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Index Postmodernism

Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism. [1]

343 relations: A priori and a posteriori, Abingdon-on-Thames, After Virtue, Age of Enlightenment, Alex Callinicos, Algirdas Julien Greimas, Altermodern, Ana Lydia Vega, Anachronism, Analytic philosophy, Anthony Giddens, Anti-foundationalism, Anti-psychiatry, Apophatic theology, Aporia, April Greiman, Architect, Architecture, Aristotle, Arnold J. Toynbee, Art, Art rock, Avital Ronell, Beyond the Hoax, Biopower, Black Mountain College, Boundary 2, Bradley Joseph, Brian McHale, Capitalism, Charles Jencks, Charles Moore (architect), Charles Olson, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Consumption (economics), Contemporary history, Continental Europe, Continental philosophy, Contingency (philosophy), Conventionalism, Correspondence theory of truth, Critical theory, Criticism, Cultural hegemony, Cultural pluralism, Cultural studies, Culture, Cyberpunk, Dan Friedman (graphic designer), Daniel A. Farber, ..., Daniel Dennett, Dasein, David Antin, De dicto and de re, Deconstruction, Deconstructivism, Defamiliarization, Design, Direct and indirect realism, Disadvantaged, Discipline and Punish, Disco, Discourse, Disenchantment, Don DeLillo, Donald Barthelme, Douglas Kellner, Dynamism (metaphysics), E. L. Doctorow, Eclecticism, Economics, Edmund Husserl, Elitism, Emily McVarish, Empiricism, Encyclopædia Britannica, Engineering, Epiphenomenalism, Episteme, Epistemology, Epoché, Ernest Hemingway, Ethics, Existentialism, Factual relativism, Far-left politics, Fashionable Nonsense, Félix Guattari, Feminist theory, Ferdinand de Saussure, Fordism, Frankfurt School, Franz Kafka, Fredric Jameson, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gene Edward Veith, Giannina Braschi, Gilles Deleuze, Gilles Lipovetsky, Graphic design, Hayden White, Hélène Cixous, Heideggerian terminology, Heinrich von Kleist, Henryk Górecki, Hermeneutic circle, Hierarchy, High modernism, Historicity, History, Human nature, Humanism, Humanities, Hypermodernity, Hyperreality, Ideology, Ihab Hassan, Immanence, Impressionism, Industrial society, Information revolution, Informatization, Infrastructure, Instrumentalism, Integral theory (Ken Wilber), International development, International Style (architecture), International Typographic Style, Irony, Ishmael Reed, J. L. Austin, Jacques Derrida, Jacques Lacan, James Stirling (architect), Jamie Reid, Jane Jacobs, Jayme Odgers, Jáchym Topol, Jürgen Habermas, Jean Baudrillard, Jean Rhys, Jean-François Lyotard, Jerzy Kosiński, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, John Adams (composer), John Barth, John Cage, John Fiske (media scholar), John Hawkes (novelist), Jonathan Kramer, Jordan Peterson, Jorge Luis Borges, Judith Butler, Julia Kristeva, Kathy Acker, Keith Windschuttle, Keynesian economics, Knowledge, Kurt Vonnegut, Labour economics, Language, Laurie Anderson, Law, Léon Krier, Le Corbusier, Left-libertarianism, Linguistics, Literary criticism, Literature, London, Lou Harrison, Louis Althusser, Louis Andriessen, Love, Luce Irigaray, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Margaret Drabble, Marquis de Sade, Marriage, Martin Heidegger, Marxism, Mass production, May 1968 events in France, Mel Bochner, Memphis Group, Metamodernism, Metanarrative, Metaphysics, Michael Graves, Michael Nyman, Michael Vanderbyl, Michel Foucault, Minimalism, Minoru Yamasaki, Modern architecture, Modernism, Modernism (music), Modernism in the Catholic Church, Modernity, Moral relativism, Moral universalism, Music, Narrative, Naturalism (philosophy), Neo-Kantianism, Neville Brody, New Wave (design), Nicolas Bourriaud, Nihilism, Noam Chomsky, Nominalism, Noumenon, Nouveau roman, Objectivity (philosophy), Obscurantism, On the Genealogy of Morality, Ontology, Parody, Participatory modeling, Paul Auster, Paula Scher, Periodization, Pet Shop Boys, Peter Drucker, Phenomenology (philosophy), Phenomenon, Philip Glass, Philosophical skepticism, Philosophy, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, Philosophy of science, Pierre Bourdieu, Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote, Plato, Pluralism (philosophy), Political positions of Noam Chomsky, Polity (publisher), Pollution, Popular culture, Positivism, Post-realism, Post-structuralism, Postmodern architecture, Postmodern art, Postmodern literature, Postmodern music, Postmodern religion, Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism, Postmodernity, Pragmatism, Pre-Socratic philosophy, Prefabrication, Process philosophy, Pruitt–Igoe, Psychoanalysis, Public opinion, Qualia, Rationalism, Raymond Federman, Reason, Reductionism, Reform movement, Relativism, Religion, Remodernism, Remodernist film, René Descartes, Repression (psychology), Richard Kalich, Richard Rorty, Robert A. M. Stern, Robert Magliola, Robert Venturi, Roland Barthes, Rosalind E. Krauss, Routledge, Samuel Beckett, Self-determination, Self-reference, Semiotics, September 11 attacks, Service economy, Simulacra and Simulation, Skeptical Inquirer, Skepticism, Slum, Social conditioning, Social constructionism, Social liberalism, Social progress, Society, Sokal affair, Speech act, St. Louis, Steve Reich, Structuralism, Stuckism, Subjectivism, Susan Sontag, Suzanna Sherry, Syncretism, Talking Heads, Technocracy, Ted Honderich, Terry Riley, The Archaeology of Knowledge, The arts, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Hibbert Journal, The History of Sexuality, The Literature of Exhaustion, The Order of Things, The Postmodern Condition, The Real, Theatre of the Absurd, Theology, Thomas Pynchon, Tibor Kalman, Totalitarianism, Transmodernism, Truth, Ulrich Beck, Umberto Eco, Universalism, Universality (philosophy), Urban ecosystem, Utopia, Value (ethics), Victoria and Albert Museum, Virtuality (philosophy), Vitalism, Vladimir Nabokov, Walter Gropius, Walter Truett Anderson, Whitney Museum of American Art, William Gaddis, William Lane Craig, William S. Burroughs, Wolfgang Weingart, World Trade Center (1973–2001), World view, World War II, Zygmunt Bauman. Expand index (293 more) »

A priori and a posteriori

The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.

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Abingdon-on-Thames, also known as Abingdon on Thames or just Abingdon, is a historic market town and civil parish in the ceremonial county of Oxfordshire, England.

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After Virtue

After Virtue is a book on moral philosophy by Alasdair MacIntyre.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Alex Callinicos

Alexander Theodore Callinicos (born 24 July 1950) is a Zimbabwean-born British political theorist and activist.

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Algirdas Julien Greimas

Algirdas Julien Greimas (born Algirdas Julius Greimas; 9 March 1917 – 27 February 1992), was a French-Lithuanian literary scientist, known among other things for the Greimas Square (le carré sémiotique).

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Altermodern, a portmanteau word defined by Nicolas Bourriaud, is an attempt at contextualizing art made in today's global context as a reaction against standardisation and commercialism.

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Ana Lydia Vega

Ana Lydia Vega (born Dec. 6, 1946, Santurce, Puerto Rico) is a Puerto Rican writer.

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An anachronism (from the Greek ἀνά ana, "against" and χρόνος khronos, "time") is a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of persons, events, objects, or customs from different periods of time.

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Analytic philosophy

Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.

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Anthony Giddens

Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens (born 18 January 1938) is a British sociologist who is known for his theory of structuration and his holistic view of modern societies.

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Anti-foundationalism (also called nonfoundationalism) is any philosophy which rejects a foundationalist approach.

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Anti-psychiatry is a movement based on the view that psychiatric treatment is often more damaging than helpful to patients.

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Apophatic theology

Apophatic theology, also known as negative theology, is a form of theological thinking and religious practice which attempts to approach God, the Divine, by negation, to speak only in terms of what may not be said about the perfect goodness that is God.

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Aporia (impasse, difficulty in passage, lack of resources, puzzlement) denotes in philosophy a philosophical puzzle or state of puzzlement and in rhetoric a rhetorically useful expression of doubt.

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April Greiman

April Greiman (born 22 March 1948) is a designer.

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An architect is a person who plans, designs, and reviews the construction of buildings.

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Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Arnold J. Toynbee

Arnold Joseph Toynbee (14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and the University of London and author of numerous books.

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Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.

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Art rock

Art rock is a subgenre of rock music that generally reflects a challenging or avant-garde approach to rock, or which makes use of modernist, experimental, or unconventional elements.

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Avital Ronell

Avital Ronell (born 15 April 1952) is an American philosopher who contributes to the fields of continental philosophy, literary studies, psychoanalysis, feminist philosophy, political philosophy, and ethics.

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Beyond the Hoax

Beyond the Hoax: Science, Philosophy, and Culture is a 2008 book by Alan Sokal detailing the history of the Sokal affair in which he submitted an article full of "nonsense".

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Biopower (or biopouvoir in French) is a term coined by French scholar, historian, and social theorist Michel Foucault.

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Black Mountain College

Black Mountain College was an experimental college founded in 1933 by John Andrew Rice, Theodore Dreier, and several others.

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Boundary 2

Boundary 2, often stylized boundary 2, is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of postmodern theory, literature, and culture.

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Bradley Joseph

Bradley Joseph (born 1965) is an American composer, arranger, and producer of contemporary instrumental music.

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Brian McHale

Brian G. McHale is a US academic and literary theorist who writes on a range of fiction and poetics, mainly relating to postmodernism and narrative theory.

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Charles Jencks

Charles Alexander Jencks (born June 21, 1939) is a cultural theorist, landscape designer, architectural historian, and co-founder of the Maggie’s Cancer Care Centres.

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Charles Moore (architect)

Charles Willard Moore (October 31, 1925 – December 16, 1993) was an American architect, educator, writer, Fellow of the American Institute of Architects, and winner of the AIA Gold Medal in 1991.

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Charles Olson

Charles Olson (27 December 1910 – 10 January 1970) was a second generation American poet who was a link between earlier figures such as Ezra Pound and William Carlos Williams and the New American poets, which includes the New York School, the Black Mountain School, the Beat poets, and the San Francisco Renaissance.

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Claude Lévi-Strauss

Claude Lévi-Strauss (28 November 1908, Brussels – 30 October 2009, Paris) was a French anthropologist and ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theory of structuralism and structural anthropology.

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Consumption (economics)

Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.

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Contemporary history

Contemporary history, in English-language historiography, is a subset of modern history which describes the historical period from approximately 1945 to the present.

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Continental Europe

Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.

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Continental philosophy

Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.

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Contingency (philosophy)

In philosophy and logic, contingency is the status of propositions that are neither true under every possible valuation (i.e. tautologies) nor false under every possible valuation (i.e. contradictions).

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Conventionalism is the philosophical attitude that fundamental principles of a certain kind are grounded on (explicit or implicit) agreements in society, rather than on external reality.

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Correspondence theory of truth

The correspondence theory of truth states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world.

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Critical theory

Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.

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Criticism is the practice of judging the merits and faults of something.

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Cultural hegemony

In Marxist philosophy, cultural hegemony is the domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class who manipulate the culture of that society—the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and mores—so that their imposed, ruling-class worldview becomes the accepted cultural norm; the universally valid dominant ideology, which justifies the social, political, and economic status quo as natural and inevitable, perpetual and beneficial for everyone, rather than as artificial social constructs that benefit only the ruling class.

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Cultural pluralism

Cultural pluralism is a term used when smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities, and their values and practices are accepted by the wider culture provided they are consistent with the laws and values of the wider society.

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Cultural studies

Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, conflicts, and contingencies.

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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Cyberpunk is a subgenre of science fiction in a futuristic setting that tends to focus on a "combination of lowlife and high tech" featuring advanced technological and scientific achievements, such as artificial intelligence and cybernetics, juxtaposed with a degree of breakdown or radical change in the social order.

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Dan Friedman (graphic designer)

Dan Friedman (1945–1995) was an American educator, graphic and furniture designer.

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Daniel A. Farber

Daniel A. Farber (born July 16, 1950) is an American author and historian.

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Daniel Dennett

Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.

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Dasein is a German word that means "being there" or "presence" (German: da "there"; sein "being"), and is often translated into English with the word "existence".

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David Antin

David Abram Antin (February 1, 1932 – October 11, 2016) was an American poet, critic and performance artist.

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De dicto and de re

De dicto and de re are two phrases used to mark a distinction in intentional statements, associated with the intentional operators in many such statements.

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Deconstruction is a critique of the relationship between text and meaning originated by the philosopher Jacques Derrida.

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Deconstructivism is a movement of postmodern architecture which appeared in the 1980s, which gives the impression of the fragmentation of the constructed building.

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Defamiliarization or ostranenie (p) is the artistic technique of presenting to audiences common things in an unfamiliar or strange way in order to enhance perception of the familiar.

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Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns).

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Direct and indirect realism

The question of direct or naïve realism, as opposed to indirect or representational realism, arises in the philosophy of perception and of mind out of the debate over the nature of conscious experience;Lehar, Steve.

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The "disadvantaged" is a generic term for individuals or groups of people who.

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Discipline and Punish

Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (Surveiller et punir : Naissance de la prison) is a 1975 book by the French philosopher Michel Foucault.

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Disco is a musical style that emerged in the mid 1960s and early 1970s from America's urban nightlife scene, where it originated in house parties and makeshift discothèques, reaching its peak popularity between the mid-1970s and early 1980s.

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Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.

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In social science, disenchantment (Entzauberung) is the cultural rationalization and devaluation of mysticism apparent in modern society.

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Don DeLillo

Donald Richard "Don" DeLillo (born November 20, 1936) is an American novelist, playwright and essayist.

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Donald Barthelme

Donald Barthelme (April 7, 1931 – July 23, 1989) was an American short story writer and novelist known for his playful, postmodernist style of short fiction.

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Douglas Kellner

Douglas Kellner (born 1943) is an academic who works at the intersection of "third generation" critical theory in the tradition of the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research, or Frankfurt School and in cultural studies in the tradition of the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, also known as the "Birmingham School".

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Dynamism (metaphysics)

Dynamism is a general name for a group of philosophical views concerning the nature of matter.

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E. L. Doctorow

Edgar Lawrence Doctorow (January 6, 1931 – July 21, 2015) was an American novelist, editor, and professor, best known internationally for his works of historical fiction.

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Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.

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Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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Edmund Husserl

Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.

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Elitism is the belief or attitude that individuals who form an elite — a select group of people with a certain ancestry, intrinsic quality, high intellect, wealth, special skills, or experience — are more likely to be constructive to society as a whole, and therefore deserve influence or authority greater than that of others.

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Emily McVarish

Emily McVarish (born 1965) is an American writer, designer, book artist and associate professor at California College of the Arts.

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In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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Epiphenomenalism is a mind–body philosophy marked by the belief that basic physical events (sense organs, neural impulses, and muscle contractions) are causal with respect to mental events (thought, consciousness, and cognition).

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"Episteme" is a philosophical term derived from the Ancient Greek word ἐπιστήμη epistēmē, which can refer to knowledge, science or understanding, and which comes from the verb ἐπίστασθαι, meaning "to know, to understand, or to be acquainted with".

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Epoché (ἐποχή epokhē, "suspension") is an ancient Greek term typically translated as "suspension of judgment" but also as "withholding of assent".

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Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist.

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.

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Factual relativism

Factual relativism (also called epistemic relativism, epistemological relativism, alethic relativism or cognitive relativism) is a way to reason where facts used to justify any claims are understood to be relative and subjective to the perspective of those proving or falsifying the proposition.

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Far-left politics

Far-left politics are political views located further on the left of the left-right spectrum than the standard political left.

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Fashionable Nonsense

Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals' Abuse of Science (Impostures Intellectuelles), published in the UK as Intellectual Impostures, is a book by physicists Alan Sokal and Jean Bricmont.

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Félix Guattari

Pierre-Félix Guattari (April 30, 1930 – August 29, 1992) was a French psychotherapist, philosopher, semiologist, and activist.

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Feminist theory

Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse.

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Ferdinand de Saussure

Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.

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Fordism is the basis of modern economic and social systems in industrialized, standardized mass production and mass consumption.

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Frankfurt School

The Frankfurt School (Frankfurter Schule) is a school of social theory and philosophy associated in part with the Institute for Social Research at the Goethe University Frankfurt.

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Franz Kafka

Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking Bohemian Jewish novelist and short story writer, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature.

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Fredric Jameson

Fredric Jameson (born April 14, 1934) is an American literary critic and Marxist political theorist.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.

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Gene Edward Veith

Gene Edward Veith (born October 15, 1951) is an author, scholar, and Professor of Literature emeritus at Patrick Henry College.

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Giannina Braschi

Giannina Braschi (born February 5, 1953) is a Puerto Rican writer.

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Gilles Deleuze

Gilles Deleuze (18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1960s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy, literature, film, and fine art.

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Gilles Lipovetsky

Gilles Lipovetsky (born September 24, 1944 in Millau) is a French philosopher, writer and sociologist, professor at the University of Grenoble.

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Graphic design

Graphic design is the process of visual communication and problem-solving through the use of typography, photography and illustration.

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Hayden White

Hayden White (July 12, 1928 – March 5, 2018) was an American historian in the tradition of literary criticism, perhaps most famous for his work Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe (1973/2014).

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Hélène Cixous

Hélène Cixous (born 5 June 1937) is a professor, French feminist writer, poet, playwright, philosopher, literary critic and rhetorician.

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Heideggerian terminology

Martin Heidegger, the 20th-century German philosopher, produced a large body of work that intended a profound change of direction for philosophy.

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Heinrich von Kleist

Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist (18 October 177721 November 1811) was a German poet, dramatist, novelist, short story writer and journalist.

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Henryk Górecki

Henryk Mikołaj Górecki (English pronunciation Go-RET-ski; December 6, 1933 – November 12, 2010) was a Polish composer of contemporary classical music.

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Hermeneutic circle

The hermeneutic circle (hermeneutischer Zirkel) describes the process of understanding a text hermeneutically.

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A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.

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High modernism

High modernism (also known as "high modernity") is a form of modernity, characterized by an unfaltering confidence in science and technology as means to reorder the social and natural world.

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Historicity is the historical actuality of persons and events, meaning the quality of being part of history as opposed to being a historical myth, legend, or fiction.

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History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.

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Human nature

Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.

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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

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Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.

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Hypermodernity (supermodernity) is a type, mode, or stage of society that reflects an inversion of modernity in which the function of an object has its reference point in the form of an object rather than function being the reference point for form.

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In semiotics and postmodernism, hyperreality is an inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from a simulation of reality, especially in technologically advanced postmodern societies.

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An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.

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Ihab Hassan

Ihab Habib Hassan (October 17, 1925 – September 10, 2015) was an Arab American literary theorist and writer born in Egypt.

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The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.

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Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.

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Industrial society

In sociology, industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour.

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Information revolution

The term information revolution describes current economic, social and technological trends beyond the Industrial Revolution.

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Informatization or informatisation refers to the extent by which a geographical area, an economy or a society is becoming information-based, i.e. the increase in size of its information labor force.

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Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.

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Instrumentalism is one of a multitude of modern schools of thought created by scientists and philosophers throughout the 20th century.

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Integral theory (Ken Wilber)

Integral theory is Ken Wilber's attempt to place a wide diversity of theories and thinkers into one single framework.

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International development

International development or global development is a wide concept concerning level of development on an international scale.

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International Style (architecture)

The International Style is the name of a major architectural style that developed in the 1920s and 1930s and strongly related to Modernism and Modern architecture.

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International Typographic Style

The International Typographic Style, also known as the Swiss Style, is a graphic design style that emerged in Russia, the Netherlands, and Germany in the 1920s and was developed by designers in Switzerland during the 1950s.

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Irony, in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or event in which what appears, on the surface, to be the case, differs radically from what is actually the case.

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Ishmael Reed

Ishmael Scott Reed (born February 22, 1938) is an American poet, novelist, essayist, songwriter, playwright, editor and publisher, who is known for his satirical works challenging American political culture.

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J. L. Austin

John Langshaw "J.

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Jacques Derrida

Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.

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Jacques Lacan

Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (13 April 1901 – 9 September 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who has been called "the most controversial psycho-analyst since Freud".

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James Stirling (architect)

Sir James Frazer Stirling (22 April 1926 – 25 June 1992) was a British architect.

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Jamie Reid

Jamie Reid (born 1947) is an English artist and anarchist with connections to the Situationists.

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Jane Jacobs

Jane Jacobs (née Butzner; May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006) was an American-Canadian journalist, author, and activist who influenced urban studies, sociology, and economics.

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Jayme Odgers

Jayme Odgers (born 1939) is an artist, photographer and graphic designer.

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Jáchym Topol

Jáchym Topol (born 4 August 1962) is a Czech writer.

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Jürgen Habermas

Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.

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Jean Baudrillard

Jean Baudrillard (27 July 1929 – 6 March 2007) was a French sociologist, philosopher, cultural theorist, political commentator, and photographer.

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Jean Rhys

Jean Rhys, (born Ella Gwendolyn Rees Williams; 24 August 1890 – 14 May 1979) was a mid-20th-century novelist who was born and grew up in the Caribbean island of Dominica, though she was mainly resident in England from the age of 16.

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Jean-François Lyotard

Jean-François Lyotard (10 August 1924 – 21 April 1998) was a French philosopher, sociologist, and literary theorist.

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Jerzy Kosiński

Jerzy Kosiński (June 14, 1933 – May 3, 1991), born Józef Lewinkopf, was a Polish-American novelist and two-time President of the American Chapter of P.E.N., who wrote primarily in English.

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Johann Gottlieb Fichte

Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814), was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.

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John Adams (composer)

John Coolidge Adams (born February 15, 1947) is an American composer of classical music and opera, with strong roots in minimalism.

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John Barth

John Simmons Barth (born May 27, 1930) is an American writer, best known for his postmodernist and metafictional fiction.

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John Cage

John Milton Cage Jr. (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American composer and music theorist.

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John Fiske (media scholar)

John Fiske (born 1939) is a media scholar who has taught around the world.

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John Hawkes (novelist)

John Hawkes, born John Clendennin Talbot Burne Hawkes, Jr. (August 17, 1925 – May 15, 1998), was a postmodern American novelist, known for the intensity of his work, which suspended some traditional constraints of narrative fiction.

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Jonathan Kramer

Jonathan Donald Kramer (December 7, 1942, Hartford, Connecticut – June 3, 2004, New York City) was an American composer and music theorist.

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Jordan Peterson

Jordan Bernt Peterson (born June 12, 1962) is a Canadian clinical psychologist and a professor of psychology at the University of Toronto.

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Jorge Luis Borges

Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish-language literature.

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Judith Butler

Judith Butler FBA (born February 24, 1956) is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer and literary theory.

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Julia Kristeva

Julia Kristeva (Юлия Кръстева; born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s.

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Kathy Acker

Kathy Acker (April 18, 1947 – November 30, 1997) was an American experimental novelist, punk poet, playwright, essayist, postmodernist and sex-positive feminist writer.

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Keith Windschuttle

Keith Windschuttle (born 1942) is an Australian writer, historian, and former ABC board member.

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Keynesian economics

Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).

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Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

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Kurt Vonnegut

Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (November 11, 1922April 11, 2007) was an American writer.

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Labour economics

Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.

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Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Laurie Anderson

Laura Phillips "Laurie" Anderson (born June 5, 1947) is an American avant-garde artist, composer, musician and film director whose work spans performance art, pop music, and multimedia projects.

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Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.

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Léon Krier

Léon Krier (born 7 April 1946 in Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg) is an architect, architectural theorist and urban planner.

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Le Corbusier

Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 1887 – 27 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture.

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Left-libertarianism (or left-wing libertarianism) names several related, but distinct approaches to political and social theory which stress both individual freedom and social equality.

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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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Literary criticism

Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.

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Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Lou Harrison

Lou Silver Harrison (May 14, 1917 – February 2, 2003) was an American composer.

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Louis Althusser

Louis Pierre Althusser (16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher.

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Louis Andriessen

Louis Andriessen (born 6 June 1939) is a Dutch composer and pianist based in Amsterdam.

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Love encompasses a variety of different emotional and mental states, typically strongly and positively experienced, ranging from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure.

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Luce Irigaray

Luce Irigaray (born 3 May 1930) is a Belgian-born French feminist, philosopher, linguist, psycholinguist, psychoanalyst and cultural theorist.

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Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies; March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect.

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Margaret Drabble

Dame Margaret Drabble, Lady Holroyd, DBE, FRSL (born 5 June 1939) is an English novelist, biographer, and critic.

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Marquis de Sade

Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis de Sade (2 June 1740 – 2 December 1814), was a French nobleman, revolutionary politician, philosopher, and writer, famous for his libertine sexuality.

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Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).

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Martin Heidegger

Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".

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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Mass production

Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.

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May 1968 events in France

The volatile period of civil unrest in France during May 1968 was punctuated by demonstrations and massive general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France.

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Mel Bochner

Mel Bochner (born 1940) is an American conceptual artist.

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Memphis Group

The Memphis Group was an Italian design and architecture group founded in Milan by Ettore Sottsass in 1982 that designed Postmodern furniture, fabrics, ceramics, glass, and metal objects from 1981 to 1988.

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Metamodernism is a proposed set of developments in philosophy, aesthetics, and culture which are emerging from and reacting to postmodernism.

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A metanarrative (also meta-narrative and grand narrative; métarécit) in critical theory and particularly in postmodernism is a narrative about narratives of historical meaning, experience, or knowledge, which offers a society legitimation through the anticipated completion of a (as yet unrealized) master idea.

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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Michael Graves

Michael Graves (July 9, 1934 – March 12, 2015) was an American architect and principal of Michael Graves and Associates and Michael Graves Design Group.

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Michael Nyman

Michael Laurence Nyman, CBE (born 23 March 1944) is an English composer of minimalist music, pianist, librettist and musicologist, known for numerous film scores (many written during his lengthy collaboration with the filmmaker Peter Greenaway), and his multi-platinum soundtrack album to Jane Campion's The Piano.

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Michael Vanderbyl

Michael Vanderbyl (born February 9, 1947 in Oakland, California) is a multidisciplinary designer and design educator based in the San Francisco Bay Area, and the principal of Vanderbyl Design.

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Michel Foucault

Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.

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In visual arts, music, and other mediums, minimalism is an art movement that began in post–World War II Western art, most strongly with American visual arts in the 1960s and early 1970s.

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Minoru Yamasaki

Minoru Yamasaki (December 1, 1912February 6, 1986) was an American architect, best known for designing the original World Trade Center in New York City and several other large-scale projects.

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Modern architecture

Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.

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Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Modernism (music)

In music, modernism is a philosophical and aesthetic stance underlying the period of change and development in musical language that occurred around the turn of the 20th century, a period of diverse reactions in challenging and reinterpreting older categories of music, innovations that led to new ways of organizing and approaching harmonic, melodic, sonic, and rhythmic aspects of music, and changes in aesthetic worldviews in close relation to the larger identifiable period of modernism in the arts of the time.

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Modernism in the Catholic Church

In a Catholic context Modernism is a loose gestalt of liberal theological opinions that developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".

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Moral relativism

Moral relativism may be any of several philosophical positions concerned with the differences in moral judgments across different people and cultures.

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Moral universalism

Moral universalism (also called moral objectivism or universal morality) is the meta-ethical position that some system of ethics, or a universal ethic, applies universally, that is, for "all similarly situated individuals", regardless of culture, race, sex, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, or any other distinguishing feature.

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Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.

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A narrative or story is a report of connected events, real or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images, or both.

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Naturalism (philosophy)

In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.

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Neo-Kantianism (Neukantianismus) is a revival of the 18th century philosophy of Immanuel Kant.

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Neville Brody

Neville Brody (born 23 April 1957) is an English graphic designer, typographer and art director.

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New Wave (design)

In design, New Wave or Swiss Punk Typography refers to an approach to typography that defies strict grid-based arrangement conventions.

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Nicolas Bourriaud

Nicolas Bourriaud (born 1965) is a curator and art critic, who has curated a great number of exhibitions and biennials all over the world.

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Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards the reputedly meaningful aspects of life.

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Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.

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In metaphysics, nominalism is a philosophical view which denies the existence of universals and abstract objects, but affirms the existence of general or abstract terms and predicates.

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In metaphysics, the noumenon (from Greek: νούμενον) is a posited object or event that exists independently of human sense and/or perception.

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Nouveau roman

The Nouveau Roman (new novel) is a type of 1950s French novel that diverged from classical literary genres.

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Objectivity (philosophy)

Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.

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Obscurantism (and) is the practice of deliberately presenting information in an imprecise and recondite manner, often designed to forestall further inquiry and understanding.

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On the Genealogy of Morality

On the Genealogy of Morality: A Polemic (Zur Genealogie der Moral: Eine Streitschrift) is an 1887 book by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.

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Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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A parody (also called a spoof, send-up, take-off, lampoon, play on something, caricature, or joke) is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work—its subject, author, style, or some other target—by means of satiric or ironic imitation.

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Participatory modeling

Participatory modeling is a purposeful learning process for action that engages the implicit and explicit knowledge of stakeholders to create formalized and shared representation(s) of reality.

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Paul Auster

Paul Benjamin Auster (born February 3, 1947) is an American writer and director whose writing blends absurdism, existentialism, crime fiction, and the search for identity and personal meaning.

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Paula Scher

Paula Scher (born October 6, 1948, Washington D.C) is an American graphic designer, painter and art educator in design.

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Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of timeAdam Rabinowitz.

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Pet Shop Boys

The Pet Shop Boys are an English synthpop duo, formed in London in 1981 and consisting of Neil Tennant (lead vocals, keyboards, occasional guitar) and Chris Lowe (keyboards, vocals).

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Peter Drucker

Peter Ferdinand Drucker (November 19, 1909 – November 11, 2005) was an Austrian-born American management consultant, educator, and author, whose writings contributed to the philosophical and practical foundations of the modern business corporation.

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Phenomenology (philosophy)

Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.

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A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.

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Philip Glass

Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is an American composer.

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Philosophical skepticism

Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature

Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature is a 1979 book by American philosopher Richard Rorty, in which the author attempts to dissolve modern philosophical problems instead of solving them by presenting them as pseudo-problems that only exist in the language-game of epistemological projects culminating in analytic philosophy.

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Philosophy of science

Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.

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Pierre Bourdieu

Pierre Felix Bourdieu (1 August 1930 – 23 January 2002) was a French sociologist, anthropologist, philosopher, and public intellectual.

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Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote

"Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote" (original Spanish title: "Pierre Menard, autor del Quijote") is a short story by Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Pluralism (philosophy)

Pluralism is a term used in philosophy, meaning "doctrine of multiplicity", often used in opposition to monism ("doctrine of unity") and dualism ("doctrine of duality").

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Political positions of Noam Chomsky

Noam Chomsky is an intellectual, political activist, and critic of the foreign policy of the United States and other governments.

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Polity (publisher)

Polity is a publisher in the social sciences and humanities.

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Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.

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Popular culture

Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.

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Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.

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Post-realism is a theoretical perspective on international relations.

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Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.

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Postmodern architecture

Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity, formality, and lack of variety of modern architecture, particularly in the international style advocated by Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.

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Postmodern art

Postmodern art is a body of art movements that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or some aspects that emerged or developed in its aftermath.

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Postmodern literature

Postmodern literature is literature characterized by reliance on narrative techniques such as fragmentation, paradox, and the unreliable narrator; and is often (though not exclusively) defined as a style or a trend which emerged in the post–World War II era.

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Postmodern music

Postmodern music is either simply music of the postmodern era, or music that follows aesthetical and philosophical trends of postmodernism.

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Postmodern religion

Postmodern religion is any type of religion that is influenced by postmodernism and postmodern philosophies.

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Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism

Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism is a 1991 book by Fredric Jameson, in which Jameson offers a critique of modernism and postmodernism from a Marxist perspective.

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Postmodernity (post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is the economic or cultural state or condition of society which is said to exist after modernity.

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Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.

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Pre-Socratic philosophy

A number of early Greek philosophers active before and during the time of Socrates are collectively known as the Pre-Socratics.

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Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be located.

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Process philosophy

Process philosophy — also ontology of becoming, processism, or philosophy of organism — identifies metaphysical reality with change and development.

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The Wendell O. Pruitt Homes and William Igoe Apartments, known together as Pruitt–Igoe, were joint urban housing projects first occupied in 1954 in the US city of St. Louis, Missouri.

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Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.

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Public opinion

Public opinion consists of the desires, wants, and thinking of the majority of the people; it is the collective opinion of the people of a society or state on an issue or problem.

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In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are defined to be individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.

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In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Raymond Federman

Raymond Federman (May 15, 1928 – October 6, 2009) was a French–American novelist and academic, known also for poetry, essays, translations, and criticism.

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Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

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Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.

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Reform movement

A reform movement is a type of social movement that aims to bring a social or political system closer to the community's ideal.

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Relativism is the idea that views are relative to differences in perception and consideration.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Remodernism revives aspects of modernism, particularly in its early form, and follows postmodernism, to which it contrasts.

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Remodernist film

Remodernist film developed in the United States and the United Kingdom in the early 21st century with ideas related to those of the international art movement Stuckism and its manifesto, Remodernism.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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Repression (psychology)

Repression is the psychological attempt to direct one's own desires and impulses toward pleasurable instincts by excluding them from one's consciousness and holding or subduing them in the unconscious.

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Richard Kalich

Richard Kalich, the author of The Nihilesthete (1987), Penthouse F (2010) and Charlie P (2005) published in 2014 in a single volume as Central Park West Trilogy, and The Zoo (2001).

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Richard Rorty

Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.

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Robert A. M. Stern

Robert Arthur Morton Stern, usually credited as Robert A. M. Stern (born May 23, 1939), is a New York based architect, professor, and author.

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Robert Magliola

Roberto Rino Magliola (born 1940) is an Italian-American academic specializing in European hermeneutics and deconstruction, in comparative philosophy, and in inter-religious dialogue.

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Robert Venturi

Robert Charles Venturi Jr. (born June 25, 1925) is an American architect, founding principal of the firm Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, and one of the major architectural figures in the twentieth century.

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Roland Barthes

Roland Gérard Barthes (12 November 1915 – 26 March 1980) was a French literary theorist, philosopher, linguist, critic, and semiotician.

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Rosalind E. Krauss

Rosalind Epstein Krauss (born November 30, 1941) is an American art critic, art theorist and a professor at Columbia University in New York City.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Samuel Beckett

Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.

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The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.

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Self-reference occurs in natural or formal languages when a sentence, idea or formula refers to itself.

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Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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Service economy

Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments.

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Simulacra and Simulation

Simulacra and Simulation (Simulacres et Simulation) is a 1981 philosophical treatise by Jean Baudrillard, in which he seeks to examine the relationships among reality, symbols, and society, in particular the significations and symbolism of culture and media that are involved in constructing an understanding of shared existence.

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Skeptical Inquirer

Skeptical Inquirer is a bimonthly American magazine published by the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI) with the subtitle: The Magazine for Science and Reason.

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Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.

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A slum is a highly populated urban residential area consisting mostly of closely packed, decrepit housing units in a situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, inhabited primarily by impoverished persons.

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Social conditioning

Social conditioning is the sociological process of training individuals in a society to respond in a manner generally approved by the society in general and peer groups within society.

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Social constructionism

Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.

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Social liberalism

Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.

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Social progress

Social progress is the idea that societies can or do improve in terms of their social, political, and economic structures.

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A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

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Sokal affair

The Sokal affair, also called the Sokal hoax,Derrida (1997) was a scholarly publishing sting perpetrated by Alan Sokal, a physics professor at New York University and University College London.

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Speech act

A speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication.

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St. Louis


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Steve Reich

Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer who, along with La Monte Young, Terry Riley, and Philip Glass, pioneered minimal music in the mid to late 1960s.

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In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.

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Stuckism is an international art movement founded in 1999 by Billy Childish and Charles Thomson to promote figurative painting as opposed to conceptual art.

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Subjectivism is the doctrine that "our own mental activity is the only unquestionable fact of our experience.", instead of shared or communal, and that there is no external or objective truth.

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Susan Sontag

Susan Sontag (January 16, 1933 – December 28, 2004) was an American writer, filmmaker, philosopher, teacher, and political activist.

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Suzanna Sherry

Suzanna Sherry is a professor in the area of constitutional law with particular emphasis in the subject of federal courts.

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Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.

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Talking Heads

Talking Heads was an American rock band formed in 1975 in New York City and active until 1991.

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Technocracy is a proposed system of governance where decision-makers are selected on the basis of their expertise in their areas of responsibility, particularly scientific knowledge.

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Ted Honderich

Ted Honderich (born 30 January 1933) is a Canadian-born British philosopher, Grote Professor Emeritus of the Philosophy of Mind and Logic, University College London.

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Terry Riley

Terrence Mitchell "Terry" Riley (born June 24, 1935) is an American composer and performing musician associated with the minimalist school of Western classical music, of which he was a pioneer.

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The Archaeology of Knowledge

The Archaeology of Knowledge (L'archéologie du savoir) is a 1969 methodological and historiographical treatise by the French philosopher Michel Foucault, in which he promotes "archaeology" or the "archaeological method", an analytical method he implicitly used in his previous works Madness and Civilization (1961), The Birth of the Clinic (1963), and The Order of Things (1966).

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The arts

The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.

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The Death and Life of Great American Cities

The Death and Life of Great American Cities is a 1961 book by writer and activist Jane Jacobs.

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The Hibbert Journal

The Hibbert Journal was a large, quarterly magazine in softback book format, issued since 1902 by the Hibbert Trust, best described by its subtitle: A Quarterly Review of Religion, Theology and Philosophy.

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The History of Sexuality

The History of Sexuality (L'Histoire de la sexualité) is a four-volume study of sexuality in the western world by the French historian and philosopher Michel Foucault, in which the author examines the emergence of "sexuality" as a discursive object and separate sphere of life and argues that the notion that every individual has a sexuality is a relatively recent development in Western societies.

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The Literature of Exhaustion

The Literature of Exhaustion is a 1967 essay by the American novelist John Barth sometimes considered to be the manifesto of postmodernism.

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The Order of Things

The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences (Les mots et les choses: Une archéologie des sciences humaines) is a 1966 book by the French philosopher Michel Foucault.

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The Postmodern Condition

The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge (La condition postmoderne: rapport sur le savoir) is a 1979 book by Jean-François Lyotard, in which Lyotard analyzes the notion of knowledge in postmodern society as the end of 'grand narratives' or metanarratives, which he considers a quintessential feature of modernity.

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The Real

In philosophy, the Real is that which is the authentic, unchangeable truth.

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Theatre of the Absurd

The Theatre of the Absurd (théâtre de l'absurde) is a post–World War II designation for particular plays of absurdist fiction written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1950s, as well as one for the style of theatre which has evolved from their work.

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Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.

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Thomas Pynchon

Thomas Ruggles Pynchon Jr. (born May 8, 1937) is an American novelist.

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Tibor Kalman

Tibor Kalman (July 6, 1949 – May 2, 1999) was an American graphic designer of Hungarian origin, well known for his work as editor-in-chief of Colors magazine.

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Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.

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Transmodernism is a philosophical and cultural movement which was founded by Argentinian-Mexican philosopher Enrique Dussel.

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Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.

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Ulrich Beck

Ulrich Beck (15 May 1944 – 1 January 2015) was a well known German sociologist, and one of the most cited social scientists in the world during his lifetime.

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Umberto Eco

Umberto Eco (5 January 1932 – 19 February 2016) was an Italian novelist, literary critic, philosopher, semiotician, and university professor.

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Universalism is a theological and philosophical concept that some ideas have universal application or applicability.

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Universality (philosophy)

In philosophy, universality is the idea that universal facts exist and can be progressively discovered, as opposed to relativism.

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Urban ecosystem

Urban ecosystems are the cities, towns, and urban strips constructed by humans.

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A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.

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Value (ethics)

In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.

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Victoria and Albert Museum

The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the world's largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 2.3 million objects.

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Virtuality (philosophy)

Virtuality is a concept in philosophy elaborated by French thinker.

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Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".

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Vladimir Nabokov

Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, also known by the pen name Vladimir Sirin; 2 July 1977) was a Russian-American novelist, poet, translator and entomologist.

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Walter Gropius

Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modernist architecture.

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Walter Truett Anderson

Walter Truett Anderson (born February 27, 1933) is an American political scientist, social psychologist, and author of numerous non-fiction books and articles in newspapers and magazines.

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Whitney Museum of American Art

The Whitney Museum of American Art – known informally as the "Whitney" – is an art museum located in Manhattan.

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William Gaddis

William Thomas Gaddis, Jr. (December 29, 1922 – December 16, 1998) was an American novelist.

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William Lane Craig

William Lane Craig (born August 23, 1949) is an American analytic philosopher and Christian theologian.

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William S. Burroughs

William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914 – August 2, 1997) was an American writer and visual artist.

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Wolfgang Weingart

Wolfgang Weingart (born 1941) is an internationally known graphic designer and typographer.

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World Trade Center (1973–2001)

The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.

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World view

A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Zygmunt Bauman

Zygmunt Bauman (19 November 1925 – 9 January 2017) was a Polish sociologist and philosopher.

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Modernism and postmodernism, Po-Mo, Po-mo, PoMo, Pomo fiction, Post Modern, Post Modernism, Post modern, Post modernism, Post modernists, Post-Egoism, Post-Modern, Post-Modernism, Post-Modernist, Post-egoism, Post-modern, Post-modern (typography), Post-modernest, Post-modernism, Post-modernist, Post-modernists, PostModern, Postmoderism, Postmodern, Postmodern movement, Postmodernism/to-merge, Postmodernist, Postmodernists.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postmodernism

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