439 relations: A Famosa, Adal Sultanate, Aden, Adil Shahi dynasty, Afonso de Albuquerque, Afonso I of Kongo, Afonso V of Portugal, Africa, Age of Discovery, Age of Enlightenment, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, Ajuran Sultanate, Al-Andalus, Al-Ashraf Qansuh Al-Ghuri, Alexandre de Serpa Pinto, Algarve, Alluvium, Americas, Amharic, Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604), Angola, Angolan Civil War, Annexation of Goa, António Correia (admiral), António de Abreu, António de Oliveira Salazar, António Mota (explorer), António, Prior of Crato, Antwerp, Apostolic Nunciature, Arabian horse, Arguin, Armed Forces Movement, Asia, Asiento, Assimilado, Autonomous administrative division, Autonomous Regions of Portugal, Ayutthaya Kingdom, Azores, Álvaro Fernandes, Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, Bahrain, Bandeirantes, Barawa, Bartolomeo Marchionni, Bartolomeu Dias, Battle of Alcácer Quibir, Battle of Barawa, Battle of Benadir, ..., Battle of Chaul, Battle of Diu (1509), Battle of Shimbra Kure, Battle of the Lys (1918), Battle of Wayna Daga, Bay of All Saints, BBC News, Benin, Binot Paulmier de Gonneville, Brazilian Gold Rush, British Empire, British Hong Kong, Cairo, Calvinism, Canadian Forestry Corps, Cankili I, Cantonese, Cap-Vert, Cape Bojador, Cape Breton Island, Cape Cross, Cape of Good Hope, Cape Town, Cape Verde, Captain-major, Captaincy, Captaincy of Bahia, Capture of Ormuz (1507), Capture of Ormuz (1622), Caravel, Carlos I of Portugal, Carnation Revolution, Cartaz, Catherine de' Medici, Catherine of Alexandria, Catholic Church, Ceuta, Chartered company, Chibalo, Chimaji Appa, China, Chittagong, Chittorgarh, Christopher Columbus, Cinnamon, Cold War, Colonial Brazil, Colonial empire, Colonialism, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, Congo River, Conquest of Ceuta, Cornelis de Houtman, Council of Portugal, Crown of Castile, Crusades, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Daman, Daman and Diu, Decolonisation of Africa, Decolonization of the Americas, Diogo Cão, Diogo Lopes de Sequeira, Diu, India, Dom (title), Donatário, Dowry, Duarte Fernandes, Dum Diversas, Duopoly, Dutch Brazil, Dutch Empire, Dutch people, Dutch Republic, Dutch–Portuguese War, Dynastic union, East India Company, East Timor, East Timorese independence referendum, 1999, Eighty Years' War, Elmina, Elmina Castle, Empire of Brazil, Enclave and exclave, English overseas possessions, English Tangier, Equator, Estado Novo (Portugal), Estácio de Sá, Ethiopia, Ethiopian Empire, Ethiopian Highlands, Europe, European colonialism, Evolution of the Portuguese Empire, Factory (trading post), Ferdinand Magellan, Fernão Gomes, Fernão Mendes Pinto, Flamengo, Rio de Janeiro, Fort Emmanuel, Fort Kochi, Fort São Sebastião, France Antarctique, Francis I of France, Francis Xavier, Francisco de Almeida, Francisco Serrão, French colonial empire, French India, French Revolution, Fujian, Gaspar Corte-Real, Gelawdewos, Georgia (country), Georgian language, Gil Eanes, Glória, Rio de Janeiro, Goa, Gonçalo Coelho, Governador Island, Greenland, Guanabara Bay, Guilford Press, Guinea-Bissau, Gujarat Sultanate, Gulf of Guinea, Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Haitian Revolution, Harbor, Hermenegildo Capelo, Historiography, History of Kozhikode, History of slavery, History of sugar, Hobyo, Hola (ethnic group), Hooghly River, Horn of Africa, House of Habsburg, Huguenots, Humayun, Iberian Peninsula, Iberian Union, Inconfidência Mineira, Independence of Brazil, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indo-European languages, Indonesian invasion of East Timor, Indonesian occupation of East Timor, Infante, Intergovernmental organization, Islam, Island of Mozambique, Italian language, Jabrids, Jaffna, Jaffna Kingdom, Jaga (Kongo), Jan Huyghen van Linschoten, Jawaharlal Nehru, João Álvares Fagundes, João da Silveira, João de Barros, João Fernandes Lavrador, John Cabot, John I of Portugal, John II of Portugal, John III of Portugal, John VI of Portugal, Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau, Jorge de Menezes, Jorge Sampaio, José de Anchieta, K. 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A Famosa (Kota A Famosa; "The Famous" in Portuguese) is a former Portuguese fortress located in Malacca, Malaysia.
The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Harar. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia). The Adal Empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
The Adil Shahi or Adilshahi, was a Shia Muslim dynasty, founded by Yusuf Adil Shah, that ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur, centred on present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka in India, in the Western area of the Deccan region of Southern India from 1489 to 1686.
Afonso de Albuquerque, Duke of Goa (1453 – 16 December 1515) (also spelled Aphonso or Alfonso), was a Portuguese general, a "great conqueror",, Vol.
Mvemba a Nzinga or Nzinga Mbemba (c. 1456–1542 or 1543), also known as King Afonso I, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo in the first half of the 16th century.
Afonso V KG (15 January 1432 – 28 August 1481), called the African, was King of Portugal and of the Algarves.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Axmad Ibraahim al-Gaasi, Harari: አሕመድ ኢቢን ኢብራሂም አል ጋዚ, "Acmad Ibni Ibrahim Al-Gaazi" Afar, أحمد بن إبراهيم الغازي) "the Conqueror" (c. 1506 – February 21, 1543) was an Imam and General of the Adal Sultanate who fought against the Abyssinian empire and defeated several Abysinian Emperors.
The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, الدولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian Ocean trade.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Al-Ashraf Qansuh Al-Ghuri (الأشرف قانصوه الغوري) was the second-to-last of the Mamluk Sultans.
Alexandre Alberto da Rocha de Serpa Pinto, Viscount of Serpa Pinto (aka Serpa Pinto; April 20, 1846December 28, 1900) was a Portuguese explorer of southern Africa and a colonial administrator.
The Algarve (from الغرب "the west") is the southernmost region of continental Portugal.
Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.
The Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England that was never formally declared.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
The Angolan Civil War (Guerra civil angolana) was a major civil conflict in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with some interludes, until 2002.
The Annexation of Goa was the process in which the Republic of India annexed the former Portuguese Indian territories of Goa, Daman and Diu, starting with the "armed action" carried out by the Indian Armed Forces in December 1961.
António Correia (c. 1487 - 1566) was a Portuguese commander who in 1521 conquered Bahrain, beginning eighty years of Portuguese rule in the Persian Gulf.
António de Abreu (c. 1480 – c. 1514) was a 16th-century Portuguese navigator and naval officer.
António de Oliveira Salazar (28 April 1889 – 27 July 1970) was a Portuguese statesman who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968.
António da Mota was a Portuguese trader and explorer, who in 1543 became one of the first Europeans to set foot in Japan.
António, Prior of Crato (153126 August 1595; sometimes called The Determined, The Fighter or The Independentist), was a grandson of King Manuel I of Portugal and claimant of the Portuguese throne during the 1580 dynastic crisis.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
An Apostolic Nunciature is a top-level diplomatic mission of the Holy See, equivalent to an embassy.
The Arabian or Arab horse (الحصان العربي, DMG ḥiṣān ʿarabī) is a breed of horse that originated on the Arabian Peninsula.
Arguin (Arguim) is an island off the western coast of Mauritania in the Bay of Arguin.
A mural dedicated to the MFA, it reads: ''Towards freedom. Long live the 25th of April!'' The Armed Forces Movement (Movimento das Forças Armadas; MFA) was an organisation of lower-ranked left-leaning officers in the Portuguese Armed Forces.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The asiento was the license issued by the Spanish crown, they were included in some peace treaties, by which a set of merchants received the monopoly on a trade route or product, an example of it was the payment of a fee, granting legal permission to sell a fixed number of African slaves in the Spanish colonies.
Assimilado is the term given to African subjects of the colonizing Portuguese Empire from the 1910s to the 1960s, who had reached a level of "civilization", according to Portuguese legal standards, that theoretically qualified them for full rights as Portuguese citizens.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal (Regiões Autónomas de Portugal) are the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores) and Madeira (Região Autónoma da Madeira).
The Ayutthaya Kingdom (อยุธยา,; also spelled Ayudhya or Ayodhaya) was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1351 to 1767.
The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.
Álvaro Fernandes (sometimes given erroneously as António Fernandes), was a 15th-century Portuguese slave-trader and explorer from Madeira, in the service of Henry the Navigator.
Qutb-ud-Din Bahadur Shah, born Bahadur Khan was a sultan of the Muzaffarid dynasty who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate, a late medieval kingdom in India from 1526 to 1535 and again from 1536 to 1537.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
The Bandeirantes were 17th-century Portuguese settlers in Brazil and fortune hunters.
Barawa (Baraawe, مدينة ﺑﺮﺍﻭة Madīna Barāwa), also known as Barawe and Brava, is a port town in the southwestern Lower Shebelle region of Somalia.
Bartolomeo Marchionni (late 15th to early 16th century) was a Florentine merchant established in Lisbon during the Age of Discovery.
Bartolomeu Dias (Anglicized: Bartholomew Diaz; c. 1450 – 29 May 1500), a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer.
The Battle of Alcácer Quibir (also known as "Battle of Three Kings" (معركة الملوك الثلاثة) or "Battle of Oued al-Makhazin" (معركة وادي المخازن) in Morocco) was fought in northern Morocco, near the town of Ksar-el-Kebir (variant spellings: Ksar El Kebir, Alcácer-Quivir, Alcazarquivir, Alcassar, etc.) and Larache, on 4 August 1578.
The Battle of Barawa was an armed military encounter between the Portuguese Empire and the Ajuran Sultanate, in the city of Barawa.
The second Ajuran–Portuguese Conflict (1542) was an armed engagement between the Ajuran Sultanate and the Portuguese Empire.
The Battle of Chaul was a naval battle between the Portuguese and an Egyptian Mamluk fleet in 1508 in the harbour of Chaul in India.
The Battle of Diu was a naval battle fought on 3 February 1509 in the Arabian Sea, in the port of Diu, India, between the Portuguese Empire and a joint fleet of the Sultan of Gujarat, the Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, the Zamorin of Calicut with support of the Republic of Venice.
The Battle of Shimbra Kure ("chickpea swamp") was fought in March 1529 between the forces of Adal led by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, and the Ethiopian army, under Dawit II (Lebna Dengel).
The Battle of the Lys, also known as the Lys Offensive, the Fourth Battle of Ypres, the Fourth Battle of Flanders and Operation Georgette (Batalha de La Lys and 3ème Bataille des Flandres), was part of the 1918 German offensive in Flanders during World War I, also known as the Spring Offensive.
The Battle of Wayna Daga (Amharic for "grape-cultivating altitude") occurred on 21 February 1543 east of Lake Tana in Ethiopia.
The Bay of All Saints (Baía de Todos os Santos), also known as All Saints' Bay and Todos os Santos Bay, is the principal bay of the Brazilian state of Bahia, to which it gave its name.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
Binot Paulmier, sieur de Gonneville, French navigator of the early 16th century, was widely believed in 17th and 18th century France to have been the true discoverer of the Terra Australis (which does not refer to Australia).
The Brazilian Gold Rush was a gold rush that started in the 1690s, in the then Portuguese colony of Brazil in the Portuguese Empire.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
British Hong Kong was the period during which Hong Kong was under British Crown rule, from 1841 to 1997 (excluding the Japanese occupation from 1941 to 1945).
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The Canadian Forestry Corps (Corps forestier canadien in French) was an administrative corps of the Canadian Army with its own cap badge, and other insignia and traditions.
Cankili I (சங்கிலியன்) (died 1565), also known as Segarasasekaram, is the most remembered Jaffna kingdom king in the Sri Lankan Tamil history.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Cap-Vert or the Cape Verde Peninsula is a peninsula in Senegal, and the westernmost point of the continent of Africa and of the Old World mainland.
Cape Bojador (رأس بوجادور, trans. Rā's Būjādūr; ⴱⵓⵊⴷⵓⵔ, Bujdur; Spanish and Cabo Bojador; Cap Boujdour) is a headland on the northern coast of Western Sahara, at 26° 07' 37"N, 14° 29' 57"W (various sources give various locations: this is from the Sailing Directions for the region), as well as the name of the large nearby town with a population of 41,178.
Cape Breton Island (île du Cap-Breton—formerly Île Royale; Ceap Breatainn or Eilean Cheap Breatainn; Unama'kik; or simply Cape Breton, Cape is Latin for "headland" and Breton is Latin for "British") is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada.
Cape Cross (Afrikaans: Kaap Kruis; German: Kreuzkap; Portuguese: Cabo da Cruz) is a small headland in the South Atlantic in Skeleton Coast, western Namibia, on the C34 highway some 60 kilometres north of Hentiesbaai and 120 km north of Swakopmund on the west coast of Namibia.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.
Captain-major is the English rendering of the Portuguese Capitão-mor, or the Capitães dos Donatários (Captains of the Donataries), the colonial officials, placed in charge of a Captaincy (capitania), deemed not (yet) important enough to have its own colonial Governor.
A Captaincy (capitanía, capitania, kapetanija) is a historical administrative division of the former Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires.
The Captaincy of Bahia, fully the Captaincy of the Bay of All Saints (Modern Capitania da Baía de Todos os Santos), was a captaincy of Portuguese Brazil.
The Capture of Ormuz in 1507 occurred when the Portuguese Afonso de Albuquerque attacked Hormuz Island to establish the Fortress of Ormuz.
In the 1622 Capture of Ormuz (Persian: بازپس گیری هرمز) an Anglo-Persian force combined to take over the Portuguese garrison at Hormuz Island after a ten-week siege, thus opening up Persian trade with England in the Persian Gulf.
A caravel (Portuguese: caravela) is a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.
Dom Carlos I of Portugal (English: Charles) known as the Diplomat (also known as the Martyr); o Diplomata and o Martirizado; 28 September 1863 – 1 February 1908) was the King of Portugal and the Algarves. He was the first Portuguese king to be murdered since Sebastian of Portugal in 1578.
The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos), also referred to as the 25th of April (vinte e cinco de Abril), was initially a military coup in Lisbon, Portugal, on 25 April 1974 which overthrew the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo.
Cartaz (plural cartazes, in Portuguese) was a naval trade license or pass issued by the Portuguese in the Indian ocean during the sixteenth century (circa 1502-1750), under the rule of the Portuguese empire.
Catherine de Medici (Italian: Caterina de Medici,; French: Catherine de Médicis,; 13 April 1519 – 5 January 1589), daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici and Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, was an Italian noblewoman who was queen of France from 1547 until 1559, by marriage to King Henry II.
Saint Catherine of Alexandria, or Saint Catharine of Alexandria, also known as Saint Catherine of the Wheel and The Great Martyr Saint Catherine (Ϯⲁⲅⲓⲁ Ⲕⲁⲧⲧⲣⲓⲛ, ἡ Ἁγία Αἰκατερίνη ἡ Μεγαλομάρτυς – translation: Holy Catherine the Great Martyr) is, according to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, who was martyred in the early 4th century at the hands of the pagan emperor Maxentius.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.
A chartered company is an association formed by investors or shareholders for the purpose of trade, exploration, and colonization.
Chibalo is the concept of debt bondage or forced labour in the Ultramar Português (the Portuguese overseas provinces in Africa and Asia), most notably in Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Mozambique (unlike the other European empires of the 20th century, the Portuguese possessions were not considered colonies, but full-fledged provinces of the Portuguese state).
Shreemant Chimaji Ballal Peshwa (aka Chimaji Appa)(1707–1740) was the son of Balaji Vishwanath Bhat and the younger brother of Bajirao Peshwa of Maratha Empire.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chittagong, officially known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh.
Chittorgarh (also Chittor or Chittaurgarh) is a city and a municipality in Rajasthan state of western India.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colonial Brazil (Brasil Colonial) comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
A colonial empire is a collective of territories (often called colonies), mostly overseas, settled by the population of a certain state and governed by that state.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Portuguese: Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa; abbreviated as CPLP), occasionally known in English as the Lusophone Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organization of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language, mostly of former colonies of the Portuguese Empire.
The Congo River (also spelled Kongo River and known as the Zaire River) is the second longest river in Africa after the Nile and the second largest river in the world by discharge volume of water (after the Amazon), and the world's deepest river with measured depths in excess of.
The conquest of Ceuta by the Portuguese on 21 August 1415 marks an important step in the beginning of the Portuguese Empire in Africa.
Cornelis de Houtman (2 April 1565 – 1 September 1599), brother of Frederick de Houtman, was a Dutch explorer who discovered a new sea route from Europe to Indonesia and who thus begun the Dutch spice trade.
The Council of Portugal, officially, the Royal and Supreme Council of Portugal (Portuguese: Real e Supremo Conselho de Portugal; Spanish: Real y Supremo Consejo de Portugal), was the ruling body and a key part of the government of the Kingdom of Portugal during the Iberian Union.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli (DNH in initials) is a union territory in Western India.
Daman and Diu is a union territory in Western India.
Daman is a city and a municipal council in Daman district in the Indian union territory of Daman and Diu.
The decolonisation of Africa took place in the mid-to-late 1950s, very suddenly, with little preparation.
Decolonization of the Americas refers to the process by which the countries in the Americas gained their independence from European rule.
Diogo Cão, anglicised as Diogo Cam and also known as Diego Cam, was a Portuguese explorer and one of the most notable navigators of the Age of Discovery.
D.Diogo Lopes de Sequeira (1465–1530) was a Portuguese fidalgo, sent to analyze the trade potential in Madagascar and Malacca, he arrived at Malacca on 11 September 1509.
Diu is a town in Diu district in the union territory of Daman and Diu, India.
Dom is an honorific prefixed to the given name.
A donatário (Portuguese for "donated" or "endowed "), sometimes anglicized as donatary, was a private person—often a noble—who was granted a considerable piece of land (a donataria) by the Kingdom of Portugal.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
Duarte Fernandes (16th century) was a Portuguese diplomat, explorer, and was the first European to establish diplomatic relations with Thailand, when in 1511 he led a diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya Kingdom (Kingdom of Siam), after the Portuguese conquest of Malacca.
Dum Diversas (English: Until different) is a papal bull issued on 18 June 1452 by Pope Nicholas V. It authorized Afonso V of Portugal to conquer Saracens and pagans and consign them to "perpetual servitude".
A duopoly (from Greek δύο, duo (two) + πωλεῖν, polein (to sell)) is a form of oligopoly where only two sellers exist in one market.
Dutch Brazil, also known as New Holland, was the northern portion of the Portuguese colony of Brazil, ruled by the Dutch during the Dutch colonization of the Americas between 1630 and 1654.
The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Dutch–Portuguese War was an armed conflict involving Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, against the Portuguese Empire.
A dynastic union is a kind of federation with only two different states that are governed by the same dynasty, while their boundaries, their laws and their interests remain distinct.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
An independence referendum was held in East Timor on 30 August 1999.
The Eighty Years' War (Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.
Elmina is a town and the capital of the Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/Abirem District on the south coast of South Ghana in the Central Region, situated on a south-facing bay on the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana, west of Cape Coast.
Elmina Castle was erected by the Portuguese in 1482 as São Jorge da Mina (St. George of the Mine) Castle, also known simply as Mina or Feitoria da Mina) in present-day Elmina, Ghana (formerly the Gold Coast). It was the first trading post built on the Gulf of Guinea, so is the oldest European building in existence south of the Sahara. First established as a trade settlement, the castle later became one of the most important stops on the route of the Atlantic slave trade. The Dutch seized the fort from the Portuguese in 1637, and took over all the Portuguese Gold Coast in 1642. The slave trade continued under the Dutch until 1814; in 1872, the Dutch Gold Coast, including the fort, became a possession of the British Empire. Britain granted the Gold Coast its independence in 1957, and control of the castle was transferred to the nation formed out of the colony, present-day Ghana. Today Elmina Castle is a popular historical site, and was a major filming location for Werner Herzog's 1987 drama film Cobra Verde. The castle is recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and (until 1828) Uruguay.
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
The English overseas possessions, also known as the English colonial empire, comprised a variety of overseas territories that were colonised, conquered, or otherwise acquired by the former Kingdom of England during the centuries before the Acts of Union of 1707 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Tangier was an English overseas possession between 1661 and 1684.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
The Estado Novo ("New State"), or the Second Republic, was the corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal in 1933, which was considered fascist.
Estácio de Sá (1520–1567) was a Portuguese soldier and officer.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian Highlands is a rugged mass of mountains in Ethiopia, situated in the Horn region in Northeast Africa.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
European colonialism refers to the worldwide colonial expansion of European countries, which began in the early modern period, c. 1500.
This article is a comprehensive list of all the actual possessions of the Portuguese Empire.
"Factory" (from Latin facere, meaning "to do"; feitoria, factorij, factorerie, comptoir) was the common name during the medieval and early modern eras for an entrepôt – which was essentially an early form of free-trade zone or transshipment point.
Ferdinand Magellan (or; Fernão de Magalhães,; Fernando de Magallanes,; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.
Fernão Gomes (15th century) was a Portuguese merchant and explorer from Lisbon, the son of Tristão Gomes de Brito (?).
Fernão Mendes Pinto (c.1509 – 8 July 1583) was a Portuguese explorer and writer.
Flamengo is a neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Fort Emmanuel (Fort Manuel) also known as Immanuel Fort is a ruined fort located at Fort Kochi beach in Kochi (Cochin), Kerala, India.
Fort Kochi is a region in the city of Kochi in the state of Kerala, India.
The Fort of São Sebastião lies at the northern end of Stone Town on the Island of Mozambique.
France Antarctique (formerly also spelled France antartique) was a French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567, and had control over the coast from Rio de Janeiro to Cabo Frio.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
Francis Xavier, S.J. (born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta, in Latin Franciscus Xaverius, Basque: Frantzisko Xabierkoa, Spanish: Francisco Javier; 7 April 15063 December 1552), was a Navarrese Basque Roman Catholic missionary, born in Javier (Xavier in Navarro-Aragonese or Xabier in Basque), Kingdom of Navarre (present day Spain), and a co-founder of the Society of Jesus.
Dom Francisco de Almeida, also known as "the Great Dom Francisco" (c. 1450–1 March 1510), was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier and explorer.
Francisco Serrão (died 1521) was a Portuguese explorer and a cousin of Ferdinand Magellan.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
French India, formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
Gaspar Corte-Real (1450 – 1501) was a Portuguese explorer who alongside his father João Vaz Corte-Real (c. 1420-1496) and brother Miguel, participated in various exploratory voyages sponsored jointly by the Portuguese and Danish Crowns.
Gelawdewos (ገላውዴዎስ galāwdēwōs, modern gelāwdēwōs, "Claudius"; 1521/1522 – 23 March 1559) was Emperor (throne name Asnaf Sagad I (አጽናፍ ሰገድ aṣnāf sagad, modern āṣnāf seged, "to whom the horizon bows" or "the remotest regions submit "; September 3, 1540 – March 23, 1559) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty. He was a younger son of Dawit II by Sabla Wengel.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
Gil Eanes (or Eannes, in the old Portuguese spelling) was a 15th-century Portuguese navigator and explorer.
Glória is a middle-class neighborhood of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
Gonçalo Coelho (fl. 1501–04) was a Portuguese explorer who belonged to a prominent family in northern Portugal.
Governador Island (Ilha do Governador, in Portuguese; literally Governor's Island, in English) is the largest island in Guanabara Bay, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Guanabara Bay (Baía de Guanabara) is an oceanic bay located in Southeast Brazil in the state of Rio de Janeiro.
Guilford Publications, Inc. is a New York City-based independent publisher founded in 1973 that specializes in publishing books, journals, and DVDs in psychology, psychiatry, the behavioral sciences, education, and geography.
Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (República da Guiné-Bissau), is a sovereign state in West Africa.
The Gujarat Sultanate was a medieval Indian kingdom established in the early 15th century in present-day Gujarat, India.
The Gulf of Guinea is the northeasternmost part of the tropical Atlantic Ocean between Cape Lopez in Gabon, north and west to Cape Palmas in Liberia.
The Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: Golfe du Saint-Laurent) is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.
Hermenegildo de Brito Capelo (Palmela, 1841 – Lisbon, 1917) was an officer in the Portuguese Navy and a Portuguese explorer, helping to chart territory between Angola and Mozambique in southern Central Africa that was unknown to Europeans in the 1870s and 1880s.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
Kozhikode (Malayalam:കോഴിക്കോട്), also known as Calicut, is a city in the southern Indian state of Kerala.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
Sugar is a common part of human life.
Hobyo (Hobyo, also known as Obbia), is an ancient port city in Galmudug state in the north-central Mudug region of Somalia.
Houla (هوله, sing. Houli هولي) is blanket term for the Arabs of the Banâdir littoral between Kangân and Bandar 'Abbas; and the Qawâsim of Qishm island and the mainland near Bandar Linga who began to infiltrate here about 1760 from the Arabian shore opposite.
The Hooghly River (Hugli; Anglicized alternatively spelled Hoogli or Hugli) or the Bhāgirathi-Hooghly, traditionally called 'Ganga', is an approximately distributary of the Ganges River in West Bengal, India.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad (نصیرالدین محمد|translit.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Crown of Portugal and the Spanish Crown between 1580 and 1640, bringing the entire Iberian Peninsula, as well as Spanish and Portuguese overseas possessions, under the Spanish Habsburg kings Philip II, Philip III and Philip IV of Spain.
Inconfidência Mineira ("Minas Gerais Conspiracy") was an unsuccessful separatist movement in Brazil in 1789.
The Independence of Brazil comprised a series of political and military events that occurred in 1821–1824, most of which involved disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Empire.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indonesian invasion of East Timor, known in Indonesia as Operation Lotus (Operasi Seroja), began on 7 December 1975 when the Indonesian military invaded East Timor under the pretext of anti-colonialism.
The Indonesian occupation of East Timor began in December 1975 and lasted until October 1999.
Infante (f. infanta), also anglicised as Infant or translated as Prince, is the title and rank given in the Iberian kingdoms of Spain (including the predecessor kingdoms of Aragon, Castile, Navarre and León), and Portugal, to the sons and daughters (infantas) of the king, sometimes with the exception of the heir apparent to the throne who usually bears a unique princely or ducal title.
An intergovernmental organization or international governmental organisation (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states), or of other intergovernmental organizations.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Island of Mozambique (Ilha de Moçambique) lies off northern Mozambique, between the Mozambique Channel and Mossuril Bay, and is part of Nampula Province.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Jabrids (الجبريون,الدولة الجبرية, or الجبور) were a dynasty that dominated eastern Arabia in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Jaffna is the capital city of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka.
The Jaffna Kingdom (யாழ்ப்பாண அரசு) (1215–1624 CE), also known as Kingdom of Aryacakravarti, of modern northern Sri Lanka was a historic monarchy that came into existence around the town of Jaffna on the Jaffna peninsula traditionally thought to be established after the invasion of Magha, who is credited with the founding of the Jaffna kingdom and is said to have been from Kalinga, in India.
The Jaga or Jagas were terms applied by the Portuguese to invading bands of African warriors east and south of the kingdom of Kongo.
Jan Huyghen van Linschoten (1563 – 8 February 1611) was a Dutch merchant, trader and historian.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
João Álvares Fagundes (born c. 1460, Kingdom of Portugal, died 1522, Kingdom of Portugal), an explorer and ship owner from Viana do Castelo in Northern Portugal, organized several expeditions to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia around 1520-1521.
João da Silveira (also known as João da Silva) was the first Captain of Portuguese Ceylon.
João de Barros (1496 – 20 October 1570), called the Portuguese Livy, is one of the first great Portuguese historians, most famous for his Décadas da Ásia ("Decades of Asia"), a history of the Portuguese in India, Asia, and southeast Africa.
João Fernandes Lavrador was a Portuguese explorer of the late 15th century.
John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto; c. 1450 – c. 1500) was a Venetian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery of the coast of North America under the commission of Henry VII of England was the first European exploration of coastal North America since the Norse visits to Vinland in the eleventh century.
John I (João, ʒuˈɐ̃w̃; 11 April 1357 – 14 August 1433) was King of Portugal and the Algarve in 1385–1433.
John II (Portuguese: João II,; 3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495), the Perfect Prince (o Príncipe Perfeito), was the king of Portugal and the Algarves in 1477/1481–1495.
John III (João III; 7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557) nicknamed "o Colonizador" (English: "The Colonizer") was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 13 December 1521 to 11 June 1557.
John VI (Portuguese: João VI; –), nicknamed "the Clement", was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves from 1816 to 1825.
The Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau, or Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration, was a treaty between Portugal and the People's Republic of China over the status of Macau.
Jorge de Menezes (c. 1498 – 1537) was a Portuguese explorer, who in 1526–27 landed on the islands of Biak (Cenderawasih Bay), whilst he awaited the passing of the monsoon season, and on the northern coasts of the Bird's Head Peninsula, calling the region Ilhas dos Papuas.
Jorge Fernando Branco de Sampaio, GColTE, GCIH, GColL (born 18 September 1939) is a Portuguese lawyer and politician who was the 18th President of Portugal from 1996 to 2006.
José de Anchieta y Díaz de Clavijo, S.J. (19 March 1534 – 9 June 1597) was a Spanish Jesuit missionary to the Portuguese colony of Brazil in the second half of the 16th century.
Sardar Kavalam Madhava Panikkar (3 June 1895 – 10 December 1963) was an Indian statesman and diplomat also famed as a Professor, newspaper editor, historian and novelist.
Kannur, also known by its anglicised name Cannanore, is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Kannur district, state of Kerala, India.
Kingdom of Cochin (also known as Perumpadappu Swaroopam, Mada-rajyam, or Kuru Swaroopam; Kocci or Perumpaṭappu) was a late medieval Hindu kingdom and later princely state on the Malabar Coast, South India.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Kongo (Kongo: Kongo dya Ntotila or Wene wa Kongo; Portuguese: Reino do Congo) was an African kingdom located in west central Africa in what is now northern Angola, Cabinda, the Republic of the Congo, the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as the southernmost part of Gabon.
The Kingdom of Ndongo, formerly known as Dongo or Angola, was an early-modern African state located in what is now Angola.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Kionga Triangle (German: Kionga-Dreieck) was a small area of land on the south-east coast of Africa.
Kismayo (Kismaayo; كيسمايو,; Italian: Chisimaio) is a port city in the southern Lower Juba (Jubbada Hoose) province of Somalia.
Kochi, also known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea.
Kollam or Quilon (Coulão), formerly Desinganadu, is an old seaport and city on the Laccadive Sea coast of the Indian state of Kerala.
Kozhikode, or Calicut, is a city in Kerala, India on the Malabar Coast.
The Kristang (otherwise known as "Portuguese-Eurasians" or "Malacca Portuguese") are a creole ethnic group of people of mixed Portuguese and Malaccan descent based in Malaysia and to some extent in Singapore.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
A league is a unit of length.
The Liberal Revolution of 1820 (Revolução Liberal) was a Portuguese political revolution that erupted in 1820.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
The government of Portuguese India started in 1505, six years after the discovery of the sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida, then settled at Kochi.
This is a list of the largest empires in world history, but the list is not and cannot be definitive since the decision about which entities to consider as "empires" is difficult and fraught with controversy.
This article will list all fortifications that were built, or ordered to be built by the Portuguese throughout the globe.
The monarchs of Portugal ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution.
The complete list of Presidents of the Portuguese Republic consists of the 20 heads of state in the history of Portugal since the 5 October 1910 revolution that installed a republican regime.
The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political.
This is a list of Spanish monarchs, that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word.
The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where Portuguese is an official or de facto language.
This is a list of the Viceroys of Portugal during the Iberian Union (1580–1640).
The Loaísa expedition was a 16th-century voyage of discovery to the Pacific Ocean, commanded by Garcia Jofre de Loaísa (1490 – 20 July 1526) and ordered by King Charles I of Spain to colonize the Spice Islands in the East Indies.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Lopo Soares de Albergaria (c. 1460 in Lisbon – c. 1520 in Torres Vedras) was the third Governor of Portuguese India, having reached India in 1515 to supersede governor Afonso de Albuquerque.
Lourenço de Almeida (c.1480 - March 1508) was a Portuguese explorer and military commander.
D. Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal, Duke of Braganza, (21 March 1887 – 1 February 1908) was the eldest son and heir-apparent of King Carlos I of Portugal.
Luso-Africans are Africans who are people of mixed African and Portuguese heritage generally living in Africa.
Lusotropicalism or Luso-tropicalism was first used by Brazilian sociologist Gilberto Freyre to describe the distinctive character of Portuguese imperialism overseas, proposing that the Portuguese were better colonizers than other European nations.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.
Madre de Deus (Mother of God; also called Mãe de Deus and Madre de Dios) was a Portuguese ship, renowned for her fabulous cargo, which stoked the English appetite for trade with the Far East, then a Portuguese monopoly.
Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
Mandu or Mandavgad is an ancient city in the present-day Mandav area of the Dhar district.
Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.
Manuel da Nóbrega (old spelling Manoel da Nóbrega) (18 October 1517 – 18 October 1570) was a Portuguese Jesuit priest and first Provincial of the Society of Jesus in colonial Brazil.
Manuel José de Arriaga Brum da Silveira e Peyrelongue (July 8, 1840 in Horta – March 5, 1917 in Santos-o-Velho, Lisbon) was a Portuguese lawyer, the first Attorney-General and the first elected President of the First Portuguese Republic, following the deposition of King Manuel II of Portugal and a Republican Provisional Government headed by Teófilo Braga (who would succeed him in the post following his resignation).
Dom Manuel I (31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521), the Fortunate (Port. o Afortunado), King of Portugal and the Algarves, was the son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, by his wife, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal.
Dom Manuel II (15 November 1889 – 2 July 1932), "the Patriot" ("o Patriota") or "the Unfortunate" ("o Desventurado"), was the last King of Portugal, ascending the throne after the assassination of his father, King Carlos I, and his elder brother, Luís Filipe, the Prince Royal.
Manumission, or affranchisement, is the act of an owner freeing his or her slaves.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
Dona Maria I (English: Mary I; 17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816) was Queen of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, المرينيون Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.
Count of Oeiras (in Portuguese Conde de Oeiras) was a Portuguese title of nobility created by a royal decree, dated from July 15, 1759, by King Joseph I of Portugal, and granted to Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Head of the Portuguese Government.
Martim Afonso de Sousa (c. 1500 – 21 July 1564) was a Portuguese fidalgo, explorer and colonial administrator.
Mato Grosso (– lit. "Thick Bushes") is one of the states of Brazil, the third-largest by area, located in the western part of the country.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mem de Sá (c. 1500 – 2 March 1572) was a Governor-General of the Portuguese colony of Brazil from 1557-1572.
Merca (Marka, مركة) is an ancient port city in the southern Lower Shebelle province of Somalia.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
Miguel Corte-Real (c. 1448 – 1502?) was a Portuguese explorer who charted about 600 miles of the coast of Labrador.
Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil.
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.
Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Mozambican Civil War was a civil war fought in Mozambique from 1977 to 1992.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Muqrin ibn Zamil (مقرن بن زامل Migrin ibin Zāmil), the ruler of eastern Arabia, including al-Hasa, al-Qatif, and Bahrain, and the last Jabrid ruler of Bahrain.
Muscat (مسقط) is the capital and largest city of Oman.
() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Salvation Junta (Junta de Salvação Nacional) was a group of military officers designated to maintain the government of Portugal in April 1974, after the Carnation Revolution had overthrown the Estado Novo dictatorial regime.
Nayakas of Keladi, also known as Nayakas of Bednore and Kings of Ikkeri (1499–1763), were an Indian dynasty based from Keladi in Shimoga district, Karnataka, India.
Neapolitan (autonym: (’o n)napulitano; napoletano) is a Romance language of the Italo-Dalmatian group spoken across much of southern Italy, except for southern Calabria and Sicily.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
Ningbo, formerly written Ningpo, is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province in China. It comprises the urban districts of Ningbo proper, three satellite cities, and a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea. Its port, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world and the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status. As of the 2010 census, the entire administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with 3.5 million in the six urban districts of Ningbo proper. To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai; to the east lies Zhoushan in the East China Sea; on the west and south, Ningbo borders Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively.
The official languages of the United Nations are the six languages that are used in UN meetings, and in which all official UN documents are written.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
"One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle formulated by Deng Xiaoping, the Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China (PRC), for the reunification of China during the early 1980s.
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
The Kingdom of Ormus (also known as Ohrmuzd, Hormuz, and Ohrmazd; Portuguese Ormuz) was a 10th- to 17th-century kingdom located within the Persian Gulf and extending as far as the Strait of Hormuz.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ouidah or Whydah (Xwéda; Ouidah, Juida, and Juda by the French; Ajudá by the Portuguese; and Fida by the Dutch), formally the Kingdom of Whydah, is a city on the coast of the Republic of Benin.
Overseas province (província ultramarina; provincia ultramarina) was a designation used by Portugal to describe its non-continental holdings and by Spain to refer to Spanish Sahara.
A padrão (standard; plural: padrões) was a large stone cross inscribed with the coat of arms of Portugal that was placed as part of a land claim by numerous Portuguese explorers during the Portuguese Age of Discovery.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
Paubrasilia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae.
Paulo Dias de Novais (c. 1510 – 1589), a fidalgo of the Royal Household, was a Portuguese colonizer of Africa in the 16th century and the first Captain-Governor of Portuguese Angola.
Pedro, or Pêro da Covilhã or (c. 1460 – after 1526), sometimes written: Pero de Covilhăo, was a Portuguese diplomat and explorer.
Pedro Álvares Cabral (or; c. 1467 or 1468 – c. 1520) was a Portuguese nobleman, military commander, navigator and explorer regarded as the discoverer of Brazil.
Dom Pedro I (English: Peter I; 12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834), nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil.
Ethiopia's population is highly diverse.
Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country.
Infante D. Pedro, Duke of Coimbra KG (Peter), (9 December 1392 – 20 May 1449) was a Portuguese ''infante'' (prince) of the House of Aviz, son of King John I of Portugal and his wife Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
The Pink Map, also known as the Rose-Coloured Map, was a document prepared in 1885 to represent Portugal's claim of sovereignty over a land corridor connecting their colonies of Angola and Mozambique during the "Scramble for Africa".
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Pluricontinentalism (Portuguese: Pluricontinentalismo) was a geopolitical concept, positing that Portugal was a transcontinental country and a unitary nation-state consisting of continental Portugal and its overseas provinces.
The political status of the Azores is defined by the Political-Administrative Statute of the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Estatuto Político-Administrativo da Região Autónoma dos Açores, EPARAA), which acts as the standard legal constitutional framework for the autonomy of the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.
Portuguese Africa may refer to.
Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa.
Cape Verde was a colony of the Portuguese Empire from the initial settlement of the Cape Verde Islands in 1462 until the independence of Cape Verde in 1975.
Portuguese Ceylon (Ceilão Português, Sinhala: පෘතුගීසි ලංකාව Puruthugisi Lankawa) was the control of the Kingdom of Kotte by the Portuguese Empire, in present-day Sri Lanka, after the country's Crisis of the Sixteenth Century and into the Kandyan period.
The Portuguese Colonial War (Guerra Colonial Portuguesa), also known in Portugal as the Overseas War (Guerra do Ultramar) or in the former colonies as the War of Liberation (Guerra de Libertação), was fought between Portugal's military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal's African colonies between 1961 and 1974.
The Portuguese conquest of Goa occurred when the governor of Portuguese India Afonso de Albuquerque captured the city in 1510.
In the Medieval Kingdom of Portugal, the Cortes was an assembly of representatives of the estates of the realm - the nobility, clergy and bourgeoisie.
The discovery of the sea route to India is the description sometimes used in Europe and among the Portuguese for the first recorded trip made directly from Europe to India via the Atlantic Ocean.
The Portuguese Fireplace is a war memorial in the New Forest National Park, near the village of Lyndhurst, Hampshire, England.
The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.
The Portuguese inventions are the inventions created by people born in Portugal (continent or overseas) or whose nationality is Portuguese.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese is spoken in a number of African countries and is the official language in six African states: Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe and Equatorial Guinea.
Portuguese Macau was the period of Macau as a Portuguese colony and later, an overseas province under Portuguese administration from 1557 to 1999.
Portuguese Malacca was the territory of Malacca that, for 130 years (1511–1641), was a Portuguese colony.
Portuguese Mozambique (Moçambique) or Portuguese East Africa (África Oriental Portuguesa) are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
The Portuguese Restoration War (Guerra da Restauração; Guerra de Restauración portuguesa) was the name given by nineteenth-century Romantic historians to the war between Portugal and Spain that began with the Portuguese revolution of 1640 and ended with the Treaty of Lisbon in 1668.
Chittagong (Xatigan in Portuguese), the second largest city and main port of Bangladesh, was home to a thriving trading post of the Portuguese Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 (Crise de sucessão de 1580) came about as a result of the death of young King Sebastian I of Portugal in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in 1578.
Portuguese Surinamese are Surinamese citizens of Portuguese ancestry.
Portuguese Timor (Timor Português) was a Portuguese colony that existed between 1702 and 1975.
Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have Portuguese as their substantial lexifier.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
Prester John (Presbyter Johannes) was a legendary Christian patriarch, presbyter (elder) and king who was popular in European chronicles and tradition from the 12th through the 17th centuries.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
Infante D. Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (4 March 1394 – 13 November 1460), better known as Prince Henry the Navigator (Infante Dom Henrique, o Navegador), was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion.
A prince regent, or prince-regent, is a prince who rules a monarchy as regent instead of a monarch, e.g., as a result of the Sovereign's incapacity (minority or illness) or absence (remoteness, such as exile or long voyage, or simply no incumbent).
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.
The Processo Revolucionário Em Curso (English: Ongoing Revolutionary Process) was a period of the Portuguese transition to democracy which started after a failed right-wing coup d'état on March 11, 1975, and ended after a failed left-wing coup d'état on November 25, 1975.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Regional Italian, sometimes also called dialects of Italian, is any regionalRegional in the broad sense of the word; not to be confused with the Italian endonym regione for Italy's administrative units variety of the Italian language.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
Roberto Ivens (June 12, 1850 in Ponta Delgada – January 28, 1898 in Dafundo, Oeiras) was a Portuguese explorer of Africa, geographer, colonial administrator, and an officer of the Portuguese Navy.
Romanus Pontifex, Latin for "The Roman Pontiff", is a papal bull written in 1454 by Pope Nicholas V to King Afonso V of Portugal.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Salvador Correia de Sá e Benevides (b.1602 Cadiz - † January 1, 1688 Lisbon) was a Portuguese admiral and crown administrator.
Salvador, also known as São Salvador, Salvador de Bahia, and Salvador da Bahia, is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia.
The Savage Islands or Selvagens Islands (Ilhas Selvagens) are a small Portuguese archipelago in the North Atlantic, south of Madeira, and north of the Canary Islands.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
São Tomé and Príncipe, officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an island nation in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa.
São Vicente (after Saint Vincent of Saragossa, the patron Saint of Lisbon, Portugal) is a coastal municipality at southern São Paulo, Brazil.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
Dom Sebastian I (Portuguese: Sebastião I; 20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578) was King of Portugal and the Algarves from 11 June 1557 to 4 August 1578 and the penultimate Portuguese monarch of the House of Aviz.
The Second Siege of Diu was a siege of the Portuguese Indian city of Diu by the Gujarat Sultanate in 1546.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Shivappa Nayaka (ಶಿವಪ್ಪ ನಾಯಕ) (r.1645–1660), popularly known as Keladi Shivappa Nayaka, was a notable ruler of the Keladi Nayaka Kingdom.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Siege of Diu occurred when an army of the Sultanate of Gujarat under Khadjar Safar, aided by forces of the Ottoman Empire attempted to capture the city of Diu in 1538, then held by the Portuguese.
The Siege of Fort Jesus was a siege of the Portuguese fort at Mombasa by the army of the Imam of Oman, Saif I bin Sultan, from 13 March 1696 to 13 December 1698.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
The Sino–British Joint Declaration, formally known as the Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, was signed by Premier Zhao Ziyang of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom (UK) on behalf of their respective governments on 19 December 1984 in Beijing.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Socotra سُقُطْرَى Suqadara, also called Soqotra, located between the Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Sea, is the largest of four islands of the Socotra archipelago.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The Strait of Magellan, also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
is one of the Ōsumi Islands belonging to Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan.
, most often called in Japanese and sometimes in English, which means matchlock gun, was a type of matchlock configured arquebus firearm introduced to Japan through the Portuguese in 1543.
Tangasseri or Thangassery is a heavily populated beach area on the shores of the Arabian Sea in Kollam city, Kerala, India.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Thomas Kitchin (or Thomas Kitchen) (1718–1784) was an English engraver and cartographer, who became hydrographer to the king.
Tidore (Kota Tidore Kepulauan) is a city, island, and archipelago in the Maluku Islands of eastern Indonesia, west of the larger island of Halmahera.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Timoji (also referred to as Timoja or Timmayya) was a privateer who served the Vijayanagara Empire and the Portuguese Empire during the first decade of the 16th century.
Joaquim José da Silva Xavier (November 12, 1746 – April 21, 1792), known as Tiradentes, was a leading member of the Brazilian revolutionary movement known as Inconfidência Mineira, whose aim was full independence from Portuguese colonial power and creation of a Brazilian republic.
Tomé de Sousa (1503-1579) was the first governor-general of the Portuguese colony of Brazil from 1549 until 1553.
The transfer of sovereignty of Macau from the Portuguese Republic to the People's Republic of China (PRC) occurred on 20 December 1999.
The Treaty of Ayllón was a peace treaty signed in Ayllón, Castile, between the Kingdom of Portugal and Crown of Castile in 1411.
The Treaty of Bassein was signed by Sultan Bahadur of Gujarat and the Kingdom of Portugal on 23 December 1534 while on board the galleon São Mateus.
The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.
The Treaty of Zaragoza, or Treaty of Saragossa, also referred to as the Capitulation of Zaragoza, was a peace treaty between the Spanish Crown and Portugal, signed on 22 April 1529 by King John III and the Emperor Charles V, in the Aragonese city of Zaragoza.
Trincomalee (திருகோணமலை Tirukōṇamalai; ත්රිකුණාමළය Trikuṇāmalaya) also known as Gokanna, is the administrative headquarters of the Trincomalee District and major resort port city of Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.
Tristão da Cunha (sometimes misspelled Tristão d'Acunha;; c. 1460 – c. 1540) was a Portuguese explorer and naval commander.
The Tropic of Capricorn (or the Southern Tropic) is the circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point on the December (or southern) solstice.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
The Tupi people were one of the most important indigenous peoples in Brazil.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was a pluricontinental monarchy formed by the elevation of the Portuguese colony named State of Brazil to the status of a kingdom and by the simultaneous union of that Kingdom of Brazil with the Kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of the Algarves, constituting a single state consisting of three kingdoms.
The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia.
The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota.
Uti possidetis (Latin for "as you possess") is a principle in international law that territory and other property remains with its possessor at the end of a conflict, unless otherwise provided for by treaty; if such a treaty does not include conditions regarding the possession of property and territory taken during the war, then the principle of uti possidetis will prevail.
Vasai, historically known as Bassein or Baçaim is a historical suburban town in Palghar district of Maharashtra state in Konkan division in India.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
The Vijayanagara Empire (also called Karnata Empire, and the Kingdom of Bisnegar by the Portuguese) was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
World history or global history (not to be confused with diplomatic, transnational or international history) is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yaruba dynasty (also spelled Ya'Aruba or Ya'arubi) were rulers of Oman between 1624 and 1742, holding the title of Imam.
Zaire, officially the Republic of Zaire (République du Zaïre), was the name for the Democratic Republic of the Congo that existed between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa.
Zamorin of Calicut (Samoothiri; Portuguese: Samorim, Dutch: Samorijn, Chinese: ShamitihsiMa Huan's Ying-yai Sheng-lan: 'The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores'. Translated and Edited by J. V. G. Mills. Cambridge University Press for the Hakluyt Society (1970).) is the title of the Hindu monarch of the Kingdom of Calicut (Kozhikode) on Malabar Coast, India.
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon earthquake, occurred in the Kingdom of Portugal on the morning of Saturday, 1 November, the holy day of All Saints' Day, at around 09:40 local time.
The 1890 British Ultimatum was an ultimatum by the British government delivered on 11 January 1890 to Portugal.
Colonial history of Portugal, Colonies of Portugal, First Portuguese Empire, Império Português, Portugese Empire, Portuguese Colonial, Portuguese Colony, Portuguese Eastern Empire, Portuguese Overseas Empire, Portuguese colonial, Portuguese colonial empire, Portuguese colonialism, Portuguese colonialists, Portuguese colonies, Portuguese colonization in Asia, Portuguese colony, Portuguese empire, Portuguese imperialism, Portuguese in China, Portuguese possessions, Second Portuguese Empire, The Portuguese Empire, The portugese empire, Third Portuguese Empire.