303 relations: Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Alistair Darling, Ancient Roman units of measurement, Angel (coin), Angevin pound, Anglo-Saxons, Around the World in Seventy-Two Days, Ascension Island, Assay office, Asset, Australian dollar, Australian pound, Austro-Hungarian krone, £sd, Bank, Bank of England, Bank of England £1 note, Bank of England £20 note, Bank of England £5 note, Bank of England £50 note, Bank of Ireland, Bank of Scotland, Banknote, Barbados, Bi-metallic coin, Black Wednesday, Blackletter, Botswana pula, Bretton Woods system, Brexit, Britannia silver, British Antarctic Territory, British Empire, British Overseas Territories, British twenty-five pence coin, British West Africa, Bronze, Canadian dollar, Capital (economics), Central bank, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Channel Islands, Charlemagne, Charles I of England, Clydesdale Bank, Coins of the pound sterling, Commercial paper, Commodity money, Consumer Price Index (United Kingdom), Copper, ..., Copper plating, Corporate 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The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia (SBA; Περιοχές Κυρίαρχων Βάσεων Ακρωτηρίου και Δεκέλιας, Periochés Kyríarchon Váseon Akrotiríou kai Dekélias; Egemen Üs Bölgeleri Ağrotur ve Dikelya), is a British Overseas Territory on the island of Cyprus.
Alistair Maclean Darling, Baron Darling of Roulanish, (born 28 November 1953) is a Labour Party politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Labour Government from 2007-2010 and as a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1987 until he stepped down in 2015, most recently for Edinburgh South West.
The ancient Roman units of measurement were largely built on the Hellenic system, which in turn was built upon Egyptian and Mesopotamian influences.
The angel was an English gold coin introduced by Edward IV in 1465.
The Angevin pound was "the ordinary standard of the currency in the continental possessions (12th-century) of the early Plantagenets" Roger of Hoveden wrote that its value was set at about one-fourth of an English pound by an ordinance of Richard the First.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
circumnavigation of the globe (1889-1890), in the ''New York World'', 26 January 1890. Around the World in Seventy-Two Days is an 1890 book by journalist Elizabeth Jane Cochrane, writing under her pseudonym, Nellie Bly.
Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island, 7°56' south of the Equator in the South Atlantic Ocean.
Assay offices are institutions set up to assay (test the purity of) precious metals, in order to protect consumers.
In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource.
The Australian dollar (sign: $; code: AUD) is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including its external territories Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.
The Australian pound (symbol £) was the currency of Australia from 1910 until 14 February 1966, when it was replaced by the Australian dollar.
The Krone or korona (Krone, Hungarian and Polish korona, krona, kruna, Czech and koruna) was the official currency of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1892 (when it replaced the gulden, forint, florén or zlatka as part of the adoption of the gold standard) until the dissolution of the empire in 1918.
£sd (pronounced /ɛlɛsˈdiː/ ell-ess-dee and occasionally written Lsd) is the popular name for the pre-decimal currencies once common throughout Europe, especially in the British Isles and hence in several countries of the British Empire and subsequently the Commonwealth.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
The Bank of England £1 note was a banknote of the pound sterling.
The Bank of England £20 note is a banknote of the pound sterling.
The Bank of England £5 note, also known as a fiver, is a banknote of the pound sterling.
The Bank of England £50 note is a banknote of the pound sterling.
The Bank of Ireland (Banc na hÉireann) is a commercial bank operation in Ireland and one of the traditional 'Big Four' Irish banks.
The Bank of Scotland plc (Bank o Scotland, Banca na h-Alba) is a commercial and clearing bank based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
Bi-metallic coins are coins consisting of two (bi-) metals or alloys, generally arranged with an outer ring around a contrasting center.
Black Wednesday occurred in the United Kingdom on 16 September 1992, when John Major's Conservative government was forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) after it was unable to keep the pound above its agreed lower limit in the ERM.
Blackletter (sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.
The pula is the currency of Botswana.
The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.
Brexit is the impending withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).
Britannia silver is an alloy of silver containing 11 ozt 10 dwt (i.e. 11½ troy oz.) silver in the pound troy, equivalent to, or 95.833% by weight (mass) silver, the rest usually being copper.
The British Antarctic Territory (BAT) is a sector of Antarctica claimed by the United Kingdom as one of its 14 British Overseas Territories, of which it is by far the largest by area.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.
The commemorative British decimal twenty-five pence (25p) coin was issued in four designs between 1972 and 1981.
British West Africa was the collective name for British colonies in West Africa during the colonial period, either in the general geographical sense or the formal colonial administrative entity.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Canadian dollar (symbol: $; code: CAD; dollar canadien) is the currency of Canada.
In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Clydesdale Bank plc is a commercial bank in Scotland.
The standard circulating coinage of the United Kingdom is denominated in pounds sterling (symbol "£"), and, since the introduction of the two-pound coin in 1994 (to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Bank of England 1694–1994), ranges in value from one penny to two pounds.
Commercial paper, in the global financial market, is an unsecured promissory note with a fixed maturity of not more than 364 days.
Commodity money is money whose value comes from a commodity of which it is made.
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is the official measure of inflation of consumer prices of the United Kingdom.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Copper plating is the process of plating a layer of copper electrolytically on the surface of an item.
A corporate bond is a bond issued by a corporation in order to raise financing for a variety of reasons such as to ongoing operations, M&A, or to expand business.
The British crown, the successor to the English crown and the Scottish dollar, came into being with the Union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland in 1707.
Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.
Cupronickel (also known as copper-nickel) is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
A currency basket is a portfolio of selected currencies with different weightings.
A currency symbol is a graphic symbol used as a shorthand for a currency's name, especially in reference to amounts of money.
A currency union (also known as monetary union) involves two or more states sharing the same currency without them necessarily having any further integration (such as an economic and monetary union, which would have, in addition, a customs union and a single market).
The pound, also known as the lira (λίρα / plural λίρες and Turkish: lira, from the Latin libra through the Italian lira), was the currency of Cyprus, including the Sovereign Base Areas in Akrotiri and Dhekelia, until 31 December 2007, when the Republic of Cyprus adopted the euro.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Danske Bank is a Danish bank whose name also literally translates into "Danish Bank".
Danske Bank UK (formally Northern Bank) is a commercial bank in Northern Ireland.
Debasement is the practice of lowering the value of currency.
On 15 February 1971, known as Decimal Day, the United Kingdom and Ireland decimalised their currencies.
Decimalisation is the process of converting a currency from its previous non-decimal denominations to a decimal system (i.e., a system based on one basic unit of currency and one or more sub-units, such that the number of sub-units in one basic unit is a power of 10, most commonly 100).
The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The Deutsche Mark ("German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or, was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.
A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.
The double florin (4/-) was one of the shortest-lived British coin denominations ever, only being produced during four mint years, between 1887 and 1890.
The duodecimal system (also known as base 12 or dozenal) is a positional notation numeral system using twelve as its base.
The Dutch guilder (gulden) or fl. was the currency of the Netherlands from the 17th century until 2002, when it was replaced by the euro.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The economy of the United Kingdom is highly developed and market-oriented.
Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.
Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The euro convergence criteria (also known as the Maastricht criteria) are the criteria which European Union member states are required to meet to enter the third stage of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and adopt the euro as their currency.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) was a system introduced by the European Economic Community on 13 March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union and the introduction of a single currency, the euro, which took place on 1 January 1999.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.
The Pound is the currency of the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory in the South Atlantic Ocean.
The British farthing (d) coin, from "fourthing", was a unit of currency of one quarter of a penny, or of a pound sterling.
Fernand Braudel (24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School.
Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.
The British decimal fifty pence (50p) coin – often pronounced fifty pee – is a unit of currency equaling one half of a pound sterling.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The fineness of a precious metal object (coin, bar, jewelry, etc.) represents the weight of fine metal therein, in proportion to the total weight which includes alloying base metals and any impurities.
First Trust Bank, part of the AIB Group, is a commercial bank in Northern Ireland.
The five economic tests were the criteria defined by the UK treasury under Gordon Brown that were to be used to assess the UK's readiness to join the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (EMU), and so adopt the euro as its official currency.
The British decimal five pence (5p) coin – often pronounced five pee – is a unit of currency equaling five one-hundredths of a pound sterling.
The British five pound (£5) coin is a commemorative denomination of the pound sterling.
A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.
A floating exchange rate (also called a fluctuating or flexible exchange rate) is a type of exchange-rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign-exchange market mechanisms.
The British florin, or two shilling coin, was issued from 1849 until 1967, with a final issue for collectors dated 1970.
The florin or double leopard was an attempt in 1344 by English king Edward III to produce a gold coinage suitable for use in Europe as well as in England (see also half florin or leopard and quarter florin or helm).
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.
Foreign-exchange reserves (also called forex reserves or FX reserves) is money or other assets held by a central bank or other monetary authority so that it can pay if need be its liabilities, such as the currency issued by the central bank, as well as the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government and other financial institutions.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (Frankfurt General Newspaper), abbreviated FAZ, is a centre-right, liberal-conservativeHans Magnus Enzensberger: (in German).
The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.
The livre (pound) was the currency of Kingdom of France and its predecessor state of West Francia from 781 to 1794.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.
The Goldmark (officially just Mark, sign: ℳ) was the currency used in the German Empire from 1873 to 1914.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Gibraltar pound (currency sign: £; banking code: GIP) is the currency of Gibraltar.
A gold coin is a coin that is made mostly or entirely of gold.
The gold penny was a medieval English coin with a value of twenty pence.
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.
James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010.
A government bond or sovereign bond is a bond issued by a national government, generally with a promise to pay periodic interest payments and to repay the face value on the maturity date.
A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.
The Governor of the Bank of England is the most senior position in the Bank of England.
A grain is a unit of measurement of mass, and in the troy weight, avoirdupois, and Apothecaries' system, equal to exactly.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
In the United Kingdom, the green pound was the common name for an exchange rate that was used to calculate the value of financial support within the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy until 1999.
In economics, Gresham's law is a monetary principle stating that "bad money drives out good".
The groat is the traditional name of a long-defunct English and Irish silver coin worth four pence, and also a Scottish coin originally worth fourpence, with later issues being valued at eightpence and one shilling.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.
The pound is the currency of Guernsey.
The guinea was a coin of approximately one quarter ounce of gold that was minted in Great Britain between 1663 and 1814.
The half crown was a denomination of British money, equivalent to two shillings and sixpence, or one-eighth of a pound.
The half sovereign is an English and British gold coin with a face value half that of a sovereign: equivalent to half a pound sterling, ten shillings, or 120 old pence.
The British decimal halfpenny (p) coin was introduced in February 1971, at the time of decimalisation, and was worth one two-hundredth of a pound sterling.
The British pre-decimal halfpenny (d) coin, usually simply known as a halfpenny (pronounced), historically occasionally also as the obol, was a unit of currency that equalled half of a penny or of a pound sterling.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death.
Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413, and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France.
Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
In geometry, a heptagon is a seven-sided polygon or 7-gon.
The history of opium in China began with the use of opium for medicinal purposes during the 7th century.
This is the history of the English penny from the years 1154 to 1485.
The history of the English penny can be traced back to the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the 7th century: to the small, thick silver coins known to contemporaries as pæningas or denarii, though now often referred to as sceattas by numismatists.
Her Majesty's Treasury (HM Treasury), sometimes referred to as the Exchequer, or more informally the Treasury, is the British government department responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.
The House of Commons Library is the library and information resource of the lower house of the British Parliament.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Indian rupee (sign: ₹; code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Intaglio is the family of printing and printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface and the incised line or sunken area holds the ink.
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
The international monetary conferences were a series of assemblies held in the second half of the 19th century.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.
The Irish pound (punt Éireannach) was the currency of Ireland until 2002.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states).
ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes are two-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
The scudo (pl. scudi) was the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), often known as Jim Callaghan, served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1976 to 1980.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
The is the official currency of Japan.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
The pound is the currency of Jersey.
John Benjamin Smith (7 February 1794 – 15 September 1879) was an English Liberal Party politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1847 to 1874.
Sir John Bowring, KCB (Chinese translated name: 寶寧, 寶靈 (for Putonghua speakers) or 包令 (for Cantonese)) (Thai: พระยาสยามมานุกูลกิจ สยามมิตรมหายศ) (17 October 1792 – 23 November 1872) was an English political economist, traveller, writer, literary translator, polyglot, and the fourth Governor of Hong Kong.
John Gellibrand Hubbard, 1st Baron Addington PC (21 March 1805 – 28 August 1889) was a City of London financier and a Conservative Party politician.
John Wrottesley, 1st Baron Wrottesley (4 October 1771 – 16 March 1841), known as Sir John Wrottesley, 9th Baronet, from 1787 to 1838, was a British soldier and Member of Parliament.
Kilmarnock Burghs was a district of burghs constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1832 to 1918.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
The Latin Monetary Union (LMU) was a 19th-century attempt to unify several European currencies into a single currency that could be used in all the member states, at a time when most national currencies were still made out of gold and silver.
The Laurel was the third English gold coin with a value of twenty shillings or one pound produced during the reign of King James I. It was named after the laurel that the king is portrayed as wearing on his head, but it is considerably poorer in both quality and style than the Sovereign and Unite which preceded it.
Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.
Letterpress printing is a technique of relief printing using a printing press, a process by which many copies are produced by repeated direct impression of an inked, raised surface against sheets or a continuous roll of paper.
The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as Lib Dems) are a liberal British political party, formed in 1988 as a merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a splinter group from the Labour Party, which had formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance from 1981.
List of £10 banknotes, bills or coins, include.
List of British banknotes and coins, with commonly used terms.
The Manx pound is the currency of the Isle of Man, in parity with the pound sterling.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Market value or OMV (Open Market Valuation) is the price at which an asset would trade in a competitive auction setting.
Mervyn Allister King, Baron King of Lothbury, (born 30 March 1948) is a British economist and public servant who served as the Governor of the Bank of England from 2003 to 2013.
Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
In economics, the money supply (or money stock) is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
National archives are the archives of a country.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman (May 5, 1864 – January 27, 1922), better known by her pen name Nellie Bly, was an American journalist who was widely known for her record-breaking trip around the world in 72 days, in emulation of Jules Verne's fictional character Phileas Fogg, and an exposé in which she worked undercover to report on a mental institution from within.
Nickel electroplating is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of nickel onto a metal object.
Nigel Lawson, Baron Lawson of Blaby, (born 11 March 1932) is a British Conservative politician and journalist.
The noble was the first English gold coin produced in quantity, having been preceded by the gold penny and the florin earlier in the reigns of King Henry III and King Edward III, which saw little circulation.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Offa was King of Mercia, a kingdom of Anglo-Saxon England, from 757 until his death in July 796.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.
Offset printing is a commonly used printing technique in which the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface.
The one hundred pound coin (£100) is a commemorative coin of the pound sterling.
The British one pound (£1) coin is a denomination of the pound sterling.
Operation Bernhard was an exercise by Nazi Germany to forge British bank notes.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A penny is a coin (. pennies) or a unit of currency (pl. pence) in various countries.
The British decimal one penny (1p) coin, usually simply known as a penny, is a unit of currency equaling one one-hundredth of a pound sterling.
The pre-decimal penny (1d) was a coin worth of a pound sterling.
The penny sterling (symbol: p; plural: pence) is a subdivision of pound sterling, the currency for the United Kingdom.
Philip Grierson, FBA (15 November 1910 – 15 January 2006) was a British historian and numismatist, emeritus professor of numismatics at Cambridge University and a fellow of Gonville and Caius College for over seventy years.
Polymer banknotes are banknotes made from a polymer such as biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP).
The pound is a unit of currency in some nations.
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
The pound Scots (Modern Scots: Pund Scots, Middle Scots: Pund Scottis) was the unit of currency in the Kingdom of Scotland before the kingdom unified with the Kingdom of England in 1707.
The pound sign (£) is the symbol for the pound sterling—the currency of the United Kingdom and previously of Great Britain and the Kingdom of England.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Public expenditure is spending made by the government of a country on collective needs and wants such as pension, provision, infrastructure, etc.
Quantitative easing (QE), also known as large-scale asset purchases, is an expansionary monetary policy whereby a central bank buys predetermined amounts of government bonds or other financial assets in order to stimulate the economy and increase liquidity.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Quid pro quo ("something for something" in Latin) is a phrase used in English to mean an exchange of goods or services, in which one transfer is contingent upon the other; "a favour for a favour".
In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.
The renminbi (Ab.: RMB;; sign: 元; code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.
A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency that is held in significant quantities by governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves.
In the United Kingdom, the retail prices index or retail price index (RPI) is a measure of inflation published monthly by the Office for National Statistics.
The Royal Bank of Scotland (Banca Rìoghail na h-Alba, Ryal Bank o Scotland, Banc Brenhinol yr Alban), commonly abbreviated as RBS, is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, together with NatWest and Ulster Bank.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
A Royal Commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue in some monarchies.
The Royal Mint is a government-owned mint that produces coins for the United Kingdom.
Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa.
The Saint Helena pound is the currency of the Atlantic islands of Saint Helena and Ascension, which are constituent parts of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
Samuel Jones-Loyd, 1st Baron Overstone (25 September 1796 – 17 November 1883) was a British banker and politician.
The Scottish Conservatives (Pàrtaidh Tòraidheach na h-Alba), officially the Scottish Conservative and Unionist Party, is the part of the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom that operates in Scotland.
A referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom took place on Thursday 18 September 2014.
The Scottish National Party (SNP; Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Scots Naitional Pairtie) is a Scottish nationalist and social-democratic political party in Scotland.
A shamrock is a young sprig, used as a symbol of Ireland.
The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States, and other British Commonwealth countries.
The shilling (1/-) was a coin worth one twentieth of a pound sterling, or twelve pence.
Sir William Brown, 1st Baronet DL (30 May 1784 – 3 March 1864) was a British merchant and banker, founder of the banking-house of Brown, Shipley & Co. and a Liberal politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1846 to 1859.
The sixpence (6d), sometimes known as a tanner or sixpenny bit, is a coin that was worth one-fortieth of a pound sterling, or six pence. It was first minted in the reign of Edward VI and circulated until 1980. Following decimalisation in 1971 it had a value of new pence. The coin was made from silver from its introduction in 1551 to 1947, and thereafter in cupronickel. Prior to Decimal Day in 1971 there were 240 pence in one pound sterling. Twelve pence made a shilling, and twenty shillings made a pound. Values less than a pound were usually written in shillings and pence, e.g. 42 old pence (p) would be three shillings and sixpence (3/6), often pronounced "three and six". Values of less than a shilling were simply written in terms of pence, e.g. eight pence would be 8d ('d' for denarius).
The solidus (Latin for "solid"; solidi), nomisma (νόμισμα, nómisma, "coin"), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire.
The pound (symbol £) was the currency of the Union of South Africa from the creation of the country as a British Dominion in 1910.
The South African Rand (sign: R; code: ZAR) is the currency of South Africa.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean.
South Lancashire, formally called the Southern Division of Lancashire or Lancashire Southern, is a former county constituency of the South Lancashire area in England.
The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa from 1923 to 1980, the predecessor state of modern Zimbabwe.
The sovereign is a gold coin of the United Kingdom, with a nominal value of one pound sterling.
The silver real (real de plata) was the currency of the Spanish colonies in America and the Philippines.
The Spanish dollar, also known as the piece of eight (peso de ocho or real de a ocho), is a silver coin, of approximately 38 mm diameter, worth eight Spanish reales, that was minted in the Spanish Empire after 1598.
The real (meaning: "royal", plural: reales) was a unit of currency in Spain for several centuries after the mid-14th century, but changed in value relative to other units introduced.
Special drawing rights (ISO 4217 currency code XDR, also abbreviated SDR) are supplementary foreign-exchange reserve assets defined and maintained by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
A speech from the throne (or throne speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the reigning sovereign, or a representative thereof, reads a prepared speech to members of the nation's legislature when a session is opened, outlining the government's agenda and focus for the forthcoming session; or in some cases, closed.
The Spur Royal was an extremely rare English gold coin issued in the reign of King James I. The coin is a development of the earlier Rose Noble, or Ryal which was worth ten shillings when issued by Kings Edward IV and Henry VII, and fifteen shillings when issued by Queens Mary and Elizabeth I. The Spur Royal, so called because the sun and rose on the reverse resemble a spur, was introduced during James I's second coinage (1604–1619) when it initially had a value of fifteen shillings (15/-), but in line with all gold coins its value was raised by 10% in 1612, to sixteen shillings and sixpence (16/6).
Staffordshire was a county constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832.
The States of Guernsey (États de Guernesey) is the parliament of the British Crown dependency of Guernsey.
The States of Jersey (États de Jersey) is the parliament and government of the British Crown dependency of Jersey.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
The sterling area (or sterling bloc, legally scheduled territories) was a group of countries that either pegged their currencies to the pound sterling, or actually used the pound as their own currency.
Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by weight of silver and 7.5% by weight of other metals, usually copper.
Stirling Burghs was a district of burghs constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1708 to 1918.
The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.
The British decimal ten pence (10p) coin – often pronounced ten pee – is a unit of currency equalling ten one-hundredths of a pound sterling.
The thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Margaret Thatcher was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 4 May 1979 to 28 November 1990, during which time she led a Conservative government.
The British threepence (3d) coin, usually simply known as a threepence or threepenny bit, was a unit of currency equaling one eightieth of a pound sterling, or three old pence sterling.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
The Treaty of Union is the name usually now given to the agreement which led to the creation of the new state of Great Britain, stating that England (which already included Wales) and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain",: Both Acts of Union and the Treaty state in Article I: That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon 1 May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN.
Tristan da Cunha, colloquially Tristan, is both a remote group of volcanic islands in the south Atlantic Ocean and the main island of that group.
Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones.
The Tudor rose (sometimes called the Union rose) is the traditional floral heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the House of Tudor, which united the House of York and House of Lancaster.
The British decimal twenty pence (20p) coin – often pronounced "twenty pee" – is a unit of currency equal to 20/100 of a pound sterling.
The British twenty pound (£20) coin is a commemorative coin, first issued by the Royal Mint in 2013.
The British decimal two pence (2p) coin – often pronounced two pee – is a unit of currency equaling two one-hundredths of a pound sterling.
The British two pound (£2) coin is a denomination of the pound sterling.
Tynwald (Tinvaal), or more formally, the High Court of Tynwald (Ard-whaiyl Tinvaal) or Tynwald Court is the legislature of the Isle of Man.
Ulster Bank is a large commercial bank, and one of the traditional Big Four Irish banks.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The Unite was the second English gold coin with a value of twenty shillings or one pound first produced during the reign of King James I. It was named after the legends on the coin indicating the king's intention of uniting his two kingdoms of England and Scotland.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, also known as the EU referendum and the Brexit referendum, took place on 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom (UK) and Gibraltar to gauge support for the country either remaining a member of, or leaving, the European Union (EU) under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.
William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
The Zimbabwean dollar (sign: $, or Z$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies) was the official currency of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 12 April 2009.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
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