96 relations: Air conditioning, Alternating current, Ampere hour, Antiparallel (electronics), Balance of system, Boost converter, Brushless DC electric motor, Bug zapper, Capacitor, CCFL inverter, Compressor, Control system, Current source, Daisy chain (electrical engineering), Diode, Direct current, Duality (electrical circuits), Electric battery, Electric power, Electric power conversion, Electrical grid, Electrical resonance, Electronic filter, Electroshock weapon, Flyback diode, Fourier analysis, Frequency, Fuel cell, Gas-filled tube, Grid-connected photovoltaic power system, Grid-tie inverter, Ground (electricity), H bridge, Hertz, High-voltage direct current, HVDC converter station, Induction heating, Induction motor, Inductor, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Insulated-gate bipolar transistor, Inverter compressor, Islanding, LC circuit, Low-pass filter, Maximum power point tracking, Mercury-arc valve, Microcontroller, MOSFET, Motor–generator, ..., Periodic function, Photovoltaic system, Photovoltaics, Pulse-width modulation, Push–pull converter, Rectifier, Refrigeration, Regenerative brake, Resonance, Resonant inverter, Root mean square, Rotary converter, Semiconductor, Series and parallel circuits, Silicon controlled rectifier, Sine wave, Solar inverter, Solar micro-inverter, Solid-state electronics, Space vector modulation, Square wave, Switched-mode power supply, Synchronverter, Taser, Tattoo machine, Three-phase electric power, Thyratron, Thyristor, Topology (electrical circuits), Total harmonic distortion, Transformer, Transformer types, Transistor, Uninterruptible power supply, Utility frequency, Vacuum tube, Variable refrigerant flow, Variable-frequency drive, Vibrator (electronic), Voltage, Voltage multiplier, Voltage regulator, Voltage source, Watt, Waveform, Z-source inverter. Expand index (46 more) » « Shrink index
Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.
Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.
An ampere hour or amp hour (symbol Ah; also denoted A⋅h or A h) is a unit of electric charge, having dimensions of electric current multiplied by time, equal to the charge transferred by a steady current of one ampere flowing for one hour, or 3600 coulombs.
In electronics, two anti-parallel or inverse-parallel devices are connected in parallel but with their polarities reversed.
The balance of system (BOS) encompasses all components of a photovoltaic system other than the photovoltaic panels.
A boost converter (step-up converter) is a DC-to-DC power converter that steps up voltage (while stepping down current) from its input (supply) to its output (load).
Brushless DC electric motor (BLDC motors, BL motors) also known as electronically commutated motors (ECMs, EC motors), or synchronous DC motors, are synchronous motors powered by DC electricity via an inverter or switching power supply which produces an AC electric current to drive each phase of the motor via a closed loop controller.
A bug zapper, more formally called an electrical discharge insect control system, electric insect killer or (insect) electrocutor trap, is a device that attracts and kills flying insects that are attracted by light.
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.
A CCFL inverter is an electrical inverter that supplies alternating current power to a cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL).
A compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume.
A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loops.
A current source is an electronic circuit that delivers or absorbs an electric current which is independent of the voltage across it.
In electrical and electronic engineering a daisy chain is a wiring scheme in which multiple devices are wired together in sequence or in a ring.
A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
In electrical engineering, electrical terms are associated into pairs called duals.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.
In electrical engineering, power engineering, and the electric power industry, power conversion is converting electric energy from one form to another such as converting between AC and DC; or changing the voltage or frequency; or some combination of these.
An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers.
Electrical resonance occurs in an electric circuit at a particular resonant frequency when the imaginary parts of impedances or admittances of circuit elements cancel each other.
Electronic filters are circuits which perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both.
An electroshock weapon is an incapacitating weapon.
A flyback diode is a diode connected across an inductor used to eliminate flyback, which is the sudden voltage spike seen across an inductive load when its supply current is suddenly reduced or interrupted.
In mathematics, Fourier analysis is the study of the way general functions may be represented or approximated by sums of simpler trigonometric functions.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
A gas-filled tube, also known as a discharge tube, is an arrangement of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope.
A grid-connected photovoltaic power system, or grid-connected PV power system is an electricity generating solar PV power system that is connected to the utility grid.
A grid-tie inverter converts direct current (DC) into an alternating current (AC) suitable for injecting into an electrical power grid, normally 120V RMS at 60Hz or 240V RMS at 50 Hz.
In electrical engineering, ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the earth.
An H bridge is an electronic circuit that enables a voltage to be applied across a load in opposite direction.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
A high-voltage, direct current (HVDC) electric power transmission system (also called a power superhighway or an electrical superhighway) uses direct current for the bulk transmission of electrical power, in contrast with the more common alternating current (AC) systems.
An HVDC converter station (or simply converter station) is a specialised type of substation which forms the terminal equipment for a high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line.
Induction heating is the process of heating an electrically conducting object (usually a metal) by electromagnetic induction, through heat generated in the object by eddy currents.
An induction motor or asynchronous motor is an AC electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator winding.
An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
An insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is a three-terminal power semiconductor device primarily used as an electronic switch which, as it was developed, came to combine high efficiency and fast switching.
An inverter compressor is a gas compressor that is operated with an inverter.
Islanding is the condition in which a distributed generator (DG) continues to power a location even though electrical grid power is no longer present.
An LC circuit, also called a resonant circuit, tank circuit, or tuned circuit, is an electric circuit consisting of an inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C, connected together.
A low-pass filter (LPF) is a filter that passes signals with a frequency lower than a certain cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency.
Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) or sometimes just power point tracking (PPT)) is a technique used commonly with wind turbines and photovoltaic (PV) solar systems to maximize power extraction under all conditions. Although solar power is mainly covered, the principle applies generally to sources with variable power: for example, optical power transmission and thermophotovoltaics. PV solar systems exist in many different configurations with regard to their relationship to inverter systems, external grids, battery banks, or other electrical loads. Regardless of the ultimate destination of the solar power, though, the central problem addressed by MPPT is that the efficiency of power transfer from the solar cell depends on both the amount of sunlight falling on the solar panels and the electrical characteristics of the load. As the amount of sunlight varies, the load characteristic that gives the highest power transfer efficiency changes, so that the efficiency of the system is optimized when the load characteristic changes to keep the power transfer at highest efficiency. This load characteristic is called the maximum power point (MPP) and MPPT is the process of finding this point and keeping the load characteristic there. Electrical circuits can be designed to present arbitrary loads to the photovoltaic cells and then convert the voltage, current, or frequency to suit other devices or systems, and MPPT solves the problem of choosing the best load to be presented to the cells in order to get the most usable power out. Solar cells have a complex relationship between temperature and total resistance that produces a non-linear output efficiency which can be analyzed based on the I-V curve. It is the purpose of the MPPT system to sample the output of the PV cells and apply the proper resistance (load) to obtain maximum power for any given environmental conditions. MPPT devices are typically integrated into an electric power converter system that provides voltage or current conversion, filtering, and regulation for driving various loads, including power grids, batteries, or motors.
A mercury-arc valve or mercury-vapor rectifier or (UK) mercury-arc rectifier is a type of electrical rectifier used for converting high-voltage or high-current alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC).
A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.
MOSFET showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (white). surface-mount packages. Operating as switches, each of these components can sustain a blocking voltage of 120nbspvolts in the ''off'' state, and can conduct a continuous current of 30 amperes in the ''on'' state, dissipating up to about 100 watts and controlling a load of over 2000 watts. A matchstick is pictured for scale. A cross-section through an nMOSFET when the gate voltage ''V''GS is below the threshold for making a conductive channel; there is little or no conduction between the terminals drain and source; the switch is off. When the gate is more positive, it attracts electrons, inducing an ''n''-type conductive channel in the substrate below the oxide, which allows electrons to flow between the ''n''-doped terminals; the switch is on. Simulation result for formation of inversion channel (electron density) and attainment of threshold voltage (IV) in a nanowire MOSFET. Note that the threshold voltage for this device lies around 0.45 V The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon.
A motor–generator (an M–G set) is a device for converting electrical power to another form.
In mathematics, a periodic function is a function that repeats its values in regular intervals or periods.
A photovoltaic system, also PV system or solar power system, is a power system designed to supply usable solar power by means of photovoltaics.
Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.
Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a modulation technique used to encode a message into a pulsing signal.
A push–pull converter is a type of DC-to-DC converter, a switching converter that uses a transformer to change the voltage of a DC power supply.
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction.
Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir.
Regenerative braking is an energy recovery mechanism which slows a vehicle or object by converting its kinetic energy into a form which can be either used immediately or stored until needed.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
Resonant inverters are electrical inverters based on resonant current oscillation.
In statistics and its applications, the root mean square (abbreviated RMS or rms) is defined as the square root of the mean square (the arithmetic mean of the squares of a set of numbers).
A rotary converter is a type of electrical machine which acts as a mechanical rectifier, inverter or frequency converter.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Components of an electrical circuit or electronic circuit can be connected in many different ways.
A silicon controlled rectifier or semiconductor-controlled rectifier is a four-layer solid-state current-controlling device.
A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.
A solar inverter or PV inverter, is a type of electrical converter which converts the variable direct current (DC) output of a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel into a utility frequency alternating current (AC) that can be fed into a commercial electrical grid or used by a local, off-grid electrical network.
A solar micro-inverter, or simply microinverter, is a plug-and-play device used in photovoltaics, that converts direct current (DC) generated by a single solar module to alternating current (AC).
Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics; electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as semiconductor diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs).
Space vector modulation (SVM) is an algorithm for the control of pulse width modulation (PWM).
A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values, with the same duration at minimum and maximum.
A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply, switch-mode power supply, switched power supply, SMPS, or switcher) is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently.
Synchronverters or virtual synchronous generators are inverters which mimic synchronous generators to provide "synthetic inertia" for ancillary services in electric power systems.
A Taser is a brand of electroshock weapon sold by Axon.
A tattoo machine is a hand-held device generally used to create a tattoo, a permanent marking of the skin with indelible ink.
Three-phase electric power is a common method of alternating current electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.
A thyratron is a type of gas-filled tube used as a high-power electrical switch and controlled rectifier.
A thyristor is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating P- and N-type materials.
The topology of an electronic circuit is the form taken by the network of interconnections of the circuit components.
The total harmonic distortion (THD) is a measurement of the harmonic distortion present in a signal and is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental frequency.
A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.
A variety of types of electrical transformer are made for different purposes.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
An uninterruptible power supply or uninterruptible power source (UPS) is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source or mains power fails.
The utility frequency, (power) line frequency (American English) or mains frequency (British English) is the nominal frequency of the oscillations of alternating current (AC) in an electric power grid transmitted from a power station to the end-user.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
Variable refrigerant flow (VRF), also known as variable refrigerant volume (VRV), is an HVAC technology invented by Daikin Industries, Ltd.
A variable-frequency drive (VFD; also termed adjustable-frequency drive, “variable-voltage/variable-frequency (VVVF) drive”, variable speed drive, AC drive, micro drive or inverter drive) is a type of adjustable-speed drive used in electro-mechanical drive systems to control AC motor speed and torque by varying motor input frequency and voltage.
In electronics before the development of switch-mode power supplies and the introduction of semiconductor devices operating off low voltage, there was a requirement to generate voltages of about 50 to 250V DC from vehicle batteries.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
Villard cascade voltage multiplier. A voltage multiplier is an electrical circuit that converts AC electrical power from a lower voltage to a higher DC voltage, typically using a network of capacitors and diodes.
A voltage regulator is an electronic circuit that provides a stable DC voltage independent of the load current, temperature and AC line voltage variations.
A voltage source is a two-terminal device which can maintain a fixed voltage.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
A waveform is the shape and form of a signal such as a wave moving in a physical medium or an abstract representation.
A Z-source inverter is a type of power inverter, a circuit that converts direct current to alternating current.
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