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Index Poverty

Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money. [1]

292 relations: Abraham George, Accumulation by dispossession, Adam Smith, African Union, Ageism, Agence France-Presse, Agricultural land, Aid, Al Jazeera, Amartya Sen, Amish, Anemia, Anglo-Norman language, Antwerp, Arundhati Roy, Asset poverty, Austerity, Bank secrecy, Basic income, BBC News, Beijing, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Bottom of the pyramid, Bruderhof Communities, Buddhism, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Caste, Causes of poverty, Child development, Child mortality, China, Civil service, Climate and Development Knowledge Network, Climate change and poverty, Clothing, Coca-Cola, Collective farming, Conditional cash transfer, Conditionality, Copenhagen Consensus, Corruption, Crop yield, Cultural capital, Cycle of poverty, Dadaab, Deadweight loss, Debt of developing countries, Debt relief, Democracy Now!, ..., Democratic Republic of the Congo, Developing country, Deworming, Diarrhea, Diaspora, Dimension, Disability, Disability and poverty, Disposable and discretionary income, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dollars & Sense, Dunya, East Asia, Economic freedom, Economic inequality, Economy, Education, Engel's law, Environmental racism, Erosion, European Union, Evangelical counsels, Exchange rate, Extreme poverty, Family planning, Famine relief, Fertilizer, Food, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food bank, Food fortification, Foreign direct investment, Frank Fenner, Friedrich Hayek, Geoffrey Parker (historian), Gini coefficient, Global Hunger Index, Global Monitoring Report (World Bank), Global Witness, Grameen Bank, Great Smoky Mountains Study, Gross domestic product, Guaranteed minimum income, Harvard Business School, Haymarket Books, Health care, Herbert A. Simon, Herbert J. Gans, Hinduism, Homelessness, Human capital, Human capital flight, Human rights, Hunger, Hunger in the United Kingdom, Hunger in the United States, Illicit financial flows, Income inequality metrics, India, Individual Deprivation Measure, Industrial Revolution, Infant mortality, Infection, Information access, Inner city, Intelligence quotient, Intensive farming, International development, International Development Enterprises, International Food Policy Research Institute, International inequality, International Institute for Environment and Development, International Monetary Fund, Involuntary unemployment, Iodine deficiency, Iodised salt, Islam, Isle of Man, Jacobin (magazine), Jainism, James Meade, James Tobin, Jan Tinbergen, Jeffrey Sachs, Jersey, John Kenneth Galbraith, Johns Hopkins University Press, Jonathan Bradshaw, José Antonio Ocampo, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Joule, Juvenile delinquency, Juvenilization of poverty, Kenya, Les Misérables, Licence Raj, Life expectancy, List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty, Literacy, Living wage, Lucknow, Luxembourg Income Study, Lyon, Malaria, Malawi, Malnutrition, Mass production, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Maternal death, Maternal health, Matthew effect, Max Roser, Max Weber, Measuring poverty, Medical tourism, Microfinance, Microfranchising, Micronutrient, Millennium Development Goals, Milton Friedman, Minimum wage, Mobile banking, Modernization theory, Money laundering, Muhammad Yunus, Negative income tax, Nekkhamma, Neoliberalism, New Orleans, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, OECD, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Open defecation, Oxfam, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, Oxford University Press, Paul Polman, Paul Samuelson, Peter Townsend (sociologist), Philip Alston, Planned economy, Pneumonia, Political capital, Politics, Pope Benedict XVI, Poverty in Africa, Poverty in the United Kingdom, Poverty in the United States, Poverty reduction, Poverty threshold, Poverty trap, Power (social and political), Pregnancy, Purchasing power parity, Racism, Raghuram Rajan, Redistribution of income and wealth, Relative deprivation, Religion, Remittance, Reserve Bank of India, Road, Robert McNamara, Robert Solow, Rose Friedman, Routledge, Sanitary napkin, Savings account, Science (journal), Second Cameron ministry, Sexism, Shell corporation, Shelter (building), Shenggen Fan, Social, Social capital, Social environment, Social security, Social status, Society, Soil retrogression and degradation, Solidarity, Sri Lanka, Starvation, Stephen C. Smith (economist), Stereotype, Steven Pressman (economist), Street children, Structural adjustment, Sub-Saharan Africa, Subprime mortgage crisis, Subsidiary, Subsidy, Subsistence agriculture, Survival sex, Survival skills, Sustainable Development Goals, Tax avoidance, Tax haven, Teenage pregnancy, The End of Poverty, The Guardian, The Simple Way, The Washington Post, Theil index, Theology of relational care, Thomas Humphrey Marshall, Tied aid, Tony Atkinson, Toronto, Transaction account, Transfer mispricing, Truthdig, Tuberculosis, Unemployment benefits, UNICEF, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Millennium Declaration, United Nations special rapporteur, United Nations University, University of Chicago Booth School of Business, University of Wisconsin Press, Value (ethics), Verso Books, Vijay Prashad, Vulture fund, Waste picker, Water filter, Water scarcity, Welfare, Western Europe, World Bank, World Bank Group, World Food Programme, World Health Organization, World Poverty Clock, World Resources Institute, Zambia, Zimbabwe, 2007–08 world food price crisis. Expand index (242 more) »

Abraham George


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Accumulation by dispossession

Accumulation by dispossession is a concept presented by the Marxist geographer David Harvey, which defines the neoliberal capitalist policies in many western nations, from the 1970s and to the present day, as resulting in a centralization of wealth and power in the hands of a few by dispossessing the public of their wealth or land.

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Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

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African Union

The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.

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Ageism (also spelled "agism") is stereotyping of and discrimination against individuals or groups on the basis of their age.

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Agence France-Presse

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.

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Agricultural land

Agricultural land is typically land devoted to agriculture, the systematic and controlled use of other forms of lifeparticularly the rearing of livestock and production of cropsto produce food for humans.

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In international relations, aid (also known as international aid, overseas aid, foreign aid or foreign assistance) is – from the perspective of governments – a voluntary transfer of resources from one country to another.

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Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.

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Amartya Sen

Amartya Kumar Sen, CH, FBA (born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in India, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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The Amish (Pennsylvania German: Amisch, Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Anabaptist origins.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Anglo-Norman language

Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.

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Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.

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Arundhati Roy

Suzanna Arundhati Roy (born 24 November 1961) is an Indian author best known for her novel The God of Small Things (1997), which won the Man Booker Prize for Fiction in 1997 and became the biggest-selling book by a non-expatriate Indian author.

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Asset poverty

Asset poverty is an economic and social condition that is more persistent and prevalent than income poverty.

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Austerity is a political-economic term referring to policies that aim to reduce government budget deficits through spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of both.

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Bank secrecy

Banking secrecy, alternately known as financial privacy, banking discretion, or bank safety,Guex (2000), p. 240 is a conditional agreement between a bank and its clients that all foregoing activities remain secure, confidential, and private.

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Basic income

A basic income, also called basic income guarantee, universal basic income (UBI), basic living stipend (BLS) or universal demogrant, is a type of program in which citizens (or permanent residents) of a country may receive a regular sum of money from the government.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), also known as the Gates Foundation, is a private foundation founded by Bill and Melinda Gates.

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Bottom of the pyramid

The bottom of the pyramid, bottom of the wealth pyramid or the bottom of the income pyramid is the largest, but poorest socio-economic group.

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Bruderhof Communities

The Bruderhof (place of brothers) is a Christian movement that practices community of goods after the example of the first church described in Acts 2 and Acts 4.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.

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Causes of poverty

Some causes of poverty are changing trends in a country’s economy, lack of education, high divorce rate, having a culture of poverty, overpopulation, epidemic diseases such as AIDS and malaria,and environmental problems such as lack of rainfall.

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Child development

Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy.

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Child mortality

Child mortality, also known as child death, refers to the death of children under the age of 14 and encompasses neonatal mortality, under-5 mortality, and mortality of children aged 5-14.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Civil service

The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.

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Climate and Development Knowledge Network

The Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) is a £72 million (US$100 million) initiative, formed in 2010, that links developing countries with experts on climate change.

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Climate change and poverty

In an ever-progressing world with an increasing demand for energy and technology, it is difficult to avoid climate change and its impacts on societies both locally and globally.

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Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.

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Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.

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Collective farming

Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.

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Conditional cash transfer

Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs aim to reduce poverty by making welfare programs conditional upon the receivers' actions.

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In political economy and international relations, conditionality is the use of conditions attached to the provision of benefits such as a loan, debt relief or bilateral aid.

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Copenhagen Consensus

Copenhagen Consensus is a project that seeks to establish priorities for advancing global welfare using methodologies based on the theory of welfare economics, using cost–benefit analysis.

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Corruption is a form of dishonesty undertaken by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit.

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Crop yield

In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).

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Cultural capital

In sociology, cultural capital consists of the social assets of a person (education, intellect, style of speech and dress, etc.) that promote social mobility in a stratified society.

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Cycle of poverty

In economics, the cycle of poverty is the "set of factors or events by which poverty, once started, is likely to continue unless there is outside intervention".

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Dadaab is a semi-arid town in Garissa County, Kenya.

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Deadweight loss

A deadweight loss, also known as excess burden or allocative inefficiency, is a loss of economic efficiency that can occur when equilibrium for a good or a service is not achieved.

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Debt of developing countries

The debt of developing countries refers to the external debt incurred by governments of developing countries, generally in quantities beyond the governments' ability to repay.

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Debt relief

Debt relief or debt cancellation is the partial or total forgiveness of debt, or the slowing or stopping of debt growth, owed by individuals, corporations, or nations.

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Democracy Now!

Democracy Now! is an hour-long American TV, radio and internet news program hosted by journalists Amy Goodman and Juan González.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Deworming (sometimes known as worming, drenching or "dehelmintization") is the giving of an anthelmintic drug (a wormer, dewormer, or drench) to a human or animal to rid them of helminths parasites, such as roundworm, flukes and tapeworm.

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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.

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In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.

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A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.

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Disability and poverty

The world's poor are significantly more likely to have or incur a disability within their lifetime compared to more financially privileged populations.

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Disposable and discretionary income

Disposable income is total personal income minus personal current taxes.

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Dissolution of the Soviet Union

The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.

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Dollars & Sense

Dollars & Sense is a magazine focusing on economics from a progressive perspective, published by Dollars & Sense, Inc, which also publishes textbooks in the same genre.

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(دُنْيا) is originally an Arabic word that was passed to many other languages such as Persian, Dari, Pashto, Bengali, Punjabi, Urdu, Hindi, Assamese, Sylheti, Javanese, Kurdish, Nepali, Turkish, Arumanian, North-Caucasian languages, Malay, Swahili, and Indonesian.

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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Economic freedom

Economic freedom or economic liberty is the ability of people of a society to take economic actions.

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Economic inequality

Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.

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An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

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Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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Engel's law

Engel's law is an observation in economics stating that as income rises, the proportion of income spent on food falls, even if absolute expenditure on food rises.

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Environmental racism

Environmental racism is a term used to describe environmental injustice within a racialized context.

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In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Evangelical counsels

The three evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection in Christianity are chastity, poverty (or perfect charity), and obedience.

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Exchange rate

In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.

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Extreme poverty

Extreme poverty, abject poverty, absolute poverty, destitution, or penury, was originally defined by the United Nations in 1995 as "a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information.

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Family planning

Family planning services are defined as "educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved".

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Famine relief

Famine relief is an organized effort to reduce starvation in a region in which there is famine.

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A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Food bank

A food bank or foodbank is a non-profit, charitable organization that distributes food to those who have difficulty purchasing enough to avoid hunger.

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Food fortification

Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food.

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Foreign direct investment

A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.

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Frank Fenner

Frank John Fenner, AC, CMG, MBE, FRS, FAA (21 December 1914 – 22 November 2010) was an Australian scientist with a distinguished career in the field of virology.

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Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.

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Geoffrey Parker (historian)

Noel Geoffrey Parker, FBA (born Nottingham, United Kingdom, 25 December 1943) is a British historian specialising in Spanish and military history of the early modern era.

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Gini coefficient

In economics, the Gini coefficient (sometimes expressed as a Gini ratio or a normalized Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality.

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Global Hunger Index

The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is a multidimensional statistical tool used to describe the state of countries’ hunger situation.

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Global Monitoring Report (World Bank)

The Global Monitoring Report was a joint World Bank and International Monetary Fund report that monitored how the world is doing in implementing the policies and actions for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and related development outcomes.

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Global Witness

Global Witness is an international NGO established in 1993 that works to break the links between natural resource exploitation, conflict, poverty, corruption, and human rights abuses worldwide.

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Grameen Bank

The Grameen Bank (গ্রামীণ বাংক) is a microfinance organisation and community development bank founded in Bangladesh.

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Great Smoky Mountains Study

The Great Smoky Mountains Study is a longitudinal study led by William Copeland (professor) from Duke University Medical Center that started in 1993 and ended in 2003.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Guaranteed minimum income

Guaranteed minimum income (GMI), also called minimum income, is a system of social welfare provision that guarantees that all citizens or families have an income sufficient to live on, provided they meet certain conditions.

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Harvard Business School

Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate business school of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts.

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Haymarket Books

Haymarket Books is a non-profit, radical, independent book publisher based in Chicago.

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Health care

Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.

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Herbert A. Simon

Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American economist and political scientist whose primary interest was decision-making within organizations and is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing".

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Herbert J. Gans

Herbert J. Gans (born May 7, 1927) is a German-born American sociologist who has taught at Columbia University between 1971 and 2007.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Homelessness is the circumstance when people are without a permanent dwelling, such as a house or apartment.

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Human capital

Human capital is a term popularized by Gary Becker, an economist and Nobel Laureate from the University of Chicago, and Jacob Mincer.

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Human capital flight

Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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In politics, humanitarian aid, and social science, hunger is a condition in which a person, for a sustained period, is unable to eat sufficient food to meet basic nutritional needs.

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Hunger in the United Kingdom

Chronic hunger has affected a sizable proportion of the UK's population throughout its history.

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Hunger in the United States

Hunger in the United States is an issue that affects millions of Americans, including some who are middle class, or who are in households where all adults are in work.

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Illicit financial flows

Illicit financial flows, in economics, are a form of illegal capital flight that occurs when money is illegally earned, transferred, or spent.

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Income inequality metrics

Income inequality metrics or income distribution metrics are used by social scientists to measure the distribution of income, and economic inequality among the participants in a particular economy, such as that of a specific country or of the world in general.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Individual Deprivation Measure

The Individual Deprivation Measure (IDM) is a new, gender-sensitive and multidimensional measure of poverty developed to assess deprivation at the individual level and overcome the limitations of current approaches which measure poverty at the household level.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Infant mortality

Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Information access

Information access is the freedom or ability to identify, obtain and make use of data or information effectively.

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Inner city

The inner city or inner town is the central area of a major city or metropolis.

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Intelligence quotient

An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.

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Intensive farming

Intensive farming involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area.

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International development

International development or global development is a wide concept concerning level of development on an international scale.

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International Development Enterprises

iDE, formerly International Development Enterprises, is an international nonprofit organization that promotes a business approach to increasing income and creating livelihood opportunities for poor rural households.

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International Food Policy Research Institute

The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) is an international agricultural research center founded in the early 1970s to improve the understanding of national agricultural and food policies to promote the adoption of innovations in agricultural technology.

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International inequality

International inequality refers to the idea of inequality between countries. This can be compared to global inequality which is inequality between people across countries.

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International Institute for Environment and Development

The International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) is an independent policy research institute (think tank) whose stated mission is to "build a fairer, more sustainable world, using evidence, action and influence in partnership with others." Its director is Dr Andrew Norton.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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Involuntary unemployment

Involuntary unemployment occurs when a person is willing to work at the prevailing wage yet is unemployed.

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Iodine deficiency

Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet.

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Iodised salt

Iodised salt (also spelled iodized salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of various salts of the element iodine.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Isle of Man

The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Jacobin (magazine)

Jacobin is a left-wing quarterly magazine based in New York offering socialist and anti-capitalist perspectives on politics, economics and culture from the American left.

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Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.

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James Meade

James Edward Meade CB, FBA (23 June 1907 – 22 December 1995) was a British economist and winner of the 1977 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences jointly with the Swedish economist Bertil Ohlin for their "pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements." Meade was born in Swanage, Dorset.

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James Tobin

James Tobin (March 5, 1918 – March 11, 2002) was an American economist who served on the Council of Economic Advisers and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and taught at Harvard and Yale Universities.

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Jan Tinbergen

Jan Tinbergen (April 12, 1903June 9, 1994) was an important Dutch economist.

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Jeffrey Sachs

Jeffrey David Sachs (born November 5, 1954) is an American economist and director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, where he holds the title of University Professor, the highest rank Columbia bestows on its faculty.

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Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.

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John Kenneth Galbraith

John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908 - April 29, 2006), also known as Ken Galbraith, was a Canadian-born economist, public official, and diplomat, and a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalism.

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Johns Hopkins University Press

The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.

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Jonathan Bradshaw

Jonathan Richard Bradshaw, CBE, FBA, FAcSS is a British academic, specialising in social policy, poverty and child welfare.

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José Antonio Ocampo

José Antonio Ocampo Gaviria (born 20 December 1952) is, since July 2007, Professor of Professional Practice in International and Public Affairs and Director of the Economic and Political Development Concentration at the School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University.

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Joseph Rowntree Foundation

The Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF) is a British social policy research and development charity, that funds a UK-wide research and development programme.

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The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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Juvenile delinquency

Juvenile delinquency, also known as "juvenile offending", is participation in illegal behavior by minors (juveniles, i.e. individuals younger than the statutory age of majority).

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Juvenilization of poverty

The term juvenilization of poverty is one used to describe the processes by which children are at a higher risk for being poor, suffer consistent and long-term negative effects due to deprivation (physical, mental, and psychological), and are disproportionally affected by systemic issues that perpetuate poverty.

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Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.

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Les Misérables

Les Misérables is a French historical novel by Victor Hugo, first published in 1862, that is considered one of the greatest novels of the 19th century.

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Licence Raj

The Licence Raj or Permit Raj (rāj, meaning "rule" in Hindi) was the elaborate system of licences, regulations and accompanying red tape that were required to set up and run businesses in India between 1947 and 1990.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty

Countries by percentage of population living in poverty, as recorded by World bank and other sources.

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Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.

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Living wage

A living wage is the minimum income necessary for a worker to meet their basic needs.

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Lucknow is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous District and Division.

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Luxembourg Income Study

LIS Cross-National Data Center, formerly known as the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), is a non-profit organization registered in Luxembourg which produces a cross-national database of micro-economic income data for social science research.

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Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.

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Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

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Mass production

Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Maternal death

Maternal death or maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes." There are two performance indicators that are sometimes used interchangeably: maternal mortality ratio and maternal mortality rate, which confusingly both are abbreviated "MMR".

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Maternal health

Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.

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Matthew effect

The Matthew effect, Matthew principle, or Matthew effect of accumulated advantage can be observed in many aspects of life and fields of activity.

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Max Roser

Max Roser is an economist and media critic.

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Max Weber

Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.

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Measuring poverty

Poverty can be and is measured in different ways by governments, international organisations, policy makers and practitioners.

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Medical tourism

Medical tourism refers to people traveling to a country other than their own to obtain medical treatment.

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Microfinance initially had a limited definition - the provision of microloans to poor entrepreneurs and small businesses lacking access to banking and related services.

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Microfranchising(Микрофранчайзинг, Микрофраншиза) is a business model that applies elements and concepts of traditional franchising to small businesses in the developing world.

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Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.

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Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.

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Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.

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Minimum wage

A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.

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Mobile banking

Mobile banking is a service provided by a bank or other financial institution that allows its customers to conduct financial transactions remotely using a mobile device such as a smartphone or tablet.

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Modernization theory

Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.

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Money laundering

Money laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.

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Muhammad Yunus

Muhammad Yunus (মুহাম্মদ ইউনূস; born 28 June 1940) is a Bangladeshi social entrepreneur, banker, economist, and civil society leader who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for founding the Grameen Bank and pioneering the concepts of microcredit and microfinance.

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Negative income tax

In economics, a negative income tax (NIT) is a progressive income tax system where people earning below a certain amount receive supplemental pay from the government instead of paying taxes to the government.

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Nekkhamma (Sanskrit: नैष्काम्य) is a Pali word generally translated as "renunciation" or "the pleasure of renunciation" while also conveying more specifically "giving up the world and leading a holy life" or "freedom from lust, craving and desires." In Buddhism's Noble Eightfold Path, nekkhamma is the first practice associated with "Right Intention." In the Theravada list of ten perfections, nekkhamma is the third practice of "perfection." It involves non-attachment (detachment).

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Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.

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New Orleans

New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.

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Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.

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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.

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Open defecation

Open defecation is the human practice of defecating outside (in the open environment) rather than into a toilet.

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Oxfam is a confederation of 20 independent charitable organizations focusing on the alleviation of global poverty, founded in 1942 and led by Oxfam International.

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Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative

The Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) is an economic research centre within the Oxford Department of International Development at the University of Oxford, England, that was established in 2007.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Paul Polman

Paulus Gerardus Josephus Maria Polman KBE (born 11 July 1956) is a Dutch businessman.

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Paul Samuelson

Paul Anthony Samuelson (15 May 1915 – 13 December 2009) was an American economist and the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.

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Peter Townsend (sociologist)

Peter Brereton Townsend (6 April 1928, Middlesbrough – 8 June 2009, Dursley) was a British sociologist.

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Philip Alston

Philip G. Alston is an international law scholar and human rights practitioner.

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Planned economy

A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.

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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.

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Political capital

Political capital refers to the trust, goodwill, and influence a politician has with the public and other political figures.

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Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.

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Pope Benedict XVI

Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.

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Poverty in Africa

Poverty in Africa refers to the lack of basic human needs faced by certain people in African society.

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Poverty in the United Kingdom

Despite being a developed country, those who are living at the lower end of the income distribution in the United Kingdom have a relatively low standard of living.

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Poverty in the United States

Poverty is a state of deprivation, lacking the usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions.

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Poverty reduction

Poverty reduction, or poverty alleviation, is a set of measures, both economic and humanitarian, that are intended to permanently lift people out of poverty.

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Poverty threshold

The poverty threshold, poverty limit or poverty line is the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a particular country.

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Poverty trap

A poverty trap is a self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist.

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Power (social and political)

In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

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Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.

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Raghuram Rajan

Raghuram Govind Rajan (born 3 February 1963) is an Indian economist and an international academic who is the Katherine Dusak Miller Distinguished Service Professor of Finance at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.

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Redistribution of income and wealth

Redistribution of income and redistribution of wealth are respectively the transfer of income and of wealth (including physical property) from some individuals to others by means of a social mechanism such as taxation, charity, welfare, public services, land reform, monetary policies, confiscation, divorce or tort law.

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Relative deprivation

Relative deprivation is the lack of resources to sustain the diet, lifestyle, activities and amenities that an individual or group are accustomed to or that are widely encouraged or approved in the society to which they belong.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in their home country.

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Reserve Bank of India

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India's central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee.

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A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.

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Robert McNamara

Robert Strange McNamara (June 9, 1916 – July 6, 2009) was an American business executive and the eighth Secretary of Defense, serving from 1961 to 1968 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.

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Robert Solow

Robert Merton Solow, GCIH (born August 23, 1924), is an American economist, particularly known for his work on the theory of economic growth that culminated in the exogenous growth model named after him.

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Rose Friedman

Rose Director Friedman (born Rose Director, December, 1910 – 18 August 2009), also known as Rose D. Friedman, was a free-market economist and co-founder of the Milton and Rose D. Friedman Foundation.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Sanitary napkin

A sanitary napkin, sanitary towel, sanitary pad, menstrual pad, or pad is an absorbent item worn by women while menstruating, recovering from vaginal surgery, for lochia (post-birth bleeding), after an abortion, or in any other situation where it is necessary to absorb a flow of blood from the vagina.

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Savings account

A savings account is a deposit account held at a retail bank that pays interest but cannot be used directly as money in the narrow sense of a medium of exchange (for example, by writing a cheque).

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Second Cameron ministry

David Cameron formed the second Cameron ministry, the first Conservative Party majority government since 1996, following the 2015 general election after being invited by Queen Elizabeth II to begin a new government.

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Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.

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Shell corporation

A shell company is a company that exists only on paper and has no office and no employees, but may have a bank account or may hold passive investments or be the registered owner of assets, such as intellectual property, or ships.

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Shelter (building)

A shelter is a basic architectural structure or building that provides protection from the local environment.

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Shenggen Fan


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Living organisms including humans are social when they live collectively in interacting populations, whether they are aware of it, and whether the interaction is voluntary or involuntary.

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Social capital

Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central; transactions are marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation; and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good.

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Social environment

The social environment, social context, sociocultural context or milieu refers to the immediate physical and social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops.

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Social security

Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

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Social status

Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.

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A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

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Soil retrogression and degradation

Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil.

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Solidarity is unity (as of a group or class) which produces or is based on unities of interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.

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Stephen C. Smith (economist)

Stephen Charles Smith (born April 24, 1955) is an economist, author, and educator.

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In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.

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Steven Pressman (economist)

Steven Pressman (born February 23, 1952 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American economist.

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Street children

Street children are children experiencing poverty, homelessness or both, who are living on the streets of a city, town, or village.

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Structural adjustment

Structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) consist of loans provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) to countries that experienced economic crises.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

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Subprime mortgage crisis

The United States subprime mortgage crisis was a nationwide banking emergency, occurring between 2007 and 2010, that contributed to the U.S. recession of December 2007 – June 2009.

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A subsidiary, subsidiary company or daughter company"daughter company.

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A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.

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Subsistence agriculture

Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.

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Survival sex

Survival sex is prostitution engaged in by a person because of their extreme need.

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Survival skills

Survival skills are techniques that a person may use in order to sustain life in any type of natural environment or built environment.

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Sustainable Development Goals

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a good collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations in 2015.

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Tax avoidance

Tax avoidance is the legal usage of the tax regime in a single territory to one's own advantage to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law.

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Tax haven

A tax haven is defined as a jurisdiction with very low "effective" rates of taxation ("headline" rates may be higher).

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Teenage pregnancy

Teenage pregnancy, also known as adolescent pregnancy, is pregnancy in females under the age of 20.

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The End of Poverty

The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time is a 2005 book by American economist Jeffrey Sachs.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Simple Way

The Simple Way is an intentional community in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Theil index

The Theil index is a statistic primarily used to measure economic inequality and other economic phenomena, though it has also been used to measure racial segregation.

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Theology of relational care

The theology of relational care pertains to ministering to the personal needs of others, primarily individuals going through crises of a temporal nature.

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Thomas Humphrey Marshall

Thomas Humphrey Marshall (19 December 1893, London – 29 November 1981, Cambridge) was a British sociologist, most noted for his essays, such as the essay collection Citizenship and Social Class.

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Tied aid

Tied aid is foreign aid that must be spent in the country providing the aid (the donor country) or in a group of selected countries.

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Tony Atkinson

Sir Anthony Barnes "Tony" Atkinson (4 September 1944 – 1 January 2017) was a British economist, senior research fellow of Nuffield College, Oxford, and Centennial Professor at the London School of Economics.

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Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.

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Transaction account

A transaction account, checking account, current account, demand deposit account, or share draft account (at credit unions) is a deposit account held at a bank or other financial institution.

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Transfer mispricing

Transfer mispricing, also known as transfer pricing manipulation or fraudulent transfer pricing, refers to trade between related parties at prices meant to manipulate markets or to deceive tax authorities.

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Truthdig is a news website that provides a mix of long-form articles, blog items, curated links, interviews, arts criticism and commentary on current events delivered from a politically progressive, left-leaning point of view.

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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

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Unemployment benefits

Unemployment benefits (depending on the jurisdiction also called unemployment insurance or unemployment compensation) are payments made by the state or other authorized bodies to unemployed people.

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The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Development Programme

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.

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United Nations Millennium Declaration

On 8 September 2000, following a three-day Millennium Summit of world leaders at the headquarters of the United Nations, the General Assembly adopted the Millennium Declaration (Resolution 55/2).

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United Nations special rapporteur

The titles Special Rapporteur, Independent Expert, and Working Group Member are given to individuals working on behalf of the United Nations (UN) within the scope of "special procedure" mechanisms who have a specific country or thematic mandate from the United Nations Human Rights Council.

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United Nations University

The (UNU), established in 1973, is the academic and research arm of the United Nations.

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University of Chicago Booth School of Business

The University of Chicago Booth School of Business (also known as Chicago Booth, or Booth) is the graduate business school of the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of Wisconsin Press

The University of Wisconsin Press (sometimes abbreviated as UW Press) is a non-profit university press publishing peer-reviewed books and journals.

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Value (ethics)

In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.

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Verso Books

Verso Books (formerly New Left Books) is a publishing house based in London and New York City, founded in 1970 by the staff of New Left Review.

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Vijay Prashad

Vijay Prashad is an Indian historian, journalist, commentator and a Marxist intellectual.

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Vulture fund

A vulture fund is a hedge fund, private equity fund or distressed debt fund, that invests in debt considered to be very weak or in default, known as distressed securities.

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Waste picker

A waste picker is a person who salvages reusable or recyclable materials thrown away by others to sell or for personal consumption.

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Water filter

A water filter removes impurities by lowering contamination of water using a fine physical barrier, a chemical process, or a biological process.

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Water scarcity

Water scarcity is the lack of fresh water resources to meet water demand.

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Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World Bank Group

The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.

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World Food Programme

The World Food Programme (WFP) is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World Poverty Clock

The is a tool to monitor progress against poverty globally, and regionally.

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World Resources Institute

The World Resources Institute (WRI) is a global research non-profit organization that was established in 1982 with funding from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation under the leadership of James Gustave Speth.

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Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.

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Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.

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2007–08 world food price crisis

World food prices increased dramatically in 2007 and the first and second quarter of 2008, creating a global crisis and causing political and economic instability and social unrest in both poor and developed nations.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poverty

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