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Post-transcriptional modification

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Post-transcriptional modification or Co-transcriptional modification is the process in eukaryotic cells where primary transcript RNA is converted into mature RNA. [1]

51 relations: Adenine, Adenosine triphosphate, Adenylylation, Alternative splicing, Antibody, Biomolecular structure, Cell nucleus, Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor, Cleavage stimulation factor, CPSF3, Eukaryote, Exon, Five-prime cap, Genome, Guanine, Guanosine triphosphate, Guanylyltransferase, H2AFZ, Histone 3' UTR stem-loop, Intron, Leeds, Mature messenger RNA, Messenger RNA, MRNA (guanine-N7-)-methyltransferase, Nature Reviews Genetics, New York City, Nucleosome, Nucleotide, Phosphatase, Phosphodiester bond, Polyadenylation, Polynucleotide adenylyltransferase, Precursor mRNA, Primary transcript, Protein, Pyrophosphate, Ribonuclease, Ribose, RNA, RNA editing, RNA polymerase II, RNA splicing, RNA-Seq, S-Adenosyl methionine, SLBP, Small nuclear RNA, Spliceosome, Transcription (biology), Translation (biology), U7 small nuclear RNA, ..., 7-Methylguanosine. Expand index (1 more) »

Adenine

Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Adenylylation

Adenylylation, now known as AMPylation, is a process in which adenosine monophosphate (AMP) molecule is covalently attached to a protein side chain, altering the function of the protein.

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Alternative splicing

Alternative splicing, or differential splicing, is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins.

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Antibody

An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Biomolecular structure

Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor

Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) is involved in the cleavage of the 3' signaling region from a newly synthesized pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) molecule in the process of gene transcription.

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Cleavage stimulation factor

Cleavage stimulatory factor or cleavage stimulation factor (CstF or CStF) is a heterotrimeric protein, made up of the proteins CSTF1 (55kDa), CSTF2 (64kDa) and CSTF3 (77kDa), totalling about 200 kDa.

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CPSF3

Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CPSF3 gene.

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Eukaryote

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Exon

An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.

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Five-prime cap

In molecular biology, the five-prime cap (5′ cap) is a specially altered nucleotide on the 5′ end of some primary transcripts such as precursor messenger RNA.

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Genome

In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Guanine

Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Guanosine triphosphate

Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.

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Guanylyltransferase

Guanylyl transferases are enzymes that transfer a guanosine mono phosphate group, usually from GTP to another molecule, releasing pyrophosphate.

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H2AFZ

Histone H2A.Z is a protein that in humans is encoded by the H2AFZ gene.

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Histone 3' UTR stem-loop

The histone 3' UTR stem-loop is an RNA element involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of the histone mRNAs, and in the regulation of stability and of translation efficiency in the cytoplasm.

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Intron

An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.

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Leeds

Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.

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Mature messenger RNA

Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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MRNA (guanine-N7-)-methyltransferase

In enzymology, a mRNA (guanine-N7-)-methyltransferase also known as mRNA cap guanine-N7 methyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl methionine and G(5')pppR-RNA, whereas its two products are S-adenosylhomocysteine and m7G(5')pppR-RNA.

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Nature Reviews Genetics

Nature Reviews Genetics is a monthly review journal in genetics and covers the full breadth of modern genetics.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nucleosome

A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores.

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Nucleotide

Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Phosphatase

A phosphatase is an enzyme that uses water to cleave a phosphoric acid monoester into a phosphate ion and an alcohol.

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Phosphodiester bond

A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds.

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Polyadenylation

Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly(A) tail to a messenger RNA.

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Polynucleotide adenylyltransferase

In enzymology, a polynucleotide adenylyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and RNA, whereas its two products are pyrophosphate and RNA with an extra adenosine nucleotide at its 3' end.

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Precursor mRNA

Precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) is an immature single strand of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA).

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Primary transcript

A primary transcript is the single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) product synthesized by transcription of DNA, and processed to yield various mature RNA products such as mRNAs, tRNAs, and rRNAs.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Pyrophosphate

In chemistry, a pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.

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Ribonuclease

Ribonuclease (commonly abbreviated RNase) is a type of nuclease that catalyzes the degradation of RNA into smaller components.

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Ribose

Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA editing

RNA editing is a molecular process through which some cells can make discrete changes to specific nucleotide sequences within an RNA molecule after it has been generated by RNA polymerase.

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RNA polymerase II

RNA polymerase II (RNAP II and Pol II) is a multiprotein complex.

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RNA splicing

In molecular biology, splicing is the editing of the nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA).

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RNA-Seq

RNA-Seq (RNA sequencing), also called whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (WTSS), uses next-generation sequencing (NGS) to reveal the presence and quantity of RNA in a biological sample at a given moment.

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S-Adenosyl methionine

S-Adenosyl methionineSAM-e, SAMe, SAM, S-Adenosyl-L-methionine, AdoMet, ademetionine is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation.

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SLBP

Histone RNA hairpin-binding protein or stem-loop binding protein (SLBP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLBP gene.

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Small nuclear RNA

Small nuclear ribonucleic acid (snRNA), also commonly referred to as U-RNA, is a class of small RNA molecules that are found within the splicing speckles and Cajal bodies of the cell nucleus in eukaryotic cells.

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Spliceosome

A spliceosome is a large and complex molecular machine found primarily within the splicing speckles of the cell nucleus of eukaryotic cells.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

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U7 small nuclear RNA

The U7 small nuclear RNA (U7 snRNA) is an RNA molecule and a component of the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex (U7 snRNP).

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7-Methylguanosine

7-Methylguanosine (m7G) is a modified purine nucleoside.

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MRNA processing, Post trancriptional modification, Post transcriptional modification, Pre-mRNA processing, RNA processing, Rna processing, Rna processing, post-transcriptional.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-transcriptional_modification

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