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Power (social and political)

Index Power (social and political)

In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people. [1]

176 relations: Abuse, Academic Press, Accountability, Adam Galinsky, Alfred Adler, American Psychological Association, Amity-enmity complex, Anti-globalization movement, Antonio Gramsci, Arab Spring, Authority, Authority bias, Étienne de La Boétie, Bertram Raven, Biologist, Biopolitics, Biopower, Björn Kraus, Bullying, Business, Bystander effect, Cambridge University Press, Capitalism, Centaur, Charisma, Chronemics, Coercion, Communism, Compliance (psychology), Constructivist epistemology, Cratology, Cultural hegemony, Culture of fear, Cycle of abuse, Denial, Destabilisation, Disability, Discourse of power, Disinformation, Divide and rule, Economic abuse, Emotional blackmail, Empathy, Empowerment, Enabling, Envy, Epistemology, Eric Liu, Expert, Expressions of dominance, ..., Feminism, Flattery, Friedrich Nietzsche, From Dictatorship to Democracy, Game theory, Gareth Morgan (author), Gaslighting, Gender identity, Gene Sharp, George Soros, Gift, Glossary of French expressions in English, Gratification, Guilt trip, Hard power, Harvard Business Review, Heterosexuality, Human sexuality, Humanism, Idealization and devaluation, Identification (psychology), Ideology, Images of Organization, Ingratiation, Injustice, Internalization, Intimate relationship, Intimidation, Isolation to facilitate abuse, Italy, Jean Baptiste Antoine Auget de Montyon, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, Joe L. Kincheloe, John Kenneth Galbraith, John R. P. French, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Management, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Keith Dowding, Knowledge economy, Leadership, Legitimacy (political), Legitimation, Leviathan (Hobbes book), Lie, List of sociologists, Love bombing, Loyalty, Machiavellianism, Male, Martin Buber, Marxism, Max Weber, Michel Foucault, Mind games, Minimisation (psychology), Nagging, Nation state, Nationalism, Neoclassical economics, Niccolò Machiavelli, Nonviolent resistance, Normalization (sociology), OmniScriptum, Patriotism, Personal boundaries, Persuasion, Physical abuse, Politics, Praise, Principle of least interest, Profanity, Propaganda, Psychological abuse, Psychological manipulation, Psychological projection, Psychology, Punishment (psychology), Race (human categorization), Rage (emotion), Rational choice theory, Rationalization (psychology), Reinforcement, Relational constructivism, Reserve army of labour, Reward system, Russia, SAGE Publications, Selfishness, Sexual abuse, Sigmund Freud, Silent treatment, Slobodan Milošević, Smile, Social actions, Social control, Social environment, Social exclusion, Social influence, Social science, Social skills, Social structure, Sociology, Soft power, Speaking truth to power, State collapse, Stewart Clegg, Structuralism, TED (conference), The Anatomy of Power, The Anatomy of Revolution, The Prince, Thomas Hobbes, Tim Gee, Traumatic bonding, Twin Research and Human Genetics, Uniform, Verbal abuse, Veto, Victim blaming, Western Europe, White people, Wiley-Blackwell, Will to power, Zero-sum game. Expand index (126 more) »


Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of an entity, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit.

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Academic Press

Academic Press is an academic book publisher.

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In ethics and governance, accountability is answerability, blameworthiness, liability, and the expectation of account-giving.

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Adam Galinsky

Adam Daniel Galinsky (born 1969) is an American social psychologist known for his research on leadership, power, negotiations, decision-making, diversity, and ethics.

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Alfred Adler

Alfred W. Adler(7 February 1870 – 28 May 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology.

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American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.

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Amity-enmity complex

The amity-enmity complex was a term introduced by Sir Arthur Keith.

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Anti-globalization movement

The anti-globalization movement, or counter-globalisation movement, is a social movement critical of economic globalization.

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Antonio Gramsci

Antonio Francesco Gramsci (22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxist philosopher and politician.

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Arab Spring

The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.

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Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).

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Authority bias

Authority bias is the tendency to attribute greater accuracy to the opinion of an authority figure (unrelated to its content) and be more influenced by that opinion.

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Étienne de La Boétie

Étienne or Estienne de La Boétie (or in local occitan Périgord dialect; 1 November 1530 – 18 August 1563) was a French judge, writer and "a founder of modern political philosophy in France".

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Bertram Raven

Bertram H. Raven (born September 26, 1926) is an American academic, who has been a member of the faculty of the Psychology Department at UCLA since 1956, where he is currently a professor emeritus.

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A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.

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Biopolitics is an intersectional field between biology and politics.

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Biopower (or biopouvoir in French) is a term coined by French scholar, historian, and social theorist Michel Foucault.

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Björn Kraus

Björn Kraus (born 1969) is a German philosopher, who unfolds epistemological theories for social work.

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Bullying is the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate or aggressively dominate others.

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Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).

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Bystander effect

The bystander effect, or bystander apathy, is a social psychological phenomenon in which individuals are less likely to offer help to a victim when other people are present.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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A centaur (Κένταυρος, Kéntauros), or occasionally hippocentaur, is a mythological creature with the upper body of a human and the lower body and legs of a horse.

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The term charisma (pl. charismata, adj. charismatic) has two senses.

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Chronemics is the study of the role of time in communication.

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Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.

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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

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Compliance (psychology)

Compliance refers to a response—specifically, a submission—made in reaction to a request.

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Constructivist epistemology

Constructivist epistemology is a branch in philosophy of science maintaining that scientific knowledge is constructed by the scientific community, who seek to measure and construct models of the natural world.

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Cratology, from the Greek cratos ("strength") and logos (discourse) is the art and science of (social) power (crasis, in Greek): the theory of authority, core ability to lead, rule or manage people - a key phenomenon in the life of man, society and state.

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Cultural hegemony

In Marxist philosophy, cultural hegemony is the domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class who manipulate the culture of that society—the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and mores—so that their imposed, ruling-class worldview becomes the accepted cultural norm; the universally valid dominant ideology, which justifies the social, political, and economic status quo as natural and inevitable, perpetual and beneficial for everyone, rather than as artificial social constructs that benefit only the ruling class.

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Culture of fear

Popularized by the American sociologist Barry Glassner, culture of fear (or climate of fear) is the concept that people may incite fear in the general public to achieve political or workplace goals through emotional bias.

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Cycle of abuse

The cycle of abuse is a social cycle theory developed in 1979 by Lenore E. Walker to explain patterns of behavior in an abusive relationship.

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Denial, in ordinary English usage, is asserting that a statement or allegation is not true.

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The word destabilisation can be applied to a wide variety of contexts such as attempts to undermine political, military or economic power.

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A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.

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Discourse of power

The discourse of power is used when it comes to differentiating the levels of power due to cultural and social characteristics that come about through societal upbringing.

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Disinformation is false information spread deliberately to deceive.

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Divide and rule

Divide and rule (or divide and conquer, from Latin dīvide et imperā) in politics and sociology is gaining and maintaining power by breaking up larger concentrations of power into pieces that individually have less power than the one implementing the strategy.

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Economic abuse

Economic abuse is a form of abuse when one intimate partner has control over the other partner's access to economic resources, which diminishes the victim's capacity to support him/herself and forces him/her to depend on the perpetrator financially.

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Emotional blackmail

Emotional blackmail and FOG (Fear, obligation or guilt), terms coined by psychotherapist Susan Forward, are about controlling people in relationships and the theory that fear, obligation and guilt ("FOG") are the transactional dynamics at play between the controller and the person being controlled.

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Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.

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The term empowerment refers to measures designed to increase the degree of autonomy and self-determination in people and in communities in order to enable them to represent their interests in a responsible and self-determined way, acting on their own authority.

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In psychotherapy and mental health, enabling has a positive sense of empowering individuals, or a negative sense of encouraging dysfunctional behavior.

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Envy (from Latin invidia) is an emotion which "occurs when a person lacks another's superior quality, achievement, or possession and either desires it or wishes that the other lacked it".

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Eric Liu

Eric P. Liu (born 1968) is an American writer and founder of Citizen University.

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An expert is someone who has a prolonged or intense experience through practice and education in a particular field.

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Expressions of dominance

Power and dominance-submission are two key dimensions of relationships, especially close relationships in which parties rely on one another to achieve their goals and as such it is important to be able to identify indicators of dominance.

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Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.

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Flattery (also called adulation or blandishment) is the act of giving excessive compliments, generally for the purpose of ingratiating oneself with the subject.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.

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From Dictatorship to Democracy

From Dictatorship to Democracy, A Conceptual Framework for Liberation is a book-length essay on the generic problem of how to destroy a dictatorship and to prevent the rise of a new one.

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Game theory

Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".

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Gareth Morgan (author)

Gareth Morgan (born 22 December 1943) is a British/Canadian organizational theorist, management consultant and Distinguished Research Professor at York University in Toronto.

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Gaslighting is a form of psychological manipulation that seeks to sow seeds of doubt in a targeted individual or in members of a targeted group, making them question their own memory, perception, and sanity.

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Gender identity

Gender identity is one's personal experience of one's own gender.

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Gene Sharp

Gene Sharp (January 21, 1928 – January 28, 2018) was the founder of the Albert Einstein Institution, a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the study of nonviolent action, and a retired professor of political science at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.

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George Soros

George Soros, Hon (Soros György,; born György Schwartz; August 12, 1930) is a Hungarian-American investor, business magnate, philanthropist, political activist and author.

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A gift or a present is an item given to someone without the expectation of payment or return.

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Glossary of French expressions in English

Around 45% of English vocabulary is of French origin, most coming from the Anglo-Norman spoken by the upper classes in England for several hundred years after the Norman Conquest, before the language settled into what became Modern English.

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Gratification is the pleasurable emotional reaction of happiness in response to a fulfillment of a desire or goal.

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Guilt trip

A guilt trip is a feeling of guilt or responsibility, especially an unjustified one induced by someone else.

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Hard power

Hard power is the use of military and economic means to influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies.

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Harvard Business Review

Harvard Business Review (HBR) is a general management magazine published by Harvard Business Publishing, a wholly owned subsidiary of Harvard University.

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Heterosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between persons of the opposite sex or gender.

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Human sexuality

Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.

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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

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Idealization and devaluation

In psychoanalytic theory, when an individual is unable to integrate difficult feelings, specific defenses are mobilized to overcome what the individual perceives as an unbearable situation.

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Identification (psychology)

Identification is a psychological process whereby the subject assimilates an aspect, property, or attribute of the other and is transformed wholly or partially, by the model that other provides.

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An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.

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Images of Organization

Images of Organization is a bestseller book by Gareth Morgan, professor of organizational behavior and industrial relations at the Schulich School of Business at York University in Toronto, which attempts to unveil organization via a number of metaphors.

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Ingratiation is a psychological technique in which an individual attempts to influence another person by becoming more likeable to their target.

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Injustice is a quality relating to unfairness or undeserved outcomes.

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Internalization (or internalisation) has different definitions depending on the field that the term is used in.

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Intimate relationship

An intimate relationship is an interpersonal relationship that involves physical or emotional intimacy.

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Intimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior that "would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" to fear injury or harm.

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Isolation to facilitate abuse

Isolation (physical, social or emotional) is often used to facilitate power and control over someone for an abusive purpose.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jean Baptiste Antoine Auget de Montyon

Antoine Jean Baptiste Robert Auget, Baron de Montyon (23 December 173329 December 1820) was a French philanthropist, born in Paris.

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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist.

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Jessica Kingsley Publishers

Jessica Kingsley Publishers (JKP) is an independent, multinational publishing house headquartered in London, and founded in 1987 by Jessica Kingsley.

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Joe L. Kincheloe

Joe Lyons Kincheloe (December 14, 1950 – December 19, 2008) was a professor and Canada Research Chair at the Faculty of Education, McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada and founder of The Paulo and Nita Freire International Project for Critical Pedagogy.

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John Kenneth Galbraith

John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908 - April 29, 2006), also known as Ken Galbraith, was a Canadian-born economist, public official, and diplomat, and a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalism.

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John R. P. French

John R. P. French Jr. (7 August 1913 – 14 October 1995) was a Professor Emeritus in psychology from the University of Michigan.

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Journal of Applied Social Psychology

The Journal of Applied Social Psychology is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal.

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Journal of Management

The Journal of Management is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by SAGE Publications for the Southern Management Association and covering research on all aspects of management as well as the related field of industrial and organizational psychology.

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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Psychological Association that was established in 1965.

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Keith Dowding

Keith Martin Dowding (born 6 May 1960), is Professor of Political Science in Research School of Social Sciences at the Australian National University, Canberra, Australia arriving from the London School of Economics, UK in 2007.

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Knowledge economy

The knowledge economy is the use of knowledge (savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être) to generate tangible and intangible values.

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Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.

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Legitimacy (political)

In political science, legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.

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Legitimation or legitimisation is the act of providing legitimacy.

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Leviathan (Hobbes book)

Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil—commonly referred to as Leviathan—is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651 (revised Latin edition 1668). Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Leviathan ranks as a classic western work on statecraft comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince. Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Hobbes wrote that civil war and the brute situation of a state of nature ("the war of all against all") could only be avoided by strong, undivided government.

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A lie is a statement used intentionally for the purpose of deception.

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List of sociologists

This is a list of sociologists.

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Love bombing

Love bombing is an attempt to influence a person by demonstrations of attention and affection.

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Loyalty, in general use, is a devotion and faithfulness to a nation, cause, philosophy, country, group, or person.

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Machiavellianism is "the employment of cunning and duplicity in statecraft or in general conduct".

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A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.

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Martin Buber

Martin Buber (מרטין בובר; Martin Buber; מארטין בובער; February 8, 1878 – June 13, 1965) was an Austrian-born Israeli Jewish philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form of existentialism centered on the distinction between the I–Thou relationship and the I–It relationship.

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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Max Weber

Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.

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Michel Foucault

Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.

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Mind games

Mind games is used to define three forms of competitive human behaviors.

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Minimisation (psychology)

Minimisation is a type of deceptionGuerrero, L., Anderson, P., Afifi, W. (2007).

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Nagging, in interpersonal communication, is repetitious behaviour in the form of pestering, hectoring, or otherwise continuously urging an individual to complete previously discussed requests or act on advice.

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Nation state

A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.

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Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

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Neoclassical economics

Neoclassical economics is an approach to economics focusing on the determination of goods, outputs, and income distributions in markets through supply and demand.

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Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.

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Nonviolent resistance

Nonviolent resistance (NVR or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, or other methods, while being nonviolent.

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Normalization (sociology)

Normalization refers to social processes through which ideas and actions come to be seen as 'normal' and become taken-for-granted or 'natural' in everyday life.

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Omniscriptum Publishing Group, formerly known as VDM Verlag Dr.

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Patriotism or national pride is the ideology of love and devotion to a homeland, and a sense of alliance with other citizens who share the same values.

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Personal boundaries

Personal boundaries are guidelines, rules or limits that a person creates to identify reasonable, safe and permissible ways for other people to behave towards them and how they will respond when someone passes those limits.

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Persuasion is an umbrella term of influence.

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Physical abuse

Physical abuse is any intentional act causing injury or trauma to another person or animal by way of bodily contact.

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Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.

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Praise is a form of social interaction expressing recognition, reassurance or admiration.

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Principle of least interest

The Principle of least interest is the idea in sociology that the person or group that has the least amount of interest in continuing a relationship has the most power over it.

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Profanity is socially offensive language, which may also be called swear words, curse words, cuss words, bad language, strong language, offensive language, crude language, coarse language, foul language, bad words, oaths, blasphemous language, vulgar language, lewd language, choice words, or expletives.

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Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.

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Psychological abuse

Psychological abuse (also referred to as psychological violence, emotional abuse, or mental abuse) is a form of abuse, characterized by a person subjecting, or exposing, another person to behavior that may result in psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder.

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Psychological manipulation

Psychological manipulation is a type of social influence that aims to change the behavior or perception of others through abusive, deceptive, or underhanded tactics.

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Psychological projection

Psychological projection is a theory in psychology in which humans defend themselves against their own unconscious impulses or qualities (both positive and negative) by denying their existence in themselves while attributing them to others.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Punishment (psychology)

In operant conditioning, punishment is any change in a human or animal's surroundings that occurs after a given behavior or response which reduces the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future.

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Race (human categorization)

A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.

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Rage (emotion)

Rage (often called fury or frenzy) is a feeling of intense, violent, or growing anger.

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Rational choice theory

Rational choice theory, also known as choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior.

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Rationalization (psychology)

In psychology and logic, rationalization or rationalisation (also known as making excuses) is a defense mechanism in which controversial behaviors or feelings are justified and explained in a seemingly rational or logical manner to avoid the true explanation, and are made consciously tolerable—or even admirable and superior—by plausible means.

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In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.

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Relational constructivism

Relational constructivism can be perceived as a relational consequence of the radical constructivism.

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Reserve army of labour

Reserve army of labour is a concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy.

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Reward system

The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Selfishness is being concerned excessively or exclusively, for oneself or one's own advantage, pleasure, or welfare, regardless of others.

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Sexual abuse

Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is usually undesired sexual behavior by one person upon another.

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

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Silent treatment

The silent treatment is the refusal of somebody to speak to another person or persons and is often referred to as sulking.

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Slobodan Milošević

Slobodan Milošević (Слободан Милошевић; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician and the President of Serbia (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000.

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A smile is a facial expression formed primarily by flexing the muscles at the sides of the mouth.

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Social actions

In sociology, social action, also known as "Weberian social action", refers to an act which takes into account the actions and reactions of individuals (or 'agents').

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Social control

Social control is a concept within the disciplines of the social sciences.

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Social environment

The social environment, social context, sociocultural context or milieu refers to the immediate physical and social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops.

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Social exclusion

Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.

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Social influence

Social influence occurs when a person's emotions, opinions, or behaviors are affected by others.

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Social science

Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.

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Social skills

A social skill is any competence facilitating interaction and communication with others where social rules and relations are created, communicated, and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways.

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Social structure

In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.

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Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Soft power

Soft power is the ability to attract and co-opt, rather than by coercion (hard power), which is using force or giving money as a means of persuasion.

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Speaking truth to power

Speaking truth to power is a non-violent political tactic, employed by dissidents against the received wisdom or propaganda of governments they regard as oppressive, authoritarian or an ideocracy.

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State collapse

State collapse, breakdown, or downfall is the complete failure of a mode of government within a sovereign state.

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Stewart Clegg

Stewart Clegg (born 1947, Bradford) is a British-born Australian sociologist and organizational theorist and Professor at University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), where he is also Research Director of CMOS (Centre for Management and Organisation Studies).

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In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.

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TED (conference)

TED Conferences, LLC (Technology, Entertainment, Design) is a media organization that posts talks online for free distribution, under the slogan "ideas worth spreading".

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The Anatomy of Power

The Anatomy of Power is a 1983 book by Harvard economist John Kenneth Galbraith.

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The Anatomy of Revolution

The Anatomy of Revolution is a 1938 book by Crane Brinton outlining the "uniformities" of four major political revolutions: the English Revolution of the 1640s, the American, the French, and the 1917 Russian Revolution.

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The Prince

The Prince (Il Principe) is a 16th-century political treatise by the Italian diplomat and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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Tim Gee

Tim Gee is a writer and political activist in the United Kingdom, who popularised the concept of counterpower, and has written about the Occupy Movement.

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Traumatic bonding

Traumatic bonding occurs as the result of ongoing cycles of abuse in which the intermittent reinforcement of reward and punishment creates powerful emotional bonds that are resistant to change.

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Twin Research and Human Genetics

Twin Research and Human Genetics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published bimonthly by the Cambridge University Press.

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A uniform is a type of clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity.

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Verbal abuse

Verbal abuse (verbal attack or verbal assault) is when a person forcefully criticizes, insults, or denounces someone else.

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A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.

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Victim blaming

Victim blaming occurs when the victim of a crime or any wrongful act is held entirely or partially at fault for the harm that befell them.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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White people

White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.

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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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Will to power

The will to power (der Wille zur Macht) is a prominent concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.

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Zero-sum game

In game theory and economic theory, a zero-sum game is a mathematical representation of a situation in which each participant's gain or loss of utility is exactly balanced by the losses or gains of the utility of the other participants.

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Bases of power, Counter-power, Counterpower, Cyber-power literacy, Personal power, Political power, Position of power, Positions of power, Powah, Power (evil), Power (philosophy), Power (political), Power (politics), Power (social), Power (sociology), Power control theory, Power illiteracy, Power in interpersonal communication, Power literacy, Powercontrol theory, Public power, Social power, Socio-political power.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_(social_and_political)

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