Logo
Unionpedia
Communication
Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Free
Faster access than browser!
 

Pound sterling

+ Save concept

The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha. [1]

303 relations: Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Alistair Darling, Ancient Roman units of measurement, Angel (coin), Angevin pound, Anglo-Saxons, Around the World in Seventy-Two Days, Ascension Island, Assay office, Asset, Australian dollar, Australian pound, Austro-Hungarian krone, £sd, Bank, Bank of England, Bank of England £1 note, Bank of England £20 note, Bank of England £5 note, Bank of England £50 note, Bank of Ireland, Bank of Scotland, Banknote, Barbados, Bi-metallic coin, Black Wednesday, Blackletter, Botswana pula, Bretton Woods system, Brexit, Britannia silver, British Antarctic Territory, British Empire, British Overseas Territories, British twenty-five pence coin, British West Africa, Bronze, Canadian dollar, Capital (economics), Central bank, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Channel Islands, Charlemagne, Charles I of England, Clydesdale Bank, Coins of the pound sterling, Commercial paper, Commodity money, Consumer Price Index (United Kingdom), Copper, ..., Copper plating, Corporate bond, Crown (British coin), Crown dependencies, Cupronickel, Currency, Currency basket, Currency symbol, Currency union, Cypriot pound, Cyprus, Danske Bank, Danske Bank (Northern Ireland), Debasement, Decimal Day, Decimalisation, Denarius, Denmark, Deutsche Mark, Diminutive, Double florin, Duodecimal, Dutch guilder, East India Company, Economy of the United Kingdom, Edward Heath, Edward VI of England, Elizabeth I of England, Elizabeth II, England and Wales, English Civil War, Entrepreneurship, Euro, Euro convergence criteria, European Economic Community, European Exchange Rate Mechanism, European Union, Falkland Islands, Falkland Islands pound, Farthing (British coin), Fernand Braudel, Fiat money, Fifty pence (British coin), Fiji, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Fineness, First Trust Bank, Five economic tests, Five pence (British coin), Five pounds (British coin), Fixed exchange-rate system, Floating exchange rate, Florin (British coin), Florin (English coin), Foreign exchange market, Foreign-exchange reserves, Francia, Frankfurt, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, French franc, French livre, George III of the United Kingdom, George IV of the United Kingdom, German gold mark, German reunification, Gibraltar, Gibraltar pound, Gold coin, Gold penny, Gold standard, Gordon Brown, Government bond, Government budget balance, Governor of the Bank of England, Grain (unit), Great Depression, Green pound, Gresham's law, Groat (coin), Gross domestic product, Guernsey, Guernsey pound, Guinea (coin), Half crown (British coin), Half sovereign, Halfpenny (British decimal coin), Halfpenny (British pre-decimal coin), Hanseatic League, Harold Wilson, Henry II of England, Henry III of England, Henry IV of England, Henry VII of England, Henry VIII of England, Heptagon, History of opium in China, History of the English penny (1154–1485), History of the English penny (c. 600 – 1066), HM Treasury, House of Commons Library, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Indian rupee, Inflation, Intaglio (printmaking), Interest rate, International monetary conferences, International Monetary Fund, Irish Free State, Irish pound, Isaac Newton, Isle of Man, ISO 3166, ISO 3166-1 alpha-2, ISO 4217, Italian scudo, Jamaica, James Callaghan, James VI and I, Japanese yen, Jersey, Jersey pound, John Benjamin Smith, John Bowring, John Hubbard, 1st Baron Addington, John Wrottesley, 1st Baron Wrottesley, Kilmarnock Burghs (UK Parliament constituency), Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Scotland, Labour Party (UK), Latin Monetary Union, Laurel (English coin), Legal tender, Letterpress printing, Liberal Democrats (UK), List of £10, List of British banknotes and coins, Manx pound, Margaret Thatcher, Market value, Mervyn King, Baron King of Lothbury, Monetarism, Monetary policy, Money supply, Napoleonic Wars, National archives, Nazism, Nellie Bly, Nickel electroplating, Nigel Lawson, Noble (English coin), Northern Ireland, Offa of Mercia, Office for National Statistics, Offset printing, One hundred pounds (British coin), One pound (British coin), Operation Bernhard, Opium, Oxford University Press, Penny, Penny (British decimal coin), Penny (British pre-decimal coin), Penny sterling, Philip Grierson, Polymer banknote, Pound (currency), Pound (mass), Pound Scots, Pound sign, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Princeton University Press, Public expenditure, Quantitative easing, Queen Victoria, Quid pro quo, Recession, Renminbi, Reserve currency, Retail price index, Royal Bank of Scotland, Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, Royal Commission, Royal Mint, Saint Helena, Saint Helena pound, Samuel Jones-Loyd, 1st Baron Overstone, Scottish Conservatives, Scottish independence referendum, 2014, Scottish National Party, Shamrock, Shilling, Shilling (British coin), Sir William Brown, 1st Baronet, of Richmond Hill, Sixpence (British coin), Solidus (coin), South African pound, South African rand, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, South Lancashire (UK Parliament constituency), Southern Rhodesia, Sovereign (British coin), Spanish colonial real, Spanish dollar, Spanish real, Special drawing rights, Speech from the throne, Spur ryal, Staffordshire (UK Parliament constituency), States of Guernsey, States of Jersey, Steel, Sterling area, Sterling silver, Stirling Burghs (UK Parliament constituency), Swiss franc, Ten pence (British coin), Thaler, The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The National Archives (United Kingdom), The Observer, The Times, The Wall Street Journal, Third Thatcher ministry, Threepence (British coin), Tin, Tony Blair, Treaty of Union, Tristan da Cunha, Troy weight, Tudor rose, Twenty pence (British coin), Twenty pounds (British coin), Two pence (British decimal coin), Two pounds (British coin), Tynwald, Ulster Bank, Ultraviolet, Unite (English coin), United Kingdom, United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States dollar, University of Chicago Press, William Ewart Gladstone, William IV of the United Kingdom, World War I, World War II, Yale University Press, Zimbabwean dollar, 1973 oil crisis. Expand index (253 more) »

Akrotiri and Dhekelia

The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia (SBA; Περιοχές Κυρίαρχων Βάσεων Ακρωτηρίου και Δεκέλιας, Periochés Kyríarchon Váseon Akrotiríou kai Dekélias; Egemen Üs Bölgeleri Ağrotur ve Dikelya), is a British Overseas Territory on the island of Cyprus.

New!!: Pound sterling and Akrotiri and Dhekelia · See more »

Alistair Darling

Alistair Maclean Darling, Baron Darling of Roulanish, (born 28 November 1953) is a Labour Party politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Labour Government from 2007-2010 and as a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1987 until he stepped down in 2015, most recently for Edinburgh South West.

New!!: Pound sterling and Alistair Darling · See more »

Ancient Roman units of measurement

The ancient Roman units of measurement were largely built on the Hellenic system, which in turn was built upon Egyptian and Mesopotamian influences.

New!!: Pound sterling and Ancient Roman units of measurement · See more »

Angel (coin)

The angel was an English gold coin introduced by Edward IV in 1465.

New!!: Pound sterling and Angel (coin) · See more »

Angevin pound

The Angevin pound was "the ordinary standard of the currency in the continental possessions (12th-century) of the early Plantagenets" Roger of Hoveden wrote that its value was set at about one-fourth of an English pound by an ordinance of Richard the First.

New!!: Pound sterling and Angevin pound · See more »

Anglo-Saxons

The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.

New!!: Pound sterling and Anglo-Saxons · See more »

Around the World in Seventy-Two Days

circumnavigation of the globe (1889-1890), in the ''New York World'', 26 January 1890. Around the World in Seventy-Two Days is an 1890 book by journalist Elizabeth Jane Cochrane, writing under her pseudonym, Nellie Bly.

New!!: Pound sterling and Around the World in Seventy-Two Days · See more »

Ascension Island

Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island, 7°56' south of the Equator in the South Atlantic Ocean.

New!!: Pound sterling and Ascension Island · See more »

Assay office

Assay offices are institutions set up to assay (test the purity of) precious metals, in order to protect consumers.

New!!: Pound sterling and Assay office · See more »

Asset

In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource.

New!!: Pound sterling and Asset · See more »

Australian dollar

The Australian dollar (sign: $; code: AUD) is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including its external territories Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.

New!!: Pound sterling and Australian dollar · See more »

Australian pound

The Australian pound (symbol £) was the currency of Australia from 1910 until 14 February 1966, when it was replaced by the Australian dollar.

New!!: Pound sterling and Australian pound · See more »

Austro-Hungarian krone

The Krone or korona (Krone, Hungarian and Polish korona, krona, kruna, Czech and koruna) was the official currency of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1892 (when it replaced the gulden, forint, florén or zlatka as part of the adoption of the gold standard) until the dissolution of the empire in 1918.

New!!: Pound sterling and Austro-Hungarian krone · See more »

£sd

£sd (pronounced /ɛlɛsˈdiː/ ell-ess-dee and occasionally written Lsd) is the popular name for the pre-decimal currencies once common throughout Europe, especially in the British Isles and hence in several countries of the British Empire and subsequently the Commonwealth.

New!!: Pound sterling and £sd · See more »

Bank

A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.

New!!: Pound sterling and Bank · See more »

Bank of England

The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.

New!!: Pound sterling and Bank of England · See more »

Bank of England £1 note

The Bank of England £1 note was a banknote of the pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Bank of England £1 note · See more »

Bank of England £20 note

The Bank of England £20 note is a banknote of the pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Bank of England £20 note · See more »

Bank of England £5 note

The Bank of England £5 note, also known as a fiver, is a banknote of the pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Bank of England £5 note · See more »

Bank of England £50 note

The Bank of England £50 note is a banknote of the pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Bank of England £50 note · See more »

Bank of Ireland

The Bank of Ireland (Banc na hÉireann) is a commercial bank operation in Ireland and one of the traditional 'Big Four' Irish banks.

New!!: Pound sterling and Bank of Ireland · See more »

Bank of Scotland

The Bank of Scotland plc (Bank o Scotland, Banca na h-Alba) is a commercial and clearing bank based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

New!!: Pound sterling and Bank of Scotland · See more »

Banknote

A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.

New!!: Pound sterling and Banknote · See more »

Barbados

Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.

New!!: Pound sterling and Barbados · See more »

Bi-metallic coin

Bi-metallic coins are coins consisting of two (bi-) metals or alloys, generally arranged with an outer ring around a contrasting center.

New!!: Pound sterling and Bi-metallic coin · See more »

Black Wednesday

Black Wednesday occurred in the United Kingdom on 16 September 1992, when John Major's Conservative government was forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) after it was unable to keep the pound above its agreed lower limit in the ERM.

New!!: Pound sterling and Black Wednesday · See more »

Blackletter

Blackletter (sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.

New!!: Pound sterling and Blackletter · See more »

Botswana pula

The pula is the currency of Botswana.

New!!: Pound sterling and Botswana pula · See more »

Bretton Woods system

The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.

New!!: Pound sterling and Bretton Woods system · See more »

Brexit

Brexit is the impending withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).

New!!: Pound sterling and Brexit · See more »

Britannia silver

Britannia silver is an alloy of silver containing 11 ozt 10 dwt (i.e. 11½ troy oz.) silver in the pound troy, equivalent to, or 95.833% by weight (mass) silver, the rest usually being copper.

New!!: Pound sterling and Britannia silver · See more »

British Antarctic Territory

The British Antarctic Territory (BAT) is a sector of Antarctica claimed by the United Kingdom as one of its 14 British Overseas Territories, of which it is by far the largest by area.

New!!: Pound sterling and British Antarctic Territory · See more »

British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

New!!: Pound sterling and British Empire · See more »

British Overseas Territories

The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.

New!!: Pound sterling and British Overseas Territories · See more »

British twenty-five pence coin

The commemorative British decimal twenty-five pence (25p) coin was issued in four designs between 1972 and 1981.

New!!: Pound sterling and British twenty-five pence coin · See more »

British West Africa

British West Africa was the collective name for British colonies in West Africa during the colonial period, either in the general geographical sense or the formal colonial administrative entity.

New!!: Pound sterling and British West Africa · See more »

Bronze

Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

New!!: Pound sterling and Bronze · See more »

Canadian dollar

The Canadian dollar (symbol: $; code: CAD; dollar canadien) is the currency of Canada.

New!!: Pound sterling and Canadian dollar · See more »

Capital (economics)

In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.

New!!: Pound sterling and Capital (economics) · See more »

Central bank

A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.

New!!: Pound sterling and Central bank · See more »

Chancellor of the Exchequer

The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.

New!!: Pound sterling and Chancellor of the Exchequer · See more »

Channel Islands

The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.

New!!: Pound sterling and Channel Islands · See more »

Charlemagne

Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

New!!: Pound sterling and Charlemagne · See more »

Charles I of England

Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

New!!: Pound sterling and Charles I of England · See more »

Clydesdale Bank

Clydesdale Bank plc is a commercial bank in Scotland.

New!!: Pound sterling and Clydesdale Bank · See more »

Coins of the pound sterling

The standard circulating coinage of the United Kingdom is denominated in pounds sterling (symbol "£"), and, since the introduction of the two-pound coin in 1994 (to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Bank of England 1694–1994), ranges in value from one penny to two pounds.

New!!: Pound sterling and Coins of the pound sterling · See more »

Commercial paper

Commercial paper, in the global financial market, is an unsecured promissory note with a fixed maturity of not more than 364 days.

New!!: Pound sterling and Commercial paper · See more »

Commodity money

Commodity money is money whose value comes from a commodity of which it is made.

New!!: Pound sterling and Commodity money · See more »

Consumer Price Index (United Kingdom)

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is the official measure of inflation of consumer prices of the United Kingdom.

New!!: Pound sterling and Consumer Price Index (United Kingdom) · See more »

Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

New!!: Pound sterling and Copper · See more »

Copper plating

Copper plating is the process of plating a layer of copper electrolytically on the surface of an item.

New!!: Pound sterling and Copper plating · See more »

Corporate bond

A corporate bond is a bond issued by a corporation in order to raise financing for a variety of reasons such as to ongoing operations, M&A, or to expand business.

New!!: Pound sterling and Corporate bond · See more »

Crown (British coin)

The British crown, the successor to the English crown and the Scottish dollar, came into being with the Union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland in 1707.

New!!: Pound sterling and Crown (British coin) · See more »

Crown dependencies

Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.

New!!: Pound sterling and Crown dependencies · See more »

Cupronickel

Cupronickel (also known as copper-nickel) is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese.

New!!: Pound sterling and Cupronickel · See more »

Currency

A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.

New!!: Pound sterling and Currency · See more »

Currency basket

A currency basket is a portfolio of selected currencies with different weightings.

New!!: Pound sterling and Currency basket · See more »

Currency symbol

A currency symbol is a graphic symbol used as a shorthand for a currency's name, especially in reference to amounts of money.

New!!: Pound sterling and Currency symbol · See more »

Currency union

A currency union (also known as monetary union) involves two or more states sharing the same currency without them necessarily having any further integration (such as an economic and monetary union, which would have, in addition, a customs union and a single market).

New!!: Pound sterling and Currency union · See more »

Cypriot pound

The pound, also known as the lira (λίρα / plural λίρες and Turkish: lira, from the Latin libra through the Italian lira), was the currency of Cyprus, including the Sovereign Base Areas in Akrotiri and Dhekelia, until 31 December 2007, when the Republic of Cyprus adopted the euro.

New!!: Pound sterling and Cypriot pound · See more »

Cyprus

Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

New!!: Pound sterling and Cyprus · See more »

Danske Bank

Danske Bank is a Danish bank whose name also literally translates into "Danish Bank".

New!!: Pound sterling and Danske Bank · See more »

Danske Bank (Northern Ireland)

Danske Bank UK (formally Northern Bank) is a commercial bank in Northern Ireland.

New!!: Pound sterling and Danske Bank (Northern Ireland) · See more »

Debasement

Debasement is the practice of lowering the value of currency.

New!!: Pound sterling and Debasement · See more »

Decimal Day

On 15 February 1971, known as Decimal Day, the United Kingdom and Ireland decimalised their currencies.

New!!: Pound sterling and Decimal Day · See more »

Decimalisation

Decimalisation is the process of converting a currency from its previous non-decimal denominations to a decimal system (i.e., a system based on one basic unit of currency and one or more sub-units, such that the number of sub-units in one basic unit is a power of 10, most commonly 100).

New!!: Pound sterling and Decimalisation · See more »

Denarius

The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.

New!!: Pound sterling and Denarius · See more »

Denmark

Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

New!!: Pound sterling and Denmark · See more »

Deutsche Mark

The Deutsche Mark ("German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or, was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.

New!!: Pound sterling and Deutsche Mark · See more »

Diminutive

A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.

New!!: Pound sterling and Diminutive · See more »

Double florin

The double florin (4/-) was one of the shortest-lived British coin denominations ever, only being produced during four mint years, between 1887 and 1890.

New!!: Pound sterling and Double florin · See more »

Duodecimal

The duodecimal system (also known as base 12 or dozenal) is a positional notation numeral system using twelve as its base.

New!!: Pound sterling and Duodecimal · See more »

Dutch guilder

The Dutch guilder (gulden) or fl. was the currency of the Netherlands from the 17th century until 2002, when it was replaced by the euro.

New!!: Pound sterling and Dutch guilder · See more »

East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.

New!!: Pound sterling and East India Company · See more »

Economy of the United Kingdom

The economy of the United Kingdom is highly developed and market-oriented.

New!!: Pound sterling and Economy of the United Kingdom · See more »

Edward Heath

Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.

New!!: Pound sterling and Edward Heath · See more »

Edward VI of England

Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death.

New!!: Pound sterling and Edward VI of England · See more »

Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.

New!!: Pound sterling and Elizabeth I of England · See more »

Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

New!!: Pound sterling and Elizabeth II · See more »

England and Wales

England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.

New!!: Pound sterling and England and Wales · See more »

English Civil War

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.

New!!: Pound sterling and English Civil War · See more »

Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.

New!!: Pound sterling and Entrepreneurship · See more »

Euro

The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

New!!: Pound sterling and Euro · See more »

Euro convergence criteria

The euro convergence criteria (also known as the Maastricht criteria) are the criteria which European Union member states are required to meet to enter the third stage of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and adopt the euro as their currency.

New!!: Pound sterling and Euro convergence criteria · See more »

European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

New!!: Pound sterling and European Economic Community · See more »

European Exchange Rate Mechanism

The European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) was a system introduced by the European Economic Community on 13 March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union and the introduction of a single currency, the euro, which took place on 1 January 1999.

New!!: Pound sterling and European Exchange Rate Mechanism · See more »

European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

New!!: Pound sterling and European Union · See more »

Falkland Islands

The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.

New!!: Pound sterling and Falkland Islands · See more »

Falkland Islands pound

The Pound is the currency of the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory in the South Atlantic Ocean.

New!!: Pound sterling and Falkland Islands pound · See more »

Farthing (British coin)

The British farthing (d) coin, from "fourthing", was a unit of currency of one quarter of a penny, or of a pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Farthing (British coin) · See more »

Fernand Braudel

Fernand Braudel (24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School.

New!!: Pound sterling and Fernand Braudel · See more »

Fiat money

Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.

New!!: Pound sterling and Fiat money · See more »

Fifty pence (British coin)

The British decimal fifty pence (50p) coin – often pronounced fifty pee – is a unit of currency equaling one half of a pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Fifty pence (British coin) · See more »

Fiji

Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.

New!!: Pound sterling and Fiji · See more »

Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

New!!: Pound sterling and Financial crisis of 2007–2008 · See more »

Fineness

The fineness of a precious metal object (coin, bar, jewelry, etc.) represents the weight of fine metal therein, in proportion to the total weight which includes alloying base metals and any impurities.

New!!: Pound sterling and Fineness · See more »

First Trust Bank

First Trust Bank, part of the AIB Group, is a commercial bank in Northern Ireland.

New!!: Pound sterling and First Trust Bank · See more »

Five economic tests

The five economic tests were the criteria defined by the UK treasury under Gordon Brown that were to be used to assess the UK's readiness to join the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (EMU), and so adopt the euro as its official currency.

New!!: Pound sterling and Five economic tests · See more »

Five pence (British coin)

The British decimal five pence (5p) coin – often pronounced five pee – is a unit of currency equaling five one-hundredths of a pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Five pence (British coin) · See more »

Five pounds (British coin)

The British five pound (£5) coin is a commemorative denomination of the pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Five pounds (British coin) · See more »

Fixed exchange-rate system

A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.

New!!: Pound sterling and Fixed exchange-rate system · See more »

Floating exchange rate

A floating exchange rate (also called a fluctuating or flexible exchange rate) is a type of exchange-rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign-exchange market mechanisms.

New!!: Pound sterling and Floating exchange rate · See more »

Florin (British coin)

The British florin, or two shilling coin, was issued from 1849 until 1967, with a final issue for collectors dated 1970.

New!!: Pound sterling and Florin (British coin) · See more »

Florin (English coin)

The florin or double leopard was an attempt in 1344 by English king Edward III to produce a gold coinage suitable for use in Europe as well as in England (see also half florin or leopard and quarter florin or helm).

New!!: Pound sterling and Florin (English coin) · See more »

Foreign exchange market

The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.

New!!: Pound sterling and Foreign exchange market · See more »

Foreign-exchange reserves

Foreign-exchange reserves (also called forex reserves or FX reserves) is money or other assets held by a central bank or other monetary authority so that it can pay if need be its liabilities, such as the currency issued by the central bank, as well as the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government and other financial institutions.

New!!: Pound sterling and Foreign-exchange reserves · See more »

Francia

Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.

New!!: Pound sterling and Francia · See more »

Frankfurt

Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

New!!: Pound sterling and Frankfurt · See more »

Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung

The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (Frankfurt General Newspaper), abbreviated FAZ, is a centre-right, liberal-conservativeHans Magnus Enzensberger: (in German).

New!!: Pound sterling and Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung · See more »

French franc

The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.

New!!: Pound sterling and French franc · See more »

French livre

The livre (pound) was the currency of Kingdom of France and its predecessor state of West Francia from 781 to 1794.

New!!: Pound sterling and French livre · See more »

George III of the United Kingdom

George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.

New!!: Pound sterling and George III of the United Kingdom · See more »

George IV of the United Kingdom

George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.

New!!: Pound sterling and George IV of the United Kingdom · See more »

German gold mark

The Goldmark (officially just Mark, sign: ℳ) was the currency used in the German Empire from 1873 to 1914.

New!!: Pound sterling and German gold mark · See more »

German reunification

The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.

New!!: Pound sterling and German reunification · See more »

Gibraltar

Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.

New!!: Pound sterling and Gibraltar · See more »

Gibraltar pound

The Gibraltar pound (currency sign: £; banking code: GIP) is the currency of Gibraltar.

New!!: Pound sterling and Gibraltar pound · See more »

Gold coin

A gold coin is a coin that is made mostly or entirely of gold.

New!!: Pound sterling and Gold coin · See more »

Gold penny

The gold penny was a medieval English coin with a value of twenty pence.

New!!: Pound sterling and Gold penny · See more »

Gold standard

A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.

New!!: Pound sterling and Gold standard · See more »

Gordon Brown

James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010.

New!!: Pound sterling and Gordon Brown · See more »

Government bond

A government bond or sovereign bond is a bond issued by a national government, generally with a promise to pay periodic interest payments and to repay the face value on the maturity date.

New!!: Pound sterling and Government bond · See more »

Government budget balance

A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.

New!!: Pound sterling and Government budget balance · See more »

Governor of the Bank of England

The Governor of the Bank of England is the most senior position in the Bank of England.

New!!: Pound sterling and Governor of the Bank of England · See more »

Grain (unit)

A grain is a unit of measurement of mass, and in the troy weight, avoirdupois, and Apothecaries' system, equal to exactly.

New!!: Pound sterling and Grain (unit) · See more »

Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

New!!: Pound sterling and Great Depression · See more »

Green pound

In the United Kingdom, the green pound was the common name for an exchange rate that was used to calculate the value of financial support within the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy until 1999.

New!!: Pound sterling and Green pound · See more »

Gresham's law

In economics, Gresham's law is a monetary principle stating that "bad money drives out good".

New!!: Pound sterling and Gresham's law · See more »

Groat (coin)

The groat is the traditional name of a long-defunct English and Irish silver coin worth four pence, and also a Scottish coin originally worth fourpence, with later issues being valued at eightpence and one shilling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Groat (coin) · See more »

Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

New!!: Pound sterling and Gross domestic product · See more »

Guernsey

Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.

New!!: Pound sterling and Guernsey · See more »

Guernsey pound

The pound is the currency of Guernsey.

New!!: Pound sterling and Guernsey pound · See more »

Guinea (coin)

The guinea was a coin of approximately one quarter ounce of gold that was minted in Great Britain between 1663 and 1814.

New!!: Pound sterling and Guinea (coin) · See more »

Half crown (British coin)

The half crown was a denomination of British money, equivalent to two shillings and sixpence, or one-eighth of a pound.

New!!: Pound sterling and Half crown (British coin) · See more »

Half sovereign

The half sovereign is an English and British gold coin with a face value half that of a sovereign: equivalent to half a pound sterling, ten shillings, or 120 old pence.

New!!: Pound sterling and Half sovereign · See more »

Halfpenny (British decimal coin)

The British decimal halfpenny (p) coin was introduced in February 1971, at the time of decimalisation, and was worth one two-hundredth of a pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Halfpenny (British decimal coin) · See more »

Halfpenny (British pre-decimal coin)

The British pre-decimal halfpenny (d) coin, usually simply known as a halfpenny (pronounced), historically occasionally also as the obol, was a unit of currency that equalled half of a penny or of a pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Halfpenny (British pre-decimal coin) · See more »

Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.

New!!: Pound sterling and Hanseatic League · See more »

Harold Wilson

James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.

New!!: Pound sterling and Harold Wilson · See more »

Henry II of England

Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.

New!!: Pound sterling and Henry II of England · See more »

Henry III of England

Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death.

New!!: Pound sterling and Henry III of England · See more »

Henry IV of England

Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413, and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France.

New!!: Pound sterling and Henry IV of England · See more »

Henry VII of England

Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509.

New!!: Pound sterling and Henry VII of England · See more »

Henry VIII of England

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.

New!!: Pound sterling and Henry VIII of England · See more »

Heptagon

In geometry, a heptagon is a seven-sided polygon or 7-gon.

New!!: Pound sterling and Heptagon · See more »

History of opium in China

The history of opium in China began with the use of opium for medicinal purposes during the 7th century.

New!!: Pound sterling and History of opium in China · See more »

History of the English penny (1154–1485)

This is the history of the English penny from the years 1154 to 1485.

New!!: Pound sterling and History of the English penny (1154–1485) · See more »

History of the English penny (c. 600 – 1066)

The history of the English penny can be traced back to the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the 7th century: to the small, thick silver coins known to contemporaries as pæningas or denarii, though now often referred to as sceattas by numismatists.

New!!: Pound sterling and History of the English penny (c. 600 – 1066) · See more »

HM Treasury

Her Majesty's Treasury (HM Treasury), sometimes referred to as the Exchequer, or more informally the Treasury, is the British government department responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.

New!!: Pound sterling and HM Treasury · See more »

House of Commons Library

The House of Commons Library is the library and information resource of the lower house of the British Parliament.

New!!: Pound sterling and House of Commons Library · See more »

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

New!!: Pound sterling and House of Commons of the United Kingdom · See more »

Indian rupee

The Indian rupee (sign: ₹; code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India.

New!!: Pound sterling and Indian rupee · See more »

Inflation

In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

New!!: Pound sterling and Inflation · See more »

Intaglio (printmaking)

Intaglio is the family of printing and printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface and the incised line or sunken area holds the ink.

New!!: Pound sterling and Intaglio (printmaking) · See more »

Interest rate

An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).

New!!: Pound sterling and Interest rate · See more »

International monetary conferences

The international monetary conferences were a series of assemblies held in the second half of the 19th century.

New!!: Pound sterling and International monetary conferences · See more »

International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

New!!: Pound sterling and International Monetary Fund · See more »

Irish Free State

The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.

New!!: Pound sterling and Irish Free State · See more »

Irish pound

The Irish pound (punt Éireannach) was the currency of Ireland until 2002.

New!!: Pound sterling and Irish pound · See more »

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

New!!: Pound sterling and Isaac Newton · See more »

Isle of Man

The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.

New!!: Pound sterling and Isle of Man · See more »

ISO 3166

ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states).

New!!: Pound sterling and ISO 3166 · See more »

ISO 3166-1 alpha-2

ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes are two-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.

New!!: Pound sterling and ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 · See more »

ISO 4217

ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.

New!!: Pound sterling and ISO 4217 · See more »

Italian scudo

The scudo (pl. scudi) was the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century.

New!!: Pound sterling and Italian scudo · See more »

Jamaica

Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.

New!!: Pound sterling and Jamaica · See more »

James Callaghan

Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), often known as Jim Callaghan, served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1976 to 1980.

New!!: Pound sterling and James Callaghan · See more »

James VI and I

James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.

New!!: Pound sterling and James VI and I · See more »

Japanese yen

The is the official currency of Japan.

New!!: Pound sterling and Japanese yen · See more »

Jersey

Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.

New!!: Pound sterling and Jersey · See more »

Jersey pound

The pound is the currency of Jersey.

New!!: Pound sterling and Jersey pound · See more »

John Benjamin Smith

John Benjamin Smith (7 February 1794 – 15 September 1879) was an English Liberal Party politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1847 to 1874.

New!!: Pound sterling and John Benjamin Smith · See more »

John Bowring

Sir John Bowring, KCB (Chinese translated name: 寶寧, 寶靈 (for Putonghua speakers) or 包令 (for Cantonese)) (Thai: พระยาสยามมานุกูลกิจ สยามมิตรมหายศ) (17 October 1792 – 23 November 1872) was an English political economist, traveller, writer, literary translator, polyglot, and the fourth Governor of Hong Kong.

New!!: Pound sterling and John Bowring · See more »

John Hubbard, 1st Baron Addington

John Gellibrand Hubbard, 1st Baron Addington PC (21 March 1805 – 28 August 1889) was a City of London financier and a Conservative Party politician.

New!!: Pound sterling and John Hubbard, 1st Baron Addington · See more »

John Wrottesley, 1st Baron Wrottesley

John Wrottesley, 1st Baron Wrottesley (4 October 1771 – 16 March 1841), known as Sir John Wrottesley, 9th Baronet, from 1787 to 1838, was a British soldier and Member of Parliament.

New!!: Pound sterling and John Wrottesley, 1st Baron Wrottesley · See more »

Kilmarnock Burghs (UK Parliament constituency)

Kilmarnock Burghs was a district of burghs constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1832 to 1918.

New!!: Pound sterling and Kilmarnock Burghs (UK Parliament constituency) · See more »

Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

New!!: Pound sterling and Kingdom of England · See more »

Kingdom of Great Britain

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.

New!!: Pound sterling and Kingdom of Great Britain · See more »

Kingdom of Ireland

The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.

New!!: Pound sterling and Kingdom of Ireland · See more »

Kingdom of Scotland

The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.

New!!: Pound sterling and Kingdom of Scotland · See more »

Labour Party (UK)

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

New!!: Pound sterling and Labour Party (UK) · See more »

Latin Monetary Union

The Latin Monetary Union (LMU) was a 19th-century attempt to unify several European currencies into a single currency that could be used in all the member states, at a time when most national currencies were still made out of gold and silver.

New!!: Pound sterling and Latin Monetary Union · See more »

Laurel (English coin)

The Laurel was the third English gold coin with a value of twenty shillings or one pound produced during the reign of King James I. It was named after the laurel that the king is portrayed as wearing on his head, but it is considerably poorer in both quality and style than the Sovereign and Unite which preceded it.

New!!: Pound sterling and Laurel (English coin) · See more »

Legal tender

Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.

New!!: Pound sterling and Legal tender · See more »

Letterpress printing

Letterpress printing is a technique of relief printing using a printing press, a process by which many copies are produced by repeated direct impression of an inked, raised surface against sheets or a continuous roll of paper.

New!!: Pound sterling and Letterpress printing · See more »

Liberal Democrats (UK)

The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as Lib Dems) are a liberal British political party, formed in 1988 as a merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a splinter group from the Labour Party, which had formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance from 1981.

New!!: Pound sterling and Liberal Democrats (UK) · See more »

List of £10

List of £10 banknotes, bills or coins, include.

New!!: Pound sterling and List of £10 · See more »

List of British banknotes and coins

List of British banknotes and coins, with commonly used terms.

New!!: Pound sterling and List of British banknotes and coins · See more »

Manx pound

The Manx pound is the currency of the Isle of Man, in parity with the pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Manx pound · See more »

Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.

New!!: Pound sterling and Margaret Thatcher · See more »

Market value

Market value or OMV (Open Market Valuation) is the price at which an asset would trade in a competitive auction setting.

New!!: Pound sterling and Market value · See more »

Mervyn King, Baron King of Lothbury

Mervyn Allister King, Baron King of Lothbury, (born 30 March 1948) is a British economist and public servant who served as the Governor of the Bank of England from 2003 to 2013.

New!!: Pound sterling and Mervyn King, Baron King of Lothbury · See more »

Monetarism

Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.

New!!: Pound sterling and Monetarism · See more »

Monetary policy

Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.

New!!: Pound sterling and Monetary policy · See more »

Money supply

In economics, the money supply (or money stock) is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.

New!!: Pound sterling and Money supply · See more »

Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

New!!: Pound sterling and Napoleonic Wars · See more »

National archives

National archives are the archives of a country.

New!!: Pound sterling and National archives · See more »

Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

New!!: Pound sterling and Nazism · See more »

Nellie Bly

Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman (May 5, 1864 – January 27, 1922), better known by her pen name Nellie Bly, was an American journalist who was widely known for her record-breaking trip around the world in 72 days, in emulation of Jules Verne's fictional character Phileas Fogg, and an exposé in which she worked undercover to report on a mental institution from within.

New!!: Pound sterling and Nellie Bly · See more »

Nickel electroplating

Nickel electroplating is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of nickel onto a metal object.

New!!: Pound sterling and Nickel electroplating · See more »

Nigel Lawson

Nigel Lawson, Baron Lawson of Blaby, (born 11 March 1932) is a British Conservative politician and journalist.

New!!: Pound sterling and Nigel Lawson · See more »

Noble (English coin)

The noble was the first English gold coin produced in quantity, having been preceded by the gold penny and the florin earlier in the reigns of King Henry III and King Edward III, which saw little circulation.

New!!: Pound sterling and Noble (English coin) · See more »

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

New!!: Pound sterling and Northern Ireland · See more »

Offa of Mercia

Offa was King of Mercia, a kingdom of Anglo-Saxon England, from 757 until his death in July 796.

New!!: Pound sterling and Offa of Mercia · See more »

Office for National Statistics

The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.

New!!: Pound sterling and Office for National Statistics · See more »

Offset printing

Offset printing is a commonly used printing technique in which the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface.

New!!: Pound sterling and Offset printing · See more »

One hundred pounds (British coin)

The one hundred pound coin (£100) is a commemorative coin of the pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and One hundred pounds (British coin) · See more »

One pound (British coin)

The British one pound (£1) coin is a denomination of the pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and One pound (British coin) · See more »

Operation Bernhard

Operation Bernhard was an exercise by Nazi Germany to forge British bank notes.

New!!: Pound sterling and Operation Bernhard · See more »

Opium

Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).

New!!: Pound sterling and Opium · See more »

Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

New!!: Pound sterling and Oxford University Press · See more »

Penny

A penny is a coin (. pennies) or a unit of currency (pl. pence) in various countries.

New!!: Pound sterling and Penny · See more »

Penny (British decimal coin)

The British decimal one penny (1p) coin, usually simply known as a penny, is a unit of currency equaling one one-hundredth of a pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Penny (British decimal coin) · See more »

Penny (British pre-decimal coin)

The pre-decimal penny (1d) was a coin worth of a pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Penny (British pre-decimal coin) · See more »

Penny sterling

The penny sterling (symbol: p; plural: pence) is a subdivision of pound sterling, the currency for the United Kingdom.

New!!: Pound sterling and Penny sterling · See more »

Philip Grierson

Philip Grierson, FBA (15 November 1910 – 15 January 2006) was a British historian and numismatist, emeritus professor of numismatics at Cambridge University and a fellow of Gonville and Caius College for over seventy years.

New!!: Pound sterling and Philip Grierson · See more »

Polymer banknote

Polymer banknotes are banknotes made from a polymer such as biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP).

New!!: Pound sterling and Polymer banknote · See more »

Pound (currency)

The pound is a unit of currency in some nations.

New!!: Pound sterling and Pound (currency) · See more »

Pound (mass)

The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.

New!!: Pound sterling and Pound (mass) · See more »

Pound Scots

The pound Scots (Modern Scots: Pund Scots, Middle Scots: Pund Scottis) was the unit of currency in the Kingdom of Scotland before the kingdom unified with the Kingdom of England in 1707.

New!!: Pound sterling and Pound Scots · See more »

Pound sign

The pound sign (£) is the symbol for the pound sterling—the currency of the United Kingdom and previously of Great Britain and the Kingdom of England.

New!!: Pound sterling and Pound sign · See more »

Presidencies and provinces of British India

The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.

New!!: Pound sterling and Presidencies and provinces of British India · See more »

Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

New!!: Pound sterling and Princeton University Press · See more »

Public expenditure

Public expenditure is spending made by the government of a country on collective needs and wants such as pension, provision, infrastructure, etc.

New!!: Pound sterling and Public expenditure · See more »

Quantitative easing

Quantitative easing (QE), also known as large-scale asset purchases, is an expansionary monetary policy whereby a central bank buys predetermined amounts of government bonds or other financial assets in order to stimulate the economy and increase liquidity.

New!!: Pound sterling and Quantitative easing · See more »

Queen Victoria

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.

New!!: Pound sterling and Queen Victoria · See more »

Quid pro quo

Quid pro quo ("something for something" in Latin) is a phrase used in English to mean an exchange of goods or services, in which one transfer is contingent upon the other; "a favour for a favour".

New!!: Pound sterling and Quid pro quo · See more »

Recession

In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.

New!!: Pound sterling and Recession · See more »

Renminbi

The renminbi (Ab.: RMB;; sign: 元; code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.

New!!: Pound sterling and Renminbi · See more »

Reserve currency

A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency that is held in significant quantities by governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves.

New!!: Pound sterling and Reserve currency · See more »

Retail price index

In the United Kingdom, the retail prices index or retail price index (RPI) is a measure of inflation published monthly by the Office for National Statistics.

New!!: Pound sterling and Retail price index · See more »

Royal Bank of Scotland

The Royal Bank of Scotland (Banca Rìoghail na h-Alba, Ryal Bank o Scotland, Banc Brenhinol yr Alban), commonly abbreviated as RBS, is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, together with NatWest and Ulster Bank.

New!!: Pound sterling and Royal Bank of Scotland · See more »

Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom

The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.

New!!: Pound sterling and Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom · See more »

Royal Commission

A Royal Commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue in some monarchies.

New!!: Pound sterling and Royal Commission · See more »

Royal Mint

The Royal Mint is a government-owned mint that produces coins for the United Kingdom.

New!!: Pound sterling and Royal Mint · See more »

Saint Helena

Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa.

New!!: Pound sterling and Saint Helena · See more »

Saint Helena pound

The Saint Helena pound is the currency of the Atlantic islands of Saint Helena and Ascension, which are constituent parts of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

New!!: Pound sterling and Saint Helena pound · See more »

Samuel Jones-Loyd, 1st Baron Overstone

Samuel Jones-Loyd, 1st Baron Overstone (25 September 1796 – 17 November 1883) was a British banker and politician.

New!!: Pound sterling and Samuel Jones-Loyd, 1st Baron Overstone · See more »

Scottish Conservatives

The Scottish Conservatives (Pàrtaidh Tòraidheach na h-Alba), officially the Scottish Conservative and Unionist Party, is the part of the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom that operates in Scotland.

New!!: Pound sterling and Scottish Conservatives · See more »

Scottish independence referendum, 2014

A referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom took place on Thursday 18 September 2014.

New!!: Pound sterling and Scottish independence referendum, 2014 · See more »

Scottish National Party

The Scottish National Party (SNP; Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Scots Naitional Pairtie) is a Scottish nationalist and social-democratic political party in Scotland.

New!!: Pound sterling and Scottish National Party · See more »

Shamrock

A shamrock is a young sprig, used as a symbol of Ireland.

New!!: Pound sterling and Shamrock · See more »

Shilling

The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States, and other British Commonwealth countries.

New!!: Pound sterling and Shilling · See more »

Shilling (British coin)

The shilling (1/-) was a coin worth one twentieth of a pound sterling, or twelve pence.

New!!: Pound sterling and Shilling (British coin) · See more »

Sir William Brown, 1st Baronet, of Richmond Hill

Sir William Brown, 1st Baronet DL (30 May 1784 – 3 March 1864) was a British merchant and banker, founder of the banking-house of Brown, Shipley & Co. and a Liberal politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1846 to 1859.

New!!: Pound sterling and Sir William Brown, 1st Baronet, of Richmond Hill · See more »

Sixpence (British coin)

The sixpence (6d), sometimes known as a tanner or sixpenny bit, is a coin that was worth one-fortieth of a pound sterling, or six pence. It was first minted in the reign of Edward VI and circulated until 1980. Following decimalisation in 1971 it had a value of new pence. The coin was made from silver from its introduction in 1551 to 1947, and thereafter in cupronickel. Prior to Decimal Day in 1971 there were 240 pence in one pound sterling. Twelve pence made a shilling, and twenty shillings made a pound. Values less than a pound were usually written in shillings and pence, e.g. 42 old pence (p) would be three shillings and sixpence (3/6), often pronounced "three and six". Values of less than a shilling were simply written in terms of pence, e.g. eight pence would be 8d ('d' for denarius).

New!!: Pound sterling and Sixpence (British coin) · See more »

Solidus (coin)

The solidus (Latin for "solid"; solidi), nomisma (νόμισμα, nómisma, "coin"), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire.

New!!: Pound sterling and Solidus (coin) · See more »

South African pound

The pound (symbol £) was the currency of the Union of South Africa from the creation of the country as a British Dominion in 1910.

New!!: Pound sterling and South African pound · See more »

South African rand

The South African Rand (sign: R; code: ZAR) is the currency of South Africa.

New!!: Pound sterling and South African rand · See more »

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean.

New!!: Pound sterling and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands · See more »

South Lancashire (UK Parliament constituency)

South Lancashire, formally called the Southern Division of Lancashire or Lancashire Southern, is a former county constituency of the South Lancashire area in England.

New!!: Pound sterling and South Lancashire (UK Parliament constituency) · See more »

Southern Rhodesia

The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa from 1923 to 1980, the predecessor state of modern Zimbabwe.

New!!: Pound sterling and Southern Rhodesia · See more »

Sovereign (British coin)

The sovereign is a gold coin of the United Kingdom, with a nominal value of one pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Sovereign (British coin) · See more »

Spanish colonial real

The silver real (real de plata) was the currency of the Spanish colonies in America and the Philippines.

New!!: Pound sterling and Spanish colonial real · See more »

Spanish dollar

The Spanish dollar, also known as the piece of eight (peso de ocho or real de a ocho), is a silver coin, of approximately 38 mm diameter, worth eight Spanish reales, that was minted in the Spanish Empire after 1598.

New!!: Pound sterling and Spanish dollar · See more »

Spanish real

The real (meaning: "royal", plural: reales) was a unit of currency in Spain for several centuries after the mid-14th century, but changed in value relative to other units introduced.

New!!: Pound sterling and Spanish real · See more »

Special drawing rights

Special drawing rights (ISO 4217 currency code XDR, also abbreviated SDR) are supplementary foreign-exchange reserve assets defined and maintained by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

New!!: Pound sterling and Special drawing rights · See more »

Speech from the throne

A speech from the throne (or throne speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the reigning sovereign, or a representative thereof, reads a prepared speech to members of the nation's legislature when a session is opened, outlining the government's agenda and focus for the forthcoming session; or in some cases, closed.

New!!: Pound sterling and Speech from the throne · See more »

Spur ryal

The Spur Royal was an extremely rare English gold coin issued in the reign of King James I. The coin is a development of the earlier Rose Noble, or Ryal which was worth ten shillings when issued by Kings Edward IV and Henry VII, and fifteen shillings when issued by Queens Mary and Elizabeth I. The Spur Royal, so called because the sun and rose on the reverse resemble a spur, was introduced during James I's second coinage (1604–1619) when it initially had a value of fifteen shillings (15/-), but in line with all gold coins its value was raised by 10% in 1612, to sixteen shillings and sixpence (16/6).

New!!: Pound sterling and Spur ryal · See more »

Staffordshire (UK Parliament constituency)

Staffordshire was a county constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832.

New!!: Pound sterling and Staffordshire (UK Parliament constituency) · See more »

States of Guernsey

The States of Guernsey (États de Guernesey) is the parliament of the British Crown dependency of Guernsey.

New!!: Pound sterling and States of Guernsey · See more »

States of Jersey

The States of Jersey (États de Jersey) is the parliament and government of the British Crown dependency of Jersey.

New!!: Pound sterling and States of Jersey · See more »

Steel

Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

New!!: Pound sterling and Steel · See more »

Sterling area

The sterling area (or sterling bloc, legally scheduled territories) was a group of countries that either pegged their currencies to the pound sterling, or actually used the pound as their own currency.

New!!: Pound sterling and Sterling area · See more »

Sterling silver

Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by weight of silver and 7.5% by weight of other metals, usually copper.

New!!: Pound sterling and Sterling silver · See more »

Stirling Burghs (UK Parliament constituency)

Stirling Burghs was a district of burghs constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1708 to 1918.

New!!: Pound sterling and Stirling Burghs (UK Parliament constituency) · See more »

Swiss franc

The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.

New!!: Pound sterling and Swiss franc · See more »

Ten pence (British coin)

The British decimal ten pence (10p) coin – often pronounced ten pee – is a unit of currency equalling ten one-hundredths of a pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Ten pence (British coin) · See more »

Thaler

The thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years.

New!!: Pound sterling and Thaler · See more »

The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

New!!: Pound sterling and The Daily Telegraph · See more »

The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

New!!: Pound sterling and The Guardian · See more »

The National Archives (United Kingdom)

The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.

New!!: Pound sterling and The National Archives (United Kingdom) · See more »

The Observer

The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.

New!!: Pound sterling and The Observer · See more »

The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

New!!: Pound sterling and The Times · See more »

The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

New!!: Pound sterling and The Wall Street Journal · See more »

Third Thatcher ministry

Margaret Thatcher was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 4 May 1979 to 28 November 1990, during which time she led a Conservative government.

New!!: Pound sterling and Third Thatcher ministry · See more »

Threepence (British coin)

The British threepence (3d) coin, usually simply known as a threepence or threepenny bit, was a unit of currency equaling one eightieth of a pound sterling, or three old pence sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Threepence (British coin) · See more »

Tin

Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.

New!!: Pound sterling and Tin · See more »

Tony Blair

Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.

New!!: Pound sterling and Tony Blair · See more »

Treaty of Union

The Treaty of Union is the name usually now given to the agreement which led to the creation of the new state of Great Britain, stating that England (which already included Wales) and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain",: Both Acts of Union and the Treaty state in Article I: That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon 1 May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN.

New!!: Pound sterling and Treaty of Union · See more »

Tristan da Cunha

Tristan da Cunha, colloquially Tristan, is both a remote group of volcanic islands in the south Atlantic Ocean and the main island of that group.

New!!: Pound sterling and Tristan da Cunha · See more »

Troy weight

Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones.

New!!: Pound sterling and Troy weight · See more »

Tudor rose

The Tudor rose (sometimes called the Union rose) is the traditional floral heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the House of Tudor, which united the House of York and House of Lancaster.

New!!: Pound sterling and Tudor rose · See more »

Twenty pence (British coin)

The British decimal twenty pence (20p) coin – often pronounced "twenty pee" – is a unit of currency equal to 20/100 of a pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Twenty pence (British coin) · See more »

Twenty pounds (British coin)

The British twenty pound (£20) coin is a commemorative coin, first issued by the Royal Mint in 2013.

New!!: Pound sterling and Twenty pounds (British coin) · See more »

Two pence (British decimal coin)

The British decimal two pence (2p) coin – often pronounced two pee – is a unit of currency equaling two one-hundredths of a pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Two pence (British decimal coin) · See more »

Two pounds (British coin)

The British two pound (£2) coin is a denomination of the pound sterling.

New!!: Pound sterling and Two pounds (British coin) · See more »

Tynwald

Tynwald (Tinvaal), or more formally, the High Court of Tynwald (Ard-whaiyl Tinvaal) or Tynwald Court is the legislature of the Isle of Man.

New!!: Pound sterling and Tynwald · See more »

Ulster Bank

Ulster Bank is a large commercial bank, and one of the traditional Big Four Irish banks.

New!!: Pound sterling and Ulster Bank · See more »

Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

New!!: Pound sterling and Ultraviolet · See more »

Unite (English coin)

The Unite was the second English gold coin with a value of twenty shillings or one pound first produced during the reign of King James I. It was named after the legends on the coin indicating the king's intention of uniting his two kingdoms of England and Scotland.

New!!: Pound sterling and Unite (English coin) · See more »

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

New!!: Pound sterling and United Kingdom · See more »

United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016

The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, also known as the EU referendum and the Brexit referendum, took place on 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom (UK) and Gibraltar to gauge support for the country either remaining a member of, or leaving, the European Union (EU) under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000.

New!!: Pound sterling and United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016 · See more »

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

New!!: Pound sterling and United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland · See more »

United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

New!!: Pound sterling and United States dollar · See more »

University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

New!!: Pound sterling and University of Chicago Press · See more »

William Ewart Gladstone

William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.

New!!: Pound sterling and William Ewart Gladstone · See more »

William IV of the United Kingdom

William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837.

New!!: Pound sterling and William IV of the United Kingdom · See more »

World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

New!!: Pound sterling and World War I · See more »

World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

New!!: Pound sterling and World War II · See more »

Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

New!!: Pound sterling and Yale University Press · See more »

Zimbabwean dollar

The Zimbabwean dollar (sign: $, or Z$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies) was the official currency of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 12 April 2009.

New!!: Pound sterling and Zimbabwean dollar · See more »

1973 oil crisis

The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.

New!!: Pound sterling and 1973 oil crisis · See more »

Redirects here:

British Pound, British Pound Sterling, British Pound sterling, British Pound stirling, British Pounds, British Pounds Sterling, British Sterling, British currency, British monetary system, British money, British pound, British pound sterling, British pounds, Currency in the United Kingdom, Currency of England, Currency of the United Kingdom, English Pound, English currency, English pound, English sterling, GB pound, GBP, GBP 826, GBPS, GBPS 2, GBP£, GB£, Great Britain Pound, Great British Pound, Great British Quid, Great britain pound, Great british pound, Imperial currency, Libra esterlina, PS1 coin, Pound (sterling), Pound Area, Pound Sterling, Pound stirling, Pounds Sterling, Pounds sterling, Poundsterling, Quid sterling, Sterling Pound, UK Pound, UK Sterling, UK currency, UK pound, UK pounds, UK£, United Kingdom Pound, United Kingdom Pounds, United Kingdom pound.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pound_sterling

OutgoingIncoming
Hey! We are on Facebook now! »