116 relations: Allophone, Alveolar consonant, Apical consonant, Apophony, Approximant consonant, Assimilation (phonology), Bahia, Brazilian Portuguese, Caipira dialect, Catalan language, Clitic, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Coarticulation, Comparison of Portuguese and Spanish, Complementary distribution, Continuant, Cordel literature, Crasis, Dental consonant, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Diphthong, Dorsal consonant, Elision, Epenthesis, Espírito Santo, European Portuguese, Favela, Federal District (Brazil), Flap consonant, French language, Fricative consonant, Fusion (phonetics), Galician-Portuguese, Gaucho, Glottal consonant, Grammatical conjugation, Hiatus (linguistics), History of Portuguese, International Phonetic Alphabet, Isochrony, Jorge Amado, L-vocalization, Labial consonant, Labialization, Lateral consonant, Lenition, Loanword, Minas Gerais, Mineiro, ..., Minimal pair, Monophthong, Morpheme, N (kana), Nasal consonant, Nasal palatal approximant, Nasal vowel, Nasalization, Near-close back unrounded vowel, Northeast Region, Brazil, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Oxytone, Palatal consonant, Phoneme, Pluricentric language, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto, Portuguese dialects, Portuguese language, Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement of 1990, Portuguese orthography, Postalveolar consonant, Prosody (linguistics), R-colored vowel, Register (sociolinguistics), Relative articulation, Relaxed pronunciation, Rhotacism (sound change), Rhotic consonant, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (state), Rio Grande do Sul, Romance languages, Sandhi, São Paulo, São Paulo (state), Semivowel, Sequela, Sibilant, Silent letter, Sociolect, Spanish language, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Syllable, Synaeresis, Terras de Trás-os-Montes, Tone (linguistics), Trás-os-Montes (region), Trill consonant, Tupi language, Uruguay, Uvular consonant, Uvular trill, Velar consonant, Velarization, Voice (phonetics), Voiced uvular fricative, Voiceless glottal fricative, Voiceless uvular fricative, Voiceless velar fricative, Voicelessness, Vowel length, Vowel reduction, Zona da Mata (Minas Gerais). Expand index (66 more) » « Shrink index
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.
In linguistics, apophony (also known as ablaut, (vowel) gradation, (vowel) mutation, alternation, internal modification, stem modification, stem alternation, replacive morphology, stem mutation, internal inflection etc.) is any sound change within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional).
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Bahia (locally) is one of the 26 states of Brazil and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
Caipira ((Old Tupi ka'apir or kaa-pira, which means "bush cutter") is a Brazilian Portuguese dialect spoken in the State of São Paulo and adjacent parts of neighbouring Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, Minas Gerais, and Paraná.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Coarticulation in its general sense refers to a situation in which a conceptually isolated speech sound is influenced by, and becomes more like, a preceding or following speech sound.
Portuguese and Spanish, although closely related sister languages, differ in many details of their phonology, grammar, and lexicon.
In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind in which one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (complementary) set of environments.
In phonology, a continuant is a speech sound produced without a complete closure in the oral cavity, namely fricatives, approximants and vowels.
Cordel literature (from the Portuguese term, literatura de cordel, literally “string literature”) are popular and inexpensively printed booklets or pamphlets containing folk novels, poems and songs.
Crasis (from the Greek κρᾶσις, "mixing", "blending") is a type of contraction in which two vowels or diphthongs merge into one new vowel or diphthong, making one word out of two.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Dorsal consonants are articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum).
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).
Espírito Santo (meaning "Holy Spirit") is a state in southeastern Brazil.
European Portuguese (português europeu), also known as Lusitanian Portuguese (português lusitano) and Portuguese of Portugal (português de Portugal) in Brazil, or even “Portuguese Portuguese” refers to the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal.
A favela, Brazilian Portuguese for slum, is a low-income historically informal urban area in Brazil.
The Federal District (Distrito Federal) is one of 27 federative units of Brazil.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
In phonetics and historical linguistics, fusion, or coalescence, is the merger of features from two or more segments into a single segment.
Galician-Portuguese (galego-portugués or galaico-portugués, galego-português or galaico-português), also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula.
A gaucho or gaúcho is a skilled horseman, reputed to be brave and unruly.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.
The Portuguese language developed in the Western Iberian Peninsula from Latin spoken by Roman soldiers and colonists starting in the 3rd century BC.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Isochrony is the postulated rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language.
Jorge Leal Amado de Faria (10 August 1912 – 6 August 2001) was a Brazilian writer of the modernist school.
L-vocalization, in linguistics, is a process by which a lateral approximant sound such as, or, more often, velarized, is replaced by a vowel or a semivowel.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil.
Mineiro feminine: Mineira), also called Brazilian mountain dialect, is the Brazilian Portuguese term for the inhabitants of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais and also the characteristic accent spoken in the heart of that state, and also in its capital, Belo Horizonte. This dialect is quite complicated, due the pronunciation of the words, which is fast and curled. There are times when other Brazilians, who speak other dialects, do not understand what the mineiros speak.
In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
ん, in hiragana, or ン in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, which each represent one mora.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The nasal palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some oral languages.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
The near-close back unrounded vowel or near-high back unrounded vowel, is a type of a vowel sound, used in a few spoken languages.
The Northeast Region of Brazil (Região Nordeste do Brasil) is one of the five official and political regions of the country according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
An oxytone (from the ὀξύτονος,, 'sharp-sounding') is a word with the stress on the last syllable, such as the English words correct and reward.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several interacting codified standard versions, often corresponding to different countries.
The Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, PUCRS) is a private non-profit Catholic university.
Porto (also known as Oporto in English) is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula.
Portuguese dialects are mutually intelligible variations of the Portuguese language over Portuguese-speaking countries and other areas holding some degree of cultural bound with the language.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement of 1990 (Acordo Ortográfico da Língua Portuguesa de 1990) is an international treaty whose purpose is to create a unified orthography for the Portuguese language, to be used by all the countries that have Portuguese as their official language.
Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.
In phonetics, an r-colored or rhotic vowel (also called a retroflex vowel, vocalic r, or a rhotacized vowel) is a vowel that is modified in a way that results in a lowering in frequency of the third formant.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
In phonetics and phonology, relative articulation is description of the manner and place of articulation of a speech sound relative to some reference point.
Relaxed pronunciation (also called condensed pronunciation or word slurs) is a phenomenon that happens when the syllables of common words are slurred together.
Rhotacism or rhotacization is a sound change that converts one consonant (usually a voiced alveolar consonant:,,, or) to a rhotic consonant in a certain environment.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil.
Rio Grande do Sul (lit. Great Southern River) is a state located in the southern region of Brazil.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
SandhiThe pronunciation of the word "sandhi" is rather diverse among English speakers.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
A sequela (usually used in the plural, sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, therapy, or other trauma.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the word's pronunciation.
In sociolinguistics, a sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group or other social group.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In linguistics, synaeresis (also spelled syneresis) is a phonological process of sound change in which two adjacent vowels within a word are combined into a single syllable.
The Comunidade Intermunicipal das Terras de Trás-os-Montes (English: Lands of Trás-os-Montes) is an administrative division in northeastern Portugal.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Trás-os-Montes was one of the 13 regions of continental Portugal identified by geographer Amorim Girão, in a study published between 1927 and 1930.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Old Tupi or classical Tupi is an extinct Tupian language which was spoken by the native Tupi people of Brazil, mostly those who inhabited coastal regions in South and Southeast Brazil.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word (e.g. for the Creek language), and which are perceived as "weakening".
Zona da Mata is a mesoregion of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, situated in the southeastern part of the state, along the border of the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo.