207 relations: Accountability, African Growth and Opportunity Act, Aid, Anarchism, Anemia, Angus Maddison, Barter, Basic income, Binary economics, Bottom of the pyramid, Brady Bonds, Breastfeeding, Bureaucracy, Capability approach, Cato Institute, Chickpea, Child mortality, Climate change adaptation, Collective farming, Colombo, Colonialism, Community currency, Community economic development, Community health, Conditional cash transfer, Copenhagen Consensus, Corruption, Debt relief, Deposit account, Developed country, Developing country, Development aid, Development economics, Developmental state, Deworming, Diarrhea, Digital rights, Diphtheria, Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Domestic violence, Donald Kimelman, Ecological sanitation, Economic freedom, Economic liberalization, Economy, Empowerment, Encyclopædia Britannica, EndPoverty.org, Entrepreneurship, Environmental racism, ..., Eritrea, Ethiopia, Extreme poverty, Fair trade, Famine, Fee-for-service, Feminization of poverty, Fertilizer, Financial services, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food Assistance Convention, Foreign direct investment, Four Asian Tigers, Free market, Free trade, Gender equality, Gender inequality, Gender mainstreaming, Generic drug, Geoffrey Parker (historian), Georgism, Global resources dividend, Global Witness, Good governance, Grameen Bank, Grameen Foundation, Green Revolution, Heavily indebted poor countries, Henry George, HIV/AIDS, Human capital, Human rights, Humanitarianism, IFAD Vietnam, Incentive, Inclusive business, Income distribution, Industrial Revolution, Informal sector, Infrastructure, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, International Day for the Eradication of Poverty, International finance, International Food Policy Research Institute, International Fund for Agricultural Development, International Labour Organization, International Water Management Institute, Irrigation, Jeffrey Sachs, Kinmen, Land law, Land value tax, Levonorgestrel-releasing implant, Libertarianism, Local currency, M-Pesa, Macroeconomics, Make Poverty History, Malaria, Malaysia, Malnutrition, Manufacturing, Maternal death, Maternal health, Max Weber, Maximo Torero, Measles, Medicaid, Microcredit, Microeconomics, Microfinance, Millennium Development Goals, Mobile banking, Money laundering, Mortality rate, Mosquito net, Namibia, National health insurance, Natural resource, OECD, Overseas Development Institute, Pantheon Books, Participatory economics, Paul Polak, Pesticide, Peter Singer, Physical capital, Pneumonia, Poliomyelitis, Poor People's Economic Human Rights Campaign, Poverty, Poverty in the United States, Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, Poverty threshold, Poverty trap, Private sector development, Progress and Poverty, Progressive tax, Public housing, Rational-legal authority, Raw material, Redistribution of income and wealth, Remittance, Right to an adequate standard of living, Right to property, Rule of law, Rural electrification, Safaricom, Sanitation, Savings account, Scandinavia, School meal, Sexually transmitted infection, Smallpox, Social security, Social work, Soviet Union, Sri Lanka, Steam engine, Strategy, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sustainable Development Goals, Taipei, Tariff, Tax evasion, Tertiary sector of the economy, Thailand, The Life You Can Save, Theories of poverty, Think tank, Thomas H. Greco Jr., Thomas Pogge, Tied aid, Toronto dollar, Transaction account, Transition economy, Tree planting, Trickle-down economics, Tuberculosis, Tuition payments, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Research Institute For Social Development, University of California, Berkeley, University of Toronto, Vaccination, Vietnam, Wage, Wörgl, Wealth, Welfare state, Welfare trap, Women's rights, Workforce, Workforce productivity, Working poor, World Bank, World military spending. Expand index (157 more) » « Shrink index
In ethics and governance, accountability is answerability, blameworthiness, liability, and the expectation of account-giving.
The African Growth and Opportunity Act, or AGOA (Title I, Trade and Development Act of 2000; P.L. 106–200) is a piece of legislation that was approved by the U.S. Congress in May 2000.
In international relations, aid (also known as international aid, overseas aid, foreign aid or foreign assistance) is – from the perspective of governments – a voluntary transfer of resources from one country to another.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Angus Maddison (6 December 1926 – 24 April 2010) was a British economist specialising in quantitative macroeconomic history, including the measurement and analysis of economic growth and development.
In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.
A basic income, also called basic income guarantee, universal basic income (UBI), basic living stipend (BLS) or universal demogrant, is a type of program in which citizens (or permanent residents) of a country may receive a regular sum of money from the government.
Binary economics, also known as Two-factor Economics, is a theory of economics that endorses both private property and a free market but proposes significant reforms to the banking system.
The bottom of the pyramid, bottom of the wealth pyramid or the bottom of the income pyramid is the largest, but poorest socio-economic group.
Brady bonds are dollar-denominated bonds, issued mostly by Latin American countries in the late 1980s.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
The capability approach (also referred to as the capabilities approach) is an economic theory conceived in the 1980s as an alternative approach to welfare economics.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.
Child mortality, also known as child death, refers to the death of children under the age of 14 and encompasses neonatal mortality, under-5 mortality, and mortality of children aged 5-14.
Climate change adaptation is a response to global warming and climate change, that seeks to reduce the vulnerability of social and biological systems to relatively sudden change and thus offset the effects of global warming.
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
Colombo (translit,; translit) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
A community currency is a type of complementary currency that is used by groups with a common bond, like members of a locality, or association, and designed to meet their needs.
Community economic development (CED) is a field of study that actively elicits community involvement when working with government, and private sectors to build strong communities, industries, and markets.
Community health is a major field of study within the medical and clinical sciences which focuses on the maintenance, protection, and improvement of the health status of population groups and communities.
Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs aim to reduce poverty by making welfare programs conditional upon the receivers' actions.
Copenhagen Consensus is a project that seeks to establish priorities for advancing global welfare using methodologies based on the theory of welfare economics, using cost–benefit analysis.
Corruption is a form of dishonesty undertaken by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit.
Debt relief or debt cancellation is the partial or total forgiveness of debt, or the slowing or stopping of debt growth, owed by individuals, corporations, or nations.
A deposit account is a savings account, current account or any other type of bank account that allows money to be deposited and withdrawn by the account holder.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid, official development assistance (ODA), or foreign aid) is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries.
Development economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low income countries.
Developmental state, or hard state, is a term used by international political economy scholars to refer to the phenomenon of state-led macroeconomic planning in East Asia in the late twentieth century.
Deworming (sometimes known as worming, drenching or "dehelmintization") is the giving of an anthelmintic drug (a wormer, dewormer, or drench) to a human or animal to rid them of helminths parasites, such as roundworm, flukes and tapeworm.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
The term digital rights describes the human rights that allow individuals to access, use, create, and publish digital media or to access and use computers, other electronic devices, or communications networks.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
The Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics (DGBAS) is a branch of the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China (Taiwan), performs the role of both a comptroller for the government and census bureau.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.
Donald Kimelman is an American journalist and former managing director of The Pew Charitable Trusts, who continues to serve on the Pew Research Center's board.
Ecological sanitation, commonly abbreviated to ecosan (also spelled eco-san or EcoSan), is an approach which is characterized by a desire to safely "close the loop" (mainly for the nutrients and organic matter) between sanitation and agriculture.
Economic freedom or economic liberty is the ability of people of a society to take economic actions.
Economic liberalization (or economic liberalisation) is the lessening of government regulations and restrictions in an economy in exchange for greater participation by private entities; the doctrine is associated with classical liberalism.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
The term empowerment refers to measures designed to increase the degree of autonomy and self-determination in people and in communities in order to enable them to represent their interests in a responsible and self-determined way, acting on their own authority.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
endPoverty.org is a faith-based 501(c)(3) non-profit organization whose mission is to empower the working poor in developing countries to lift themselves out of poverty.
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.
Environmental racism is a term used to describe environmental injustice within a racialized context.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Extreme poverty, abject poverty, absolute poverty, destitution, or penury, was originally defined by the United Nations in 1995 as "a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information.
Fair trade is a social movement whose stated goal is to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Fee-for-service (FFS) is a payment model where services are unbundled and paid for separately.
Feminization of poverty refers to the high and rising share of and among the world's poor.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
The Food Assistance Convention is an international treaty relating to food assistance.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
The Four Asian Tigers, Four Asian Dragons or Four Little Dragons, are the economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, which underwent rapid industrialization and maintained exceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7 percent a year) between the early 1960s (mid-1950s for Hong Kong) and 1990s.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
Gender inequality is the idea and situation that women and men are not equal.
Gender mainstreaming is the public policy concept of assessing the different implications for women and men of any planned policy action, including legislation and programmes, in all areas and levels.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
Noel Geoffrey Parker, FBA (born Nottingham, United Kingdom, 25 December 1943) is a British historian specialising in Spanish and military history of the early modern era.
Georgism, also called geoism and single tax (archaic), is an economic philosophy holding that, while people should own the value they produce themselves, economic value derived from land (including natural resources and natural opportunities) should belong equally to all members of society.
The global resources dividend (GRD) is a method of tackling global poverty advanced by the philosopher Thomas Pogge.
Global Witness is an international NGO established in 1993 that works to break the links between natural resource exploitation, conflict, poverty, corruption, and human rights abuses worldwide.
Good governance is an indeterminate term used in the international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources.
The Grameen Bank (গ্রামীণ বাংক) is a microfinance organisation and community development bank founded in Bangladesh.
Grameen Foundation, founded as Grameen Foundation USA, is a global 501(c)(3) non-profit organization based in Washington DC that works to help poor families increase their income, build their financial security, and protect their health using innovative, technology-based approaches and local partner networks.
The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution, refers to a set of research and the development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s (with prequels in the work of the agrarian geneticist Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and 1930s), that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.
The heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) are a group of 37 developing countries with high levels of poverty and debt overhang which are eligible for special assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.
Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist and journalist.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Human capital is a term popularized by Gary Becker, an economist and Nobel Laureate from the University of Chicago, and Jacob Mincer.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Humanitarianism is an active belief in the value of human life, whereby humans practice benevolent treatment and provide assistance to other humans, in order to better humanity for moral, altruistic and logical reasons.
The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) is an international financial institution and a specialized agency of the United Nations dedicated to eradicating rural poverty in Vietnam and other developing countries.
An incentive is something that motivates an individual to perform an action.
An inclusive business is a sustainable business that benefits low-income communities.
In economics, income distribution is how a nation’s total GDP is distributed amongst its population.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is an International organization which conducts agricultural research for rural development, headquartered in Patancheru (Hyderabad, Telangana, India) with several regional centers (Bamako (Mali), Nairobi (Kenya)) and research stations (Niamey (Niger), Kano (Nigeria), Lilongwe (Malawi), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Bulawayo (Zimbabwe)).
The International Day for the Eradication of Poverty is an international observance celebrated every year on October 17 throughout the world.
International finance (also referred to as international monetary economics or international macroeconomics) is the branch of financial economics broadly concerned with monetary and macroeconomic interrelations between two or more countries.
The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) is an international agricultural research center founded in the early 1970s to improve the understanding of national agricultural and food policies to promote the adoption of innovations in agricultural technology.
The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) (French: Fonds international de développement agricole; FIDA) (Italian: Fondo Internazionale per lo Sviluppo Agricolo) is an international financial institution and a specialised agency of the United Nations dedicated to eradicating poverty and hunger in rural areas of developing countries.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) is a non-profit research organisation with headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and offices across Africa and Asia.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Jeffrey David Sachs (born November 5, 1954) is an American economist and director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, where he holds the title of University Professor, the highest rank Columbia bestows on its faculty.
Kinmen or Quemoy (see also "Names" section below), officially Kinmen County, is a group of islands, governed by the Republic of China (ROC), which is located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China, including Great Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen, Wuqiu and several surrounding islets.
Land law is the form of law that deals with the rights to use, alienate, or exclude others from land.
A land/location value tax (LVT), also called a site valuation tax, split rate tax, or site-value rating, is an ad valorem levy on the unimproved value of land.
Levonorgestrel-releasing implant, sold under the brand name Jadelle among others, is a device made up of a two rods of levonorgestrel used for birth control.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
In economics, a local currency is a currency that can be spent in a particular geographical locality at participating organisations.
M-Pesa (M for mobile, pesa is Swahili for money) is a mobile phone-based money transfer, financing and microfinancing service, launched in 2007 by Vodafone for Safaricom and Vodacom, the largest mobile network operators in Kenya and Tanzania.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Make Poverty History is the name of organizations in a number of countries, which focus on issues relating to 8th Millennium Development Goal such as aid, trade and justice.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
Maternal death or maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes." There are two performance indicators that are sometimes used interchangeably: maternal mortality ratio and maternal mortality rate, which confusingly both are abbreviated "MMR".
Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
Maximo Torero (born 27 May 1967) is a Peruvian economist.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Medicaid in the United States is a joint federal and state program that helps with medical costs for some people with limited income and resources.
Microcredit is the extension of very small loans (microloans) to impoverished borrowers who typically lack collateral, steady employment, or a verifiable credit history.
Microeconomics (from Greek prefix mikro- meaning "small") is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources and the interactions among these individuals and firms.
Microfinance initially had a limited definition - the provision of microloans to poor entrepreneurs and small businesses lacking access to banking and related services.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
Mobile banking is a service provided by a bank or other financial institution that allows its customers to conduct financial transactions remotely using a mobile device such as a smartphone or tablet.
Money laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
A mosquito net offers protection against mosquitos, flies, and other insects, and thus against the diseases they may carry.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
National health insurance (NHI) – sometimes called statutory health insurance (SHI) – is a system of health insurance that insures a national population against the costs of health care.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
Pantheon Books is an American book publishing imprint with editorial independence.
Participatory economics, often abbreviated parecon, is an economic system based on participatory decision making as the primary economic mechanism for allocation in society.
Paul Polak is the co-founder and CEO of Windhorse International, a for-profit social venture with the mission of inspiring and leading a revolution in how companies design, price, market and distribute products to benefit the 2.6 billion customers who live on less than $2 a day.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Peter Albert David Singer, AC (born 6 July 1946) is an Australian moral philosopher.
In economics, physical capital or just capital is a factor of production (or input into the process of production), consisting of machinery, buildings, computers, and the like.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
The Poor People's Economic Human Rights Campaign (PPEHRC) is a coalition of grassroots organizations, community groups, and non-profit organizations in the United States of America committed to uniting the poor across color lines as the basis for a broad movement to abolish poverty.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
Poverty is a state of deprivation, lacking the usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions.
Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) are documents required by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank before a country can be considered for debt relief within the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative.
The poverty threshold, poverty limit or poverty line is the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a particular country.
A poverty trap is a self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist.
Private Sector Development (PSD) is a term in the international development industry to refer to a range of strategies for promoting economic growth and reducing poverty in developing countries by building private enterprises.
Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial Depressions and of Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth: The Remedy is an 1879 book by social theorist and economist Henry George.
A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.
Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local.
Rational-legal authority (also known as rational authority, legal authority, rational domination, legal domination, or bureaucratic authority) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to legal rationality, legal legitimacy and bureaucracy.
A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.
Redistribution of income and redistribution of wealth are respectively the transfer of income and of wealth (including physical property) from some individuals to others by means of a social mechanism such as taxation, charity, welfare, public services, land reform, monetary policies, confiscation, divorce or tort law.
A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in their home country.
The right to an adequate standard of living is recognized as a human right in international human rights instruments and is understood to establish a minimum entitlement to food, clothing and housing at an adequate level.
The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
Rural electrification is the process of bringing electrical power to rural and remote areas.
Safaricom Public Limited Company, is a leading mobile network operator in Kenya.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
A savings account is a deposit account held at a retail bank that pays interest but cannot be used directly as money in the narrow sense of a medium of exchange (for example, by writing a cheque).
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
A school meal or school lunch (also known as hot lunch, a school dinner, or school breakfast) is a meal provided to students at school, typically in the middle or beginning of the school day.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
Strategy (from Greek στρατηγία stratēgia, "art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship") is a high-level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a good collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations in 2015.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
Tax evasion is the illegal evasion of taxes by individuals, corporations, and trusts.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Life You Can Save: Acting Now to End World Poverty is a 2009 book by Australian philosopher Peter Singer, in which the author argues that citizens of affluent nations are behaving immorally if they do not act to end the poverty they know to exist in developing nations.
Theories on the causes of poverty are the foundation upon which poverty reduction strategies are based.
A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organisation that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.
Thomas Henry Greco Jr. (born October 9, 1936) is a community economist, who blogs, writes, and speaks on the subject of free market alternative currency and monetary systems.
Thomas Winfried Menko Pogge (born 13 August 1953) is a German philosopher and is the Director of the Global Justice Program and Leitner Professor of Philosophy and International Affairs at Yale University.
Tied aid is foreign aid that must be spent in the country providing the aid (the donor country) or in a group of selected countries.
The Toronto dollar was a paper local currency used in Toronto, Ontario from 1998-2013.
A transaction account, checking account, current account, demand deposit account, or share draft account (at credit unions) is a deposit account held at a bank or other financial institution.
A transition economy or transitional economy is an economy which is changing from a centrally planned economy to a market economy.
Tree-planting is the process of transplanting tree seedlings, generally for forestry, land reclamation, or landscaping purpose.
Trickle-down economics, also referred to as trickle-down theory, is an economic theory that advocates reducing taxes on businesses and the wealthy in society as a means to stimulate business investment in the short term and benefit society at large in the long term.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tuition payments, usually known as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in Commonwealth English, are fees charged by education institutions for instruction or other services.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) is "an autonomous research institute within the United Nations that undertakes multidisciplinary research and policy analysis on the social dimensions of contemporary development issues”.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen's Park.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
A wage is monetary compensation (or remuneration, personnel expenses, labor) paid by an employer to an employee in exchange for work done.
Wörgl is a city in the Austrian state of Tyrol, in the Kufstein district.
Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
The welfare trap (or unemployment trap or poverty trap in British English) theory asserts that taxation and welfare systems can jointly contribute to keep people on social insurance because the withdrawal of means-tested benefits that comes with entering low-paid work causes there to be no significant increase in total income.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.
Workforce productivity is the amount of goods and services that a worker produces in a given amount of time.
The working poor are working people whose incomes fall below a given poverty line due to lack of work hours and/or low wages.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
Military expenditure is the expenditure by a country’s government on their military forces, i.e. maintenance and operations, military research and development, Military aid, procurement, salaries, pensions, etc.
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