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# Poynting vector

In physics, the Poynting vector represents the directional energy flux (the energy transfer per unit area per unit time) of an electromagnetic field. 

## Abraham–Minkowski controversy

The Abraham–Minkowski controversy is a physics debate concerning electromagnetic momentum within dielectric media.

## Coaxial cable

Cross-sectional view of a coaxial cable Coaxial cable, or coax (pronounced), is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield.

## Curl (mathematics)

In vector calculus, the curl is a vector operator that describes the infinitesimal rotation of a vector field in three-dimensional Euclidean space.

## Current density

In electromagnetism, current density is the electric current per unit area of cross section.

## Dielectric

A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.

## Dispersion (optics)

In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.

## Dissipation

Dissipation is the result of an irreversible process that takes place in homogeneous thermodynamic systems.

## Divergence

In vector calculus, divergence is a vector operator that produces a scalar field, giving the quantity of a vector field's source at each point.

## Electric displacement field

In physics, the electric displacement field, denoted by D, is a vector field that appears in Maxwell's equations.

## Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

## Electrical conductor

In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.

## Electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.

## Energy flux

Energy flux is the rate of transfer of energy through a surface.

## Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.

## Impedance of free space

The impedance of free space,, is a physical constant relating the magnitudes of the electric and magnetic fields of electromagnetic radiation travelling through free space.

## Insulator (electricity)

An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.

## Intensity (physics)

In physics, intensity is the power transferred per unit area, where the area is measured on the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the energy.

## International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

## John Henry Poynting

John Henry Poynting (9 September 185230 March 1914) was an English physicist.

## Joule heating

Joule heating, also known as Ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor produces heat.

## Linear polarization

In electrodynamics, linear polarization or plane polarization of electromagnetic radiation is a confinement of the electric field vector or magnetic field vector to a given plane along the direction of propagation.

## Lorentz force

In physics (particularly in electromagnetism) the Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields.

## Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

## Momentum

In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

## Nikolay Umov

Nikolay Alekseevich Umov (Никола́й Алексе́евич У́мов; January 23, 1846 – January 15, 1915) was a Russian physicist and mathematician known for discovering the concept of Umov-Poynting vector and Umov effect.

## Permeability (electromagnetism)

In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself.

## Permittivity

In electromagnetism, absolute permittivity, often simply called permittivity, usually denoted by the Greek letter ε (epsilon), is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium.

## Phasor

In physics and engineering, a phasor (a portmanteau of phase vector), is a complex number representing a sinusoidal function whose amplitude (A), angular frequency (ω), and initial phase (θ) are time-invariant.

## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

## Plane wave

In the physics of wave propagation, a plane wave (also spelled planewave) is a wave whose wavefronts (surfaces of constant phase) are infinite parallel planes.

## Poynting's theorem

In electrodynamics, Poynting's theorem is a statement of conservation of energy for the electromagnetic field, in the form of a partial differential equation, due to the British physicist John Henry Poynting.

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface due to the exchange of momentum between the object and the electromagnetic field.

## Root mean square

In statistics and its applications, the root mean square (abbreviated RMS or rms) is defined as the square root of the mean square (the arithmetic mean of the squares of a set of numbers).

## Sine wave

A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.

## Snell's law

Snell's law (also known as Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water, glass, or air.

## Special relativity

In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

## Standing wave

In physics, a standing wave – also known as a stationary wave – is a wave which oscillates in time but whose peak amplitude profile does not move in space.

## Stress–energy tensor

The stress–energy tensor (sometimes stress–energy–momentum tensor or energy–momentum tensor) is a tensor quantity in physics that describes the density and flux of energy and momentum in spacetime, generalizing the stress tensor of Newtonian physics.

## Surface integral

In mathematics, a surface integral is a generalization of multiple integrals to integration over surfaces.

## Vacuum permeability

The physical constant μ0, (pronounced "mu naught" or "mu zero"), commonly called the vacuum permeability, permeability of free space, permeability of vacuum, or magnetic constant, is an ideal, (baseline) physical constant, which is the value of magnetic permeability in a classical vacuum.

## Vacuum permittivity

The physical constant (pronounced as "epsilon nought"), commonly called the vacuum permittivity, permittivity of free space or electric constant, is an ideal, (baseline) physical constant, which is the value of the absolute dielectric permittivity of classical vacuum.

## Watt

The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

## References

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