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Posttraumatic stress disorder

Index Posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article. [1]

204 relations: Acute stress reaction, Adjustment disorder, Age adjustment, Alcohol abuse, Allostatic load, American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, Amygdala, Ancient Greek, Anhedonia, Anterior cingulate cortex, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Antipsychotic, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Apathy, Art therapy, Assault, Assyria, Attentional control, Basolateral amygdala, Battlemind, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepine dependence, Benzodiazepine use disorder, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, Berserker, Biochemistry, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Breast cancer, Brief psychotic disorder, Bullying, CAGE questionnaire, Cannabinoid, Cannabis, Catecholamine, Central nucleus of the amygdala, Child abuse, Clinical psychology, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cognitive processing therapy, Combat Stress (charitable organisation), Combat stress reaction, Comorbidity, Concussion, Contraindication, Corticosterone, Corticotropin-releasing factor family, Corticotropin-releasing hormone, ..., Cortisol, Critical incident stress management, Cycloserine, Damals, Dexamethasone, Dexamethasone suppression test, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Disability-adjusted life year, Disease, Distress (medicine), Domestic violence, Dopamine, Dream, Drug tolerance, DSM-5, Emergency medical services, Emergency service, Emotion, Epidemiology, Escitalopram, Exposure therapy, Extinction (psychology), Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, Fight-or-flight response, Firefighter, Flashback (psychology), Fluoxetine, Forensic psychiatry, Forensic psychology, Francine Shapiro, Frontal lobe, Gabapentin, Georgia State University, Glucocorticoid, Glucocorticoid receptor, Help for Heroes, Henry IV, Part 1, Heredity, Hippocampus, Homeostasis, Homesickness, Hurricane Katrina, Hydrocortisone, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypothalamus, ICD-10, Interview, Intrusive thought, Iraq War, Japan, Jonathan Shay, Limbic system, Locus coeruleus, Major depressive disorder, Mastectomy, MDMA, Medical cannabis, Mental disorder, Meta-analysis, Miscarriage, Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, Nabilone, Narrative therapy, National Comorbidity Survey, National Health Service, Natural disaster, Neuroendocrine cell, Neuroimmune system, Neuropeptide Y, Norepinephrine, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Off-label use, Oklahoma City bombing, Paroxetine, Peer support, Personal injury, Play (activity), Police, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Prazosin, Prefrontal cortex, Prenatal development, Prevalence, Prolonged exposure therapy, Propranolol, Prussian Army, Psychedelic therapy, Psychiatry, Psychological trauma, Psychomotor agitation, Psychosis, Psychotherapy, Questionnaire, Railway spine, Ramstein air show disaster, Randomized controlled trial, Rape, Review article, Risk factor, Roskamp Institute, San Diego State University, Schizophrenia, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Self-harm, September 11 attacks, Serotonin, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Sertraline, Sexual assault, Shell shock, Soliloquy, Startle response, Steroid hormone receptor, Stimulus (physiology), Substance abuse, Substance dependence, Substance use disorder, Substance-induced psychosis, Suicide, Surgeon General of the United States, Sweden, Temazepam, The Royal British Legion, TheFreeDictionary.com, Therapy, Thought, Thyroid hormones, Tort, Traffic collision, Trauma focused cognitive behavioral therapy, Tricyclic antidepressant, Trier of fact, Triiodothyronine, Unemployment, United States Department of Defense, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, United States Marine Corps, Urine, Venlafaxine, Ventromedial prefrontal cortex, Veteran, Veterans Affairs Canada, Vietnam War, Volunteer (disambiguation), Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, War, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Warrior Care Network, White blood cell, William Shakespeare, World Health Organization, World Trade Center (1973–2001), World war, Wounded Warrior Project. Expand index (154 more) »

Acute stress reaction

Acute stress reaction (also called acute stress disorder, psychological shock, mental shock, or simply shock) is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying or traumatic event, or witnessing a traumatic event that induces a strong emotional response within the individual.

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Adjustment disorder

An adjustment disorder (AD)—sometimes called exogenous, reactive, or situational depression—occurs when an individual is unable to adjust to or cope with a particular stress or a major life event.

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Age adjustment

In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.

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Alcohol abuse

Alcohol abuse is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which there is recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences.

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Allostatic load

Allostatic load is "the wear and tear on the body" that accumulates as an individual is exposed to repeated or chronic stress.

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American Psychiatric Association

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.

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American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.

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Amygdala

The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Anhedonia

Anhedonia refers to a diverse array of deficits in hedonic function, including reduced motivation or ability to experience pleasure.

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Anterior cingulate cortex

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of the corpus callosum.

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Anticonvulsant

Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.

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Antidepressant

Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.

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Antipsychotic

Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.

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Anxiolytic

An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.

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Apathy

Apathy is a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, and concern.

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Art therapy

Art therapy (also known as arts therapy) is a creative method of expression used as a therapeutic technique.

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Assault

An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action.

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Assyria

Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Attentional control

Attentional control refers to an individual's capacity to choose what they pay attention to and what they ignore.

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Basolateral amygdala

The basolateral amygdala (BLA) or basolateral complex, consists of the lateral, basal and accessory-basal nuclei of the amygdala.

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Battlemind

Battlemind is both the mental orientation developed during a combat zone deployment and a program developed at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) intended to reduce its impact on personal post-deployment issues.

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Benzodiazepine

Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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Benzodiazepine dependence

Benzodiazepine dependence or benzodiazepine addiction is when one has developed one or more of either tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, drug seeking behaviors, such as continued use despite harmful effects, and maladaptive pattern of substance use, according to the DSM-IV.

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Benzodiazepine use disorder

Benzodiazepine use disorder, also called misuse or abuse, is the use of benzodiazepines without a prescription, often for recreational purposes, which poses risks of dependence, withdrawal and other long-term effects.

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Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.

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Berserker

"Berserkers" (or "berserks") were champion Norse warriors who are primarily reported in Icelandic sagas to have fought in a trance-like fury, a characteristic which later gave rise to the English word "berserk." These champions would often go into battle without mail coats.

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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Brief psychotic disorder

Brief psychotic disorder is a period of psychosis whose duration is generally shorter, is not always non-recurring, but can be, and is not caused by another condition.

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Bullying

Bullying is the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate or aggressively dominate others.

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CAGE questionnaire

The CAGE questionnaire, the name of which is an acronym of its four questions, is a widely used screening test for problem drinking and potential alcohol problems.

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Cannabinoid

A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.

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Cannabis

Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.

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Catecholamine

A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.

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Central nucleus of the amygdala

The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA or aCeN) is a nucleus within the amygdala.

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Child abuse

Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.

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Clinical psychology

Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.

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Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.

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Cognitive processing therapy

Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) is a manualized therapy used by clinicians to help people recover from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related conditions.

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Combat Stress (charitable organisation)

Combat Stress is a registered charity in the United Kingdom offering therapeutic and clinical community and residential treatment to former members of the British Armed Forces who are suffering from a range of mental health conditions; including post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

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Combat stress reaction

Combat stress reaction (CSR) is a term used within the military to describe acute behavioral disorganization seen by medical personnel as a direct result of the trauma of war.

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Comorbidity

In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.

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Concussion

Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is typically defined as a head injury that temporarily affects brain functioning.

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Contraindication

In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.

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Corticosterone

Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands.

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Corticotropin-releasing factor family

Corticotropin-releasing factor, CRF is a family of related neuropeptides in vertebrates.

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Corticotropin-releasing hormone

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin; corticotropin may also be spelled corticotrophin) is a peptide hormone involved in the stress response.

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Cortisol

Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

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Critical incident stress management

Critical incident stress management (CISM) is an adaptive, short-term psychological helping-process that focuses solely on an immediate and identifiable problem.

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Cycloserine

Cycloserine, sold under the brand name Seromycin, is an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis.

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Damals

Damals is a German monthly popular scientific history magazine.

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Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.

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Dexamethasone suppression test

The dexamethasone suppression test (DST) is used to assess adrenal gland function by measuring how cortisol levels change in response to an injection of dexamethasone.

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.

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Disability-adjusted life year

The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.

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Disease

A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Distress (medicine)

In medicine, distress is an aversive state in which a person is unable to completely adapt to stressors and their resulting stress and shows maladaptive behaviors.

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Domestic violence

Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.

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Dopamine

Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Dream

A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.

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Drug tolerance

Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.

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DSM-5

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

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Emergency medical services

Emergency medical services, also known as ambulance services or paramedic services (abbreviated to the initialism EMS, EMAS, EMARS or SAMU in some countries), are a type of emergency service dedicated to providing out-of-hospital acute medical care, transport to definitive care, and other medical transport to patients with illnesses and injuries which prevent the patient from transporting themselves.

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Emergency service

Emergency services and rescue services are organizations which ensure public safety and health by addressing different emergencies.

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Emotion

Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.

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Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

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Escitalopram

Escitalopram, sold under the brand names Cipralex and Lexapro among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

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Exposure therapy

Exposure therapy is a technique in behavior therapy thought to help treat anxiety disorders.

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Extinction (psychology)

Extinction is observed in both operantly conditioned and classically conditioned behavior.

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Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a form of psychotherapy in which the person being treated is asked to recall distressing images while generating one of several types of bilateral sensory input, such as side-to-side eye movements or hand tapping.

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Fight-or-flight response

The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

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Firefighter

A firefighter is a rescuer extensively trained in firefighting, primarily to extinguish hazardous fires that threaten life, property and the environment as well as to rescue people and animals from dangerous situations.

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Flashback (psychology)

A flashback, or involuntary recurrent memory, is a psychological phenomenon in which an individual has a sudden, usually powerful, re-experiencing of a past experience or elements of a past experience.

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Fluoxetine

Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

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Forensic psychiatry

Forensic psychiatry is a sub-speciality of psychiatry and is related to criminology.

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Forensic psychology

Forensic psychology is the intersection between psychology and the justice system.

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Francine Shapiro

Francine Shapiro is an American psychologist and educator who originated and developed Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), a form of psychotherapy for resolving the symptoms of traumatic and other disturbing life experiences.

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Frontal lobe

The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.

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Gabapentin

Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.

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Georgia State University

Georgia State University (commonly referred to as Georgia State, State, or GSU) is a public research university in downtown Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

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Glucocorticoid

Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.

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Glucocorticoid receptor

The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.

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Help for Heroes

Help for Heroes (H4H) is a British charity launched on 1 October 2007 to help provide better facilities for British servicemen and women who have been wounded or injured in the line of duty.

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Henry IV, Part 1

Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597.

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Heredity

Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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Hippocampus

The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.

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Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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Homesickness

Homesickness is the distress caused by being away from home.

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Hurricane Katrina

Hurricane Katrina was an extremely destructive and deadly Category 5 hurricane that caused catastrophic damage along the Gulf coast from central Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge and levee failure.

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Hydrocortisone

Hydrocortisone, sold under a number of brand names, is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication.

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Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).

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Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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ICD-10

ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).

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Interview

An interview is a conversation where questions are asked and answers are given.

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Intrusive thought

An intrusive thought is an unwelcome involuntary thought, image, or unpleasant idea that may become an obsession, is upsetting or distressing, and can feel difficult to manage or eliminate.

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Iraq War

The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jonathan Shay

Jonathan Shay (born 1941) is a doctor and clinical psychiatrist.

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Limbic system

The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.

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Locus coeruleus

The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Mastectomy

Mastectomy (from Greek μαστός "breast" and ἐκτομή ektomia "cutting out") is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely.

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MDMA

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.

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Medical cannabis

Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana, is cannabis and cannabinoids that are recommended by doctors for their patients.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Meta-analysis

A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.

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Miscarriage

Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.

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Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies

The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is a membership-based 501(c)(3) organization working to raise awareness and understanding of psychedelic substances.

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Nabilone

Nabilone is a synthetic cannabinoid with therapeutic use as an antiemetic and as an adjunct analgesic for neuropathic pain.

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Narrative therapy

Narrative therapy is a form of psychotherapy that seeks to help people identify their values and the skills and knowledge they have to live these values, so they can effectively confront whatever problems they face.

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National Comorbidity Survey

The National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1) was the first large-scale field survey of mental health in the United States.

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National Health Service

The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.

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Natural disaster

A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.

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Neuroendocrine cell

Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood.

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Neuroimmune system

The neuroimmune system is a system of structures and processes involving the biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the nervous system and immune system which protect neurons from pathogens.

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Neuropeptide Y

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino-acid neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological and homeostatic processes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

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Norepinephrine

Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Obsessive–compulsive disorder

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").

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Off-label use

Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.

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Oklahoma City bombing

The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist truck bombing on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States on April 19, 1995.

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Paroxetine

Paroxetine, also known by trade names including Paxil and Seroxat among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It has also been used in the treatment of hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause. It has a similar tolerability profile to other SSRIs. The common side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, loss of appetite, sweating, trouble sleeping and delayed ejaculation. It may also be associated with a slightly increased risk of birth defects. The rate of withdrawal symptoms in young people may be higher with paroxetine and venlafaxine than other SSRIs and SNRIs. Several studies have associated paroxetine with suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents. Marketing of the drug began in 1992 by the pharmaceutical company SmithKline Beecham, known since 2000 as GlaxoSmithKline. Generic formulations have been available since 2003 when the patent expired. The United States Department of Justice fined GlaxoSmithKline $3 billion in 2012, including a sum for withholding data on paroxetine, unlawfully promoting it for under-18s and preparing an article, following one of its clinical trials, study 329, that misleadingly reported the drug was effective in treating adolescent depression.

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Peer support

Peer support occurs when people provide knowledge, experience, emotional, social or practical help to each other.

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Personal injury

Personal injury is a legal term for an injury to the body, mind or emotions, as opposed to an injury to property.

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Play (activity)

In psychology and ethology, play is a range of voluntary, intrinsically motivated activities normally associated with recreational pleasure and enjoyment.

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Police

A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.

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Posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.

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Prazosin

Prazosin, trade names Minipress, Vasoflex, Lentopres and Hypovase, is a sympatholytic drug used to treat high blood pressure, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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Prenatal development

Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.

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Prevalence

Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use).

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Prolonged exposure therapy

Prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is a form of behavior therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy designed to treat post-traumatic stress disorder, characterized by re-experiencing the traumatic event through remembering it and engaging with, rather than avoiding, reminders of the trauma (triggers).

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Propranolol

Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.

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Prussian Army

The Royal Prussian Army (Königlich Preußische Armee) served as the army of the Kingdom of Prussia.

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Psychedelic therapy

Psychedelic therapy refers to therapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs, particularly serotonergic psychedelics such as LSD, psilocybin, DMT, MDMA, mescaline, and 2C-B, primarily to assist psychotherapy.

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Psychiatry

Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Psychological trauma

Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the mind that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event.

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Psychomotor agitation

Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.

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Psychosis

Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.

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Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.

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Questionnaire

A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions (or other types of prompts) for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.

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Railway spine

Railway spine was a nineteenth-century diagnosis for the post-traumatic symptoms of passengers involved in railroad accidents.

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Ramstein air show disaster

The Ramstein air show disaster occurred on Sunday, 28 August 1988 during the Flugtag '88 airshow at the United States's Ramstein Air Base near Kaiserslautern, West Germany.

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Randomized controlled trial

A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.

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Rape

Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.

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Review article

A review article is an article that summarizes the current state of understanding on a topic.

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Risk factor

In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.

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Roskamp Institute

The Roskamp Institute, was co-founded by Robert and Diane Roskamp, and Fiona Crawford and Michael Mullan in Sarasota, Florida in 2003.

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San Diego State University

San Diego State University (SDSU) is a public research university in San Diego, California, and is the largest and oldest higher education institution in San Diego County.

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Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

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Self-harm

Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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Serotonin

Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

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Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.

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Sertraline

Sertraline, sold under the trade names Zoloft among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

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Sexual assault

Sexual assault is an act in which a person coerces or physically forces a person to engage in a sexual act against their will.

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Shell shock

Shell shock is a term coined in World War I to describe the type of posttraumatic stress disorder many soldiers were afflicted with during the war (before PTSD itself was a term).

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Soliloquy

A soliloquy (from Latin solo "to oneself" + loquor "I talk") is a device often used in drama when a character speaks to oneself, relating thoughts and feelings, thereby also sharing them with the audience, giving off the illusion of being a series of unspoken reflections.

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Startle response

In animals, including humans, the startle response is a largely unconscious defensive response to sudden or threatening stimuli, such as sudden noise or sharp movement, and is associated with negative affect.

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Steroid hormone receptor

Steroid hormone receptors are found in the nucleus, cytosol, and also on the plasma membrane of target cells.

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Stimulus (physiology)

In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.

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Substance abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.

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Substance dependence

Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.

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Substance use disorder

A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.

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Substance-induced psychosis

Substance-induced psychosis (commonly known as toxic psychosis) is a form of substance use disorder where psychosis can be attributed to substance use.

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Suicide

Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.

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Surgeon General of the United States

The Surgeon General of the United States is the operational head of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government of the United States.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Temazepam

Temazepam (brand names Restoril and Normison, among others) is an intermediate-acting 3-hydroxy hypnotic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs.

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The Royal British Legion

The Royal British Legion (RBL), sometimes called The British Legion or The Legion, is a British charity providing financial, social and emotional support to members and veterans of the British Armed Forces, their families and dependants.

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TheFreeDictionary.com

TheFreeDictionary.com is an American online dictionary and encyclopedia that gathers information from a variety of sources.

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Therapy

Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.

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Thought

Thought encompasses a “goal oriented flow of ideas and associations that leads to reality-oriented conclusion.” Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood.

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Thyroid hormones

Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).

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Tort

A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.

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Traffic collision

A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.

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Trauma focused cognitive behavioral therapy

Trauma focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapy or counselling that aims at addressing the needs of children and adults with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other difficulties related to traumatic life events.

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Tricyclic antidepressant

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.

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Trier of fact

A trier of fact, or finder of fact, is a person, or group of persons, who determines facts in a legal proceeding, usually a trial.

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Triiodothyronine

Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone.

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Unemployment

Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.

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United States Department of Defense

The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Department of Veterans Affairs

The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is a federal Cabinet-level agency that provides near-comprehensive healthcare services to eligible military veterans at VA medical centers and outpatient clinics located throughout the country; several non-healthcare benefits including disability compensation, vocational rehabilitation, education assistance, home loans, and life insurance; and provides burial and memorial benefits to eligible veterans and family members at 135 national cemeteries.

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United States Marine Corps

The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.

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Urine

Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.

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Venlafaxine

Venlafaxine, sold under the brand name Effexor among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class.

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Ventromedial prefrontal cortex

The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is a part of the prefrontal cortex in the mammalian brain.

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Veteran

A veteran (from Latin vetus, meaning "old") is a person who has had long service or experience in a particular occupation or field.

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Veterans Affairs Canada

Veterans Affairs Canada (VAC) is the department within the Government of Canada with responsibility for pensions, benefits and services for war veterans, retired and still-serving members of the Canadian Armed Forces and Royal Canadian Mounted Police, their families, as well as some civilians.

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Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Volunteer (disambiguation)

Volunteering is the practice of people working on behalf of others without being motivated by financial or material gain.

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Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is the largest biomedical research facility administered by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD).

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War

War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.

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War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.

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Warrior Care Network

Warrior Care Network is a national health system of PTSD treatment centers that provide care, travel and accommodations at no cost for United States veterans and their families.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World Trade Center (1973–2001)

The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.

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World war

A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.

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Wounded Warrior Project

Wounded Warrior Project (WWP) is a charity and veterans service organization that offers a variety of programs, services and events for wounded veterans of the military actions following September 11, 2001.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posttraumatic_stress_disorder

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