114 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Administrative units of Pakistan, Agriculture, Alexander the Great, Archaeological site, Attock, Attock District, Attock Refinery Limited, Awan (tribe), Azad Kashmir, Babur, Baburnama, Barley, Bhati, Buddhism, Chakwal, Chakwal District, Chinkara, Chukar partridge, Civilization, Coal mining, Deforestation, Dhund Abbasis, Districts of Pakistan, East India Company, East Punjab, Fossil, Gakhars, Gandhara, Gautama Buddha, Glacial period, Grand Trunk Road, Gurjar, Hare, Hindko, Hindu, Hindu Shahi, Humayun, Huna people, Indus River, Irrigation, Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory, Jat people, Jhelum, Jhelum District, Jhelum River, Kabul Shahi, Kala Chitta Range, Kallar Kahar, ..., Kanishka, Katas Raj Temples, Kharosthi, Khatri, Khushab District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom, Legume, List of sovereign states, Mahabharata, Mahmud of Ghazni, Majhi dialect, Mankiala, Margalla Hills, Melon, Mianwali District, Minhas, Mongoose, Murree, Onion, Pahari-Pothwari, Pakistan, Pakistan Standard Time, Pandava, Persian Empire, Petroleum, Pharwala, Plateau, Precipitation, Punjab, Pakistan, Punjabi dialects, Punjabi language, Rajput, Ravine, Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi District, Rawat Fort, Rohtas Fort, Sakesar, Salt Range, Sasanian Empire, Satti, Sher Shah Suri, Shiva, Sivapithecus, Soan River, Soanian, Sorghum, Suzuki Jimny, Tarkhan, Taxila city, Tilla Jogian, Tobacco, Tribes and clans of the Pothohar Plateau, UNESCO, United States Geological Survey, University of Pennsylvania, University of Peshawar, Urial, Wheat, Wild boar, World Heritage site, Yellow-throated marten, 30th century BC. Expand index (64 more) » « Shrink index
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The administrative units of Pakistan (انتظامی اکائیاں) consist of five provinces (Balochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh), one autonomous territory (Azad Jammu and Kashmir) and one federal territory (Islamabad Capital Territory).
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record.
Attock City (Punjabi, Urdu), formerly Campbellpore or Campbellpur until 1978, is a city located in northern part of Punjab province of Pakistan near the capital of Islamabad in the Panjistan region, and is the headquarters of Attock District.
Attock District (ضِلع اٹک) is a district in Pothohar Plateau of the Punjab Province of Pakistan.
The Attock Refinery Limited is a Pakistani refinery which does crude oil refining in the country with its operations dating back to 1922.
Awan (اعوان) is a tribe living predominantly in northern, central, and western parts of Pakistani Punjab, with significant numbers also residing in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Azad Kashmir and to a lesser extent in Sindh and Balochistan.
Azad Jammu and Kashmir (آزاد جموں و کشمیر Āzād Jammū̃ o Kaśmīr, translation: Free Jammu and Kashmir), abbreviated as AJK and commonly known as Azad Kashmir, is a nominally self-governing polity administered by Pakistan.
Bāburnāma (Chagatai/بابر نامہ;´, literally: "Book of Babur" or "Letters of Babur"; alternatively known as Tuzk-e Babri) is the name given to the memoirs of Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn Muhammad Bābur (1483–1530), founder of the Mughal Empire and a great-great-great-grandson of Timur.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Bhati (also spelled Bhatti) is a clan of Gurjars and Rajputs originating from the Indian subcontinent and are predominantly found in Northern India and Eastern Pakistan.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Chakwal (Punjabi and چکوال) is the capital and main city of Chakwal District, Punjab, Pakistan.
Chakwal District (Punjabi and ضِلع چکوال) is in Pothohar Plateau of Punjab, Pakistan.
The chinkara (Gazella bennettii), also known as the Indian gazelle, is a gazelle species native to Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
The chukar partridge, or simply chukar (Alectoris chukar), also called Chukor, is a Eurasian upland gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
The Dhund Abbasi (Urdu/ڈهونڈ عباسی) are a tribe found in northern Punjab in Pakistan.
The Districts of Pakistan (اِضلاعِ پاكِستان), are the third-order administrative divisions of Pakistan, below provinces and divisions, but form the first-tier of local government.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
East Punjab (known simply as Punjab from 1950) was a province and later a state of India from 1947 until 1966, consisting of the parts of the Punjab Province of British India that went to India following the partition of the province between India and Pakistan by the Radcliffe Commission in 1947.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
The Gakhars (also Gakkhar or Ghakhar or Ghakkar) are a clan found predominantly in Pakistan.
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.
The Grand Trunk Road is one of Asia's oldest and longest major roads.
Gurjar or Gujjar are a pastoral agricultural ethnic group with populations in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and a small number in northeastern Afghanistan.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
Hindko (ہندکو ALA-LC) is a cover term for a diverse group of Lahnda (Western Punjabi) dialects spoken by people of various ethnic backgrounds in several discontinuous areas in northwestern Pakistan, primarily in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Hindu Shahi held sway over the Kabul Valley and Gandhara (modern-day Pakistan and Afghanistan) from as far back as the fourth century CE.
Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad (نصیرالدین محمد|translit.
Hunas or Huna was the name given by the ancient Indians to a group of Central Asian tribes who, via the Khyber Pass, entered India at the end of the 5th or early 6th century.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
Islamabad Capital Territory (وفاقی دارالحکومت, or ICT) is the one and only federal territory of Pakistan.
The Jat people (also spelled Jatt and Jaat) are a traditionally agricultural community in Northern India and Pakistan.
Jhelum (جِہلم) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River, in the district of the same name in the north of Punjab province, Pakistan.
Jhelum District (ضِلع جِہلم), is in Pothohar Plateau of the Punjab province of Pakistan.
The Jhelum River, Vitasta (Sanskrit: वितस्ता, fem., also, Vetastā, Kashmiri: Vyeth(ویتھ/व्यथा)), is a river of northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Srinager District. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about.
The Kabul Shahi dynasties also called ShahiyaSehrai, Fidaullah (1979).
Kala Chitta Range (کالا چٹا) is a mountain range located in the Attock District of Punjab, Pakistan.
Kallar Kahar (كلّر كہار) is a town and subdivision (Tehsil) of Chakwal District in Punjab, Pakistan.
Kanishka I (कनिष्क), or Kanishka the Great, was the emperor of the Kushan dynasty in the second century (c. 127–150 CE).
The Katas Raj Temples (Punjabi, کٹاس راج مندر, also known as Qila Katas(), are several Hindu temples connected to one another by walkways. The temples form a complex surrounding a pond named Katas which is regarded as sacred by Hindus. The complex is located in the Potohar Plateau region of Pakistan's Punjab province. The temples are located near the town of Kallar Kahar, and are near the M2 Motorway. The temples' pond is said in the Puranas to have been created from the teardrops of Shiva, after he wandered the Earth inconsolable after the death of his wife Sati. The pond occupies an area of two kanals and 15 marlas, with a maximum depth of 20 feet. The temples play a role in the Hindu epic poem, the Mahābhārata, where the temples are traditionally believed to have been the site where the Pandava brothers spent a significant portion of their exile. It is also traditionally believed by Hindus to be the site where the brothers engaged in a riddle contest with the Yakshas, as described in the Yaksha Prashna. Another tradition states that the Hindu deity Krishna laid the foundation of the temple, and established a hand-made shivling in it. The temples were visited by India's former deputy prime minister Lal Krishna Advani in 2005. In 2006, the Pakistani government began restoration works at the temples, with further improvements announced in 2017.
The Kharosthi script, also spelled Kharoshthi or Kharoṣṭhī, is an ancient script used in ancient Gandhara and ancient India (primarily modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan) to write the Gandhari Prakrit and Sanskrit.
Khatri is a caste from the northern Indian subcontinent.
Khushab District (ضِلع خُوشاب) is a district in the province of Punjab, Pakistan, with its administrative capital in Jauharabad. The district is named after the historical city of Khushab located within its boundaries. According to the 1998 census, the population was 905,711 with 24.76% living in urban areas. The district consists of four tehsils, Khushab, Noorpur Thal, Quaidabad and Naushera. Khushab is home to the Heavy Water and Natural Uranium Research Reactor, part of the Pakistan's Special Weapons Program.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
The Kushano-Sassanids (also called Kushanshas or Indo-Sassanians) were a branch of the Sassanid Persians who established their rule in Bactria and in northwestern Pakistan during the 3rd and 4th centuries at the expense of the declining Kushans.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمینالدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.
Majhi (ماجھی; ਮਾਝੀ) is the standard dialect of Punjabi and is spoken in the Majha region of the Punjab.
Mankiala (مانكياله.; also known as Manikyala and Manikiyala) is a village in the Potohar plateau, Punjab near Rawalpindi, Pakistan, known for the nearby Mankiala stupa - a Buddhist stupa located at the site where, according to legend, Buddha sacrificed some of his body parts to feed seven hungry tiger cubs.
The Margalla Hills is a hill range which is part of the Himalayan foothills located within the Margalla Hills National Park, north of Islamabad, Pakistan.
A melon is any of various plants of the family Cucurbitaceae with sweet edible, fleshy fruit.
The Mianwali District (ضِلع مِيانوالى; Pashto,ضلع میانوالی), is a district in the northwest of Punjab province, Pakistan.
Minhas or Manhas is a clan found among Rajputs and Jats of India and Pakistan.
Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa.
Murree (Punjabi, مری, marī, meaning "apex") is a mountain resort town, located in the Galyat region of the Pir Panjal Range, within the Rawalpindi District of Punjab, Pakistan.
The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
The Indo-Aryan language spoken on the Pothohar Plateau in northern Punjab, in most of the Pakistani polity of Azad Kashmir, and in western areas of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir is known by a variety of names, the most common of which are Pahari and Pothwari (or Pothohari).
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pakistan Standard Time (پاکستان معیاری وقت, abbreviated as PST or sometimes PKT) is UTC+05:00 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
In the Mahabharata, a Hindu epic text, the Pandavas are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri, who was the princess of Madra.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Pharwala Fort (قلعہ پھروالہ) is a 15th century fort located about 40 km from Rawalpindi in Punjab, Pakistan.
In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
The Punjabi dialects are the series of dialects spoken in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.
A ravine is a landform narrower than a canyon and is often the product of streamcutting erosion.
Rawalpindi (Punjabi, راولپِنڈى), commonly known as Pindi (پِنڈی), is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Rawalpindi District (Punjabi and ضِلع راولپِنڈى), is a district located in the northernmost part of the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Rawat Fort (قلعہ روات) is an early 16th century fort in the Pothohar plateau of Pakistan, near the city of Rawalpindi in the province of Punjab.
Rohtas Fort (Punjabi, قلعہ روہتاس; Qila Rohtas) is a 16th-century fortress located near the city of Jhelum in the Pakistani province of Punjab.The fortress was built during the reign of the Pashtun king Sher Shah Suri between 1541 and 1548 in order to help subdue the rebellious tribes of the Potohar region of northern Punjab that were loyal to the Mughal crown.
Sakesar (سكيسر), is the highest mountain in the Salt Range in Pothohar in Pakistan.
The Salt Range (سلسلہ کوہ نمک) is a hill system in the Punjab province of Pakistan, deriving its name from its extensive deposits of rock salt.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
For people with the surname, see Satti (surname). The Satti (ستّى) are a tribe found in Muree, Kotli sattian, Kahuta and other adjoining areas of Rawalpindi Punjab, Pakistan.
Shēr Shāh Sūrī (1486–22 May 1545), born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Suri Empire in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its capital at Delhi. An ethnic Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1538. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor. He first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri dynasty. A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun. During his seven-year rule from 1538 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya from "Taka" and re-organised the postal system of India. He further developed Humayun's Dina-panah city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra, which had been in decline since the 7th century CE, as Patna. He extended the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong in the frontiers of the province of Bengal in northeast India to Kabul in Afghanistan in the far northwest of the country.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
Sivapithecus (Shiva's Ape) (syn: Ramapithecus) is a genus of extinct apes.
The Soan River (سواں), also referred to as the Swan, Sawan, or Sohan, is a river in Punjab, Pakistan.
The Soanian is an archaeological culture of the Lower Paleolithic in the Siwalik region of the Indian subcontinent.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
The Suzuki Jimny is a line of small four-wheel drive off-road cars and mini SUVs made by the Japanese automaker Suzuki produced since April 1970.
Tarkhan (Old Turkic Tarqan; ᠳᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ Darqan or Darkhan; ترخان;; طرخان; alternative spellings Tarkan, Tarkhaan, Tarqan, Tarchan, Turxan, Tarcan, Tárkány, Tarján, Torgyán or Turgan) is an ancient Central Asian title used by various Turkic peoples, Indo-Europeans (i.e. Iranian, Tokharian, Punjabi), and by the Hungarians and Mongols.
Taxila (ٹيکسلا), is a city in Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan.
Tilla Jogian (Punjabi and ٹلہ جوگیاں) is an abandoned Hindu temple and monastic complex located on the summit of the Tilla Jogian mountain in the Salt Range of Pakistan's Punjab province.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
The Potohar plateau, sometimes pronounced Pothohar Plateau (سطح مرتفع پوٹھوہار), is a large region of plateau situated in northern Punjab, Pakistan.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
The University of Peshawar (جامعۂ پشاور; د پېښور پوهنتون; abbreviated UoP; known more popularly as Peshawar University), is a public research university located in Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The urial (Ovis orientalis vignei), also known as the arkars or shapo, is a subspecies group of the wild sheep Ovis orientalis.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula) is an Asian marten species, which is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List due to its wide distribution, evidently relatively stable population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, and lack of major threats.
The 30th century BC was a century which lasted from the year 3000 BC to 2901 BC.