA World Youth Championship took place in Saudi Arabia between February 16 and March 3, 1989.
The 1991 FIFA World Youth Championship was the sixth staging of the FIFA World Youth Championship, an international football competition organized by FIFA for men's youth national teams, and the eighth since it was established in 1977 as the FIFA World Youth Tournament.
The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament.
The 2007 Rugby World Cup was the sixth Rugby World Cup, a quadrennial international rugby union competition inaugurated in 1987.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 28 May 1926 coup d'état, sometimes called 28 May Revolution or, during the period of the authoritarian Estado Novo (New State), the National Revolution (Revolução Nacional), was a military coup of a nationalist origin, that put an end to the unstable Portuguese First Republic and initiated the Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship), later refashioned into the Estado Novo, an authoritarian dictatorship that would last until the Carnation Revolution in 1974.
The meridian 32° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 32nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 32 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 43rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 43 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 5 October 1910 revolution was the overthrow of the centuries-old Portuguese Monarchy and its replacement by the Portuguese Republic.
The meridian 6° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
ISO 3166-1:PT, PORTUGAL, Pertual, Portegal, Portgual, Portingale, Portuga, Portugalia, Portugall, Portugaul, Portugual, Portuguese Republic, Portugul, Portugál, Republic of Portugal, Republica Portuguesa, República Portuguesa.