73 relations: !Kung language, Abkhaz language, Affricate consonant, Allophone, Alveolar and postalveolar approximants, Alveolar clicks, Alveolar consonant, Alveolar ridge, Alveolo-palatal consonant, American English, Apical consonant, Approximant consonant, Australian Aboriginal languages, Brazilian Portuguese, British English, Catalan language, Click consonant, Consonant, Coronal consonant, Dental consonant, Dorsal consonant, Dravidian languages, English language, Flap consonant, Fricative consonant, Hindi, Index of phonetics articles, Irish language, Italian language, Khoekhoe language, Labialization, Laminal consonant, Languages of East Asia, Languages of South Asia, Malayalam, Mandarin Chinese, Northern Qiang language, Northwest Caucasian languages, Obsolete and nonstandard symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, OpenType, Palatal clicks, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (phonetics), Palate, Palato-alveolar consonant, Peter Ladefoged, Phonology, Place of articulation, Polish language, Retroflex approximant, ..., Retroflex consonant, Rhotic consonant, Rhoticity in English, Romance languages, Russian language, Secondary articulation, Sibilant, Sino-Tibetan languages, Sinology, Southern Qiang language, Subapical consonant, Swedish language, Toda language, Ubykh language, Velar consonant, Velarization, Vietnamese language, Voiced alveolo-palatal fricative, Voiced postalveolar fricative, Voiced retroflex fricative, Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative, Voiceless postalveolar fricative, Voiceless retroflex fricative. Expand index (23 more) » « Shrink index
!Kung (!Xuun), also known as Ju, is a dialect continuum (language complex) spoken in Namibia, Botswana, and Angola by the ǃKung people.
Abkhaz (sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа //), also known as Abkhazian, is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The alveolar or postalveolar clicks are a family of click consonants found only in Africa and in the Damin ritual jargon of Australia.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The alveolar ridge (also known as the alveolar margin) is one of the two jaw ridges either on the roof of the mouth between the upper teeth and the hard palate or on the bottom of the mouth behind the lower teeth.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated twenty-eight language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Click consonants, or clicks, are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
Dorsal consonants are articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum).
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Khoekhoe language, Khoekhoegowab, also known by the ethnic term Nama and formerly as Hottentot, is the most widespread of those non-Bantu languages of southern Africa that contain "click" sounds and have therefore been loosely classified as Khoisan.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue on the top.
The languages of East Asia belong to several distinct language families, with many common features attributed to interaction.
South Asia is home to several hundred languages.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Northern Qiang is a Sino-Tibetan language of the Qiangic branch spoken by approximately 60,000 people in north-central Sichuan Province, China.
The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic (as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus region,Hoiberg, Dale H. (2010) chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia (whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) possesses a variety of obsolete and nonstandard symbols.
OpenType is a format for scalable computer fonts.
The palatal or palato-alveolar clicks are a family of click consonants found, as components of words, only in Africa.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals.
In phonetics, palato-alveolar (or palatoalveolar) consonants are postalveolar consonants, nearly always sibilants, that are weakly palatalized with a domed (bunched-up) tongue.
Peter Nielsen Ladefoged (17 September 1925 – 24 January 2006) was a British linguist and phonetician who travelled the world to document the distinct sounds of endangered languages and pioneered ways to collect and study data.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The retroflex approximant is a type of consonant used in some languages.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Secondary articulation occurs when the articulation of a consonant is equivalent to the combined articulations of two or three simpler consonants, at least one of which is an approximant.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
Southern Qiang is a Sino-Tibetan language of the Qiangic branch spoken by approximately 81,300 people along the Minjiang (岷江) river in Sichuan Province, China.
A subapical consonant is a consonant made by contact with the underside of the tip of the tongue.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Toda is a Dravidian language noted for its many fricatives and trills.
Ubykh, or Ubyx, is an extinct Northwest Caucasian language once spoken by the Ubykh people (who originally lived along the eastern coast of the Black Sea before migrating en masse to Turkey in the 1860s).
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Voiced fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative, the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiced retroflex fricative, and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative.
The voiced retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages.
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.
The voiceless retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.