108 relations: "Hello, World!" program, Addison-Wesley, Adobe Systems, Apple Inc., ASCII, B-spline, Bézier curve, Bill Paxton (computer scientist), Bitstream Inc., Bob Sproull, C (programming language), Charles Geschke, CJK characters, Color space, Computer font, Computer graphics, Computer memory, Computer-aided design, Concatenative programming language, CSR (company), Data structure, De facto, Desktop publishing, Device driver, Display PostScript, Document Structuring Conventions, Dot matrix printer, Electronic publishing, Encapsulated PostScript, Escape sequence, Evans & Sutherland, Font, Font hinting, FontLab, Fontographer, Forth (programming language), Free software, Garbage collection (computer science), Ghostscript, Global Graphics, Glyph, Graphical user interface, Harlequin RIP, Hewlett-Packard, HP LaserJet, HP-GL, Image compression, Image resolution, Interpress, Interpreted language, ..., Interpreter (computing), Interpreter directive, John Warnock, JPEG, Laser printing, LaserWriter, LaTeX, Lisp (programming language), Literal (computer programming), Macromedia, Martin Newell (computer scientist), Metafont, Microprocessor, Motorola 68000, New York City, NeWS, NeXT, NeXTSTEP, Object-oriented programming, OpenType, Page description language, PARC (company), PDF, Plotter, Point (typography), PostScript fonts, PostScript Printer Description, PostScript Standard Encoding, Printer Command Language, Procedural programming, Programming paradigm, QuickDraw, Raster graphics, Raster image processor, Rasterisation, Reduced instruction set computer, Reverse Polish notation, Single-precision floating-point format, Spot color, Stack (abstract data type), Stack-oriented programming, Steve Jobs, Sun Microsystems, TeleType Co., TeX, TrueImage, TrueType, Turing completeness, Type system, Typeface, Typewriter, Typography, Vector graphics, Very-large-scale integration, William Newman (computer scientist), Workstation, X Window System, Xerox Star. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
A "Hello, World!" program is a computer program that outputs or displays "Hello, World!" to a user.
Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.
Adobe Systems Incorporated, commonly known as Adobe, is an American multinational computer software company.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
In the mathematical subfield of numerical analysis, a B-spline, or basis spline, is a spline function that has minimal support with respect to a given degree, smoothness, and domain partition.
A Bézier curve (pronounced in French) is a parametric curve frequently used in computer graphics and related fields.
Bill Paxton is a computer scientist at the University of California.
Bitstream Inc. was a type foundry that produced digital typefaces.
Robert Fletcher "Bob" Sproull (born c. 1945) is an American computer scientist, who worked for Oracle Corporation where he was director of Oracle Labs in Burlington, Massachusetts.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
Charles M. "Chuck" Geschke (born September 11, 1939) is an American businessman.
In internationalization, CJK is a collective term for the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages, all of which include Chinese characters and derivatives (collectively, CJK characters) in their writing systems.
A color space is a specific organization of colors.
A computer font (or font) is implemented as a digital data file containing a set of graphically related glyphs, characters, or symbols such as dingbats.
Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.
A concatenative programming language is a point-free computer programming language in which all expressions denote functions, and the juxtaposition of expressions denotes function composition.
CSR plc (formerly Cambridge Silicon Radio) was a multinational fabless semiconductor company headquartered in Cambridge, United Kingdom.
In computer science, a data structure is a data organization and storage format that enables efficient access and modification.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Desktop publishing (abbreviated DTP) is the creation of documents using page layout skills on a personal computer primarily for print.
In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.
Display PostScript (or DPS) is a 2D graphics engine system for computers which uses the PostScript (PS) imaging model and language (originally developed for computer printing) to generate on-screen graphics.
Document Structuring Conventions, or DSC, is a set of standards for PostScript, based on the use of comments, which primarily specifies a way to structure a PostScript file and a way to expose that structure in a machine-readable way.
A dot matrix printer is an impact printer that prints using a fixed number of pins or wires.
Electronic publishing (also referred to as e-publishing or digital publishing or online publishing) includes the digital publication of e-books, digital magazines, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues.
Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) is a DSC-conforming PostScript document with additional restrictions which is intended to be usable as a graphics file format.
An escape sequence is a series of characters used to change the state of computers and their attached peripheral devices, rather than to be displayed or printed as regular data bytes would be.
Evans & Sutherland is a pioneering American computer firm in the computer graphics field.
In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface.
Font hinting (also known as instructing) is the use of mathematical instructions to adjust the display of an outline font so that it lines up with a rasterized grid.
FontLab is both the name of a company, Fontlab Ltd, Inc.
Fontographer (FOG) is a font editor for Windows and OS X; it is used to create digital fonts.
Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and environment originally designed by Charles "Chuck" Moore.
Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.
In computer science, garbage collection (GC) is a form of automatic memory management.
Ghostscript is a suite of software based on an interpreter for Adobe Systems' PostScript and Portable Document Format (PDF) page description languages.
Global Graphics PLC is known for its digital printing and document technology including the Harlequin and Jaws RIPs and the gDoc digital document software The Company supplies its software under license to Original Equipment Manufacturers and software vendors who build products around it.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
The Harlequin RIP is a raster image processor first released in 1990 under the name "ScriptWorks" running as a command-line application to render PostScript language files under Unix.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
LaserJet as a brand name identifies the line of dry electrophotographic (DEP) laser printers marketed by the American computer company Hewlett-Packard (HP).
HP-GL (Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language; often written as HPGL) is a printer control language created by Hewlett-Packard (HP).
Image compression is a type of data compression applied to digital images, to reduce their cost for storage or transmission.
Image resolution is the detail an image holds.
Interpress is a page description language developed at Xerox PARC, based on the Forth programming language and an earlier graphics language called JaM.
An interpreted language is a type of programming language for which most of its implementations execute instructions directly and freely, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions.
In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program.
An interpreter directive is a computer language construct, that on some systems is better described as an aspect of the system's executable file format, that is used to control which interpreter parses and interprets the instructions in a computer program.
John Edward Warnock (born October 6, 1940) is an American computer scientist and businessman best known as the co-founder with Charles Geschke of Adobe Systems Inc., the graphics and publishing software company.
JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.
Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process.
The LaserWriter is a laser printer with built-in PostScript interpreter sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1985 to 1988.
LaTeX (or; a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system.
Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.
In computer science, a literal is a notation for representing a fixed value in source code.
Macromedia was an American graphics, multimedia, and web development software company (1992–2005) headquartered in San Francisco, California that produced such products as Flash and Dreamweaver.
Martin Edward Newell is a British-born computer scientist specializing in computer graphics who is perhaps best known as the creator of the Utah teapot computer model.
Metafont is a description language used to define raster fonts.
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
The Motorola 68000 ("'sixty-eight-thousand'"; also called the m68k or Motorola 68k, "sixty-eight-kay") is a 16/32-bit CISC microprocessor, which implements a 32-bit instruction set, with 32-bit registers and 32-bit internal data bus, but with a 16-bit data ALU and two 16-bit arithmetic ALUs and a 16-bit external data bus, designed and marketed by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
NeWS (Network extensible Window System) is a discontinued windowing system developed by Sun Microsystems in the mid-1980s.
NeXT (later NeXT Computer and NeXT Software) was an American computer and software company founded in 1985 by Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs.
NeXTSTEP is a discontinued object-oriented, multitasking operating system based on UNIX.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
OpenType is a format for scalable computer fonts.
In digital printing, a page description language (PDL) is a computer language that describes the appearance of a printed page in a higher level than an actual output bitmap.
PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California, with a distinguished reputation for its contributions to information technology and hardware systems.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The plotter is a computer printer for printing vector graphics.
In typography, the point is the smallest unit of measure.
PostScript fonts are font files encoded in outline font specifications developed by Adobe Systems for professional digital typesetting.
PostScript Printer Description (PPD) files are created by vendors to describe the entire set of features and capabilities available for their PostScript printers.
The PostScript Standard Encoding (often spelled StandardEncoding, aliased as PostScript) is one of the character sets (or encoding vectors) used by Adobe Systems' PostScript (PS) since 1984 (1982).
Printer Command Language, more commonly referred to as PCL, is a page description language (PDL) developed by Hewlett-Packard as a printer protocol and has become a de facto industry standard.
Procedural programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call.
Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features.
QuickDraw is the 2D graphics library and associated Application Programming Interface (API) which is a core part of the classic Mac OS operating system.
In computer graphics, a raster graphics or bitmap image is a dot matrix data structure that represents a generally rectangular grid of pixels (points of color), viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.
A raster image processor (RIP) is a component used in a printing system which produces a raster image also known as a bitmap.
Rasterisation (or rasterization) is the task of taking an image described in a vector graphics format (shapes) and converting it into a raster image (pixels or dots) for output on a video display or printer, or for storage in a bitmap file format.
A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk'), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).
Reverse Polish notation (RPN), also known as Polish postfix notation or simply postfix notation, is a mathematical notation in which operators follow their operands, in contrast to Polish notation (PN), in which operators precede their operands.
Single-precision floating-point format is a computer number format, usually occupying 32 bits in computer memory; it represents a wide dynamic range of numeric values by using a floating radix point.
In offset printing, a spot color or solid color is any color generated by an ink (pure or mixed) that is printed using a single run, whereas a process color is produced by printing a series of dots of different colors.
In computer science, a stack is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations.
A stack-oriented programming language is one that relies on a stack machine model for passing parameters.
Steven Paul Jobs (February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American entrepreneur and business magnate.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
TeleType Co., Inc. is a privately held company in the United States, specialized in developing software for GPS devices.
TeX (see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system (or "formatting system") designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978.
TrueImage is a PostScript-compatible interpreter (clone) originally developed by Cal Bauer and Bauer Enterprises and sold to Microsoft in 1989.
TrueType is an outline font standard developed by Apple and Microsoft in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobe's Type 1 fonts used in PostScript.
In computability theory, a system of data-manipulation rules (such as a computer's instruction set, a programming language, or a cellular automaton) is said to be Turing complete or computationally universal if it can be used to simulate any Turing machine.
In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.
Vector graphics are computer graphics images that are defined in terms of 2D points, which are connected by lines and curves to form polygons and other shapes.
Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining hundreds of thousands of transistors or devices into a single chip.
William Maxwell Newman (born 21 May 1939) is a British computer scientist.
A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications.
The X Window System (X11, or shortened to simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on UNIX-like computer operating systems.
The Star workstation, officially named Xerox 8010 Information System, was the first commercial system to incorporate various technologies that have since become standard in personal computers, including a bitmapped display, a window-based graphical user interface, icons, folders, mouse (two-button), Ethernet networking, file servers, print servers, and e-mail.
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