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The autostrada A2 in Poland is a motorway which runs from west to east through central Poland, from the Polish-German border in Świecko/Frankfurt, where it connects to the German A12 autobahn, through Poznań and Łódź to Warsaw.
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Uniwersytet im., Polish abbreviation UAM) is one of the major Polish universities, located in the city of Poznań, Greater Poland, in the west of the country.
The administrative division of Poland since 1999 has been based on three levels of subdivision.
Rabbi Akiva Eger (also spelled as Akiva Eiger), or Akiva Güns, עקיבא אייגער, (Eisenstadt, 1761Poznań, 1837) was an outstanding Talmudic scholar, influential halakhic decisor and foremost leader of European Jewry during the early 19th century.
Alfred Josef Ferdinand Jodl (10 May 1890 – 16 October 1946) was a German general during World War II, who served as the Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht).
Allegro is a Polish online e-commerce platform.
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.
The American Indian Wars (or Indian Wars) is the collective name for the various armed conflicts fought by European governments and colonists, and later the United States government and American settlers, against various American Indian tribes.
Andrzej Niegolewski (1787-1857) was a Polish colonel during the Napoleonic Wars, member of parliament and a shareholder of the Poznan Bazar.
Anna Anderson (16 December 1896 – 12 February 1984) was the best known of several impostors who claimed to be Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia.
Anna Jantar-Kukulska (born Anna Maria Szmeterling; 10 June 1950 – 14 March 1980) was a Polish singer and the mother of singer Natalia Kukulska.
Anna Wolff-Powęska (born 1941) is a Polish historian and political scientist specialising in Polish-German relations.
Antoni Czubiński (22 November 1928 in Konin, Poland – 10 February 2003 in Poznań, Poland) was a Polish historian and director of the Western Institute (Instytut Zachodni) in Poznań from 1978 to 1990.
Antoni Kraszewski (1797-1870) was a Polish politician and parliamentarian.
Prince Antoni Henryk Radziwiłł (13 June 1775 – 7 April 1833) was a Polish and Prussian noble, aristocrat, musician and politician.
Arkadiusz Głowacki (born 13 March 1979 in Poznań) is a retired Polish footballer who played as a defender.
Arthur Karl Greiser (22 January 1897 – 21 July 1946) was a Nazi German politician, SS-Obergruppenführer and Reichsstatthalter (Reich Governor) of the German-occupied territory of Wartheland.
Arthur Liebehenschel (25 November 1901 – 24 January 1948) was a commandant at the Auschwitz and Majdanek concentration camps during World War II.
Assen is a municipality and a city in the northeastern Netherlands, and is the capital of the province of Drenthe.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Count August Dołęga Cieszkowski (12 September 1814, Nowa Sucha – 12 March 1894, Oberbrunn) was a Polish philosopher, economist and social and political activist.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
AZS AWF Poznań is a Polish women's volleyball team based in Poznań and playing in the Polish Seria A Women's Volleyball League.
AZS Politechnika Poznanska is a field hockey team based in Poznań, Poland.
Enea AZS Poznań is a Polish professional women's basketball club that was founded in 1919 in the city of Poznań.
Śródka is a historic neighbourhood of the city of Poznań in western Poland.
Święty Marcin ("Saint Martin"), in full ulica Święty Marcin ("Saint Martin Street"), is a main central street in the city of Poznań in western Poland.
Bambrzy (Poznańskie Bambry, German: Posener Bamberger) are Poles who are partly descended from Germans who moved from the area of Bamberg (Upper Franconia, Germany) to villages surrounding Poznań, Poland.
The Bar Confederation (Konfederacja barska; 1768–1772) was an association of Polish nobles (szlachta) formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against Russian influence and against King Stanisław II Augustus with Polish reformers, who were attempting to limit the power of the Commonwealth's wealthy magnates.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The Battle of Poznań (Battle of Posen) during World War II in 1945 was a massive assault by the Soviet Union's Red Army that had as its objective the elimination of the Nazi German garrison in the stronghold city of Poznań in occupied Poland.
Bay City is a city in Bay County, Michigan, located near the base of the Saginaw Bay on Lake Huron.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bohdan Smoleń (9 June 1947 – 15 December 2016) was a Polish comedian, singer and actor.
Bolechowo (Bolchau) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Czerwonak, within Poznań County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.
Bolesław I the Brave (Bolesław I Chrobry, Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 – 17 June 1025), less often known as Bolesław I the Great (Bolesław I Wielki), was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025.
Bretislav I (Břetislav I.; 1002/1005–10 January 1055), known as the "Bohemian Achilles", of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Duke of Bohemia from 1035 until his death.
Brno (Brünn) is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia.
Buk (Buk, 1943-45: Buchenstadt) is a town in central Poland, situated in the Greater Poland Voivodeship (since 1999), previously in Poznań Voivodeship (1975–1998).
Bydgoszcz (Bromberg; Bydgostia) is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers.
Canoe sprint is a sport in which athletes race canoes or kayaks on calm water.
Canoeing is an activity which involves paddling a canoe with a single-bladed paddle.
Casimir I the Restorer (b. Kraków, 25 July 1016 – d. Poznań, 28 November 1058), was Duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty and the de jure monarch of the entire country from 1034 until his death.
A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.
The Central Economic Society for the Grand Duchy of Poznań (Centralne Towarzystwo Gospodarcze dla Wielkiego Księstwa Poznańskiego) was a social-economic organization of Polish landowners in the Greater Poland region (at this time called the Grand Duchy of Poznań) established at a meeting held 13–17 February 1861 as a result of a merger of several local societies.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Christianization of Poland (Polish: chrystianizacja Polski) refers to the introduction and subsequent spread of Christianity in Poland.
A city is a large human settlement.
Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, PO)The party is officially the Civic Platform of the Republic of Poland (Platforma Obywatelska Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej).
The Combino is a low-floor tram produced by Siemens Mobility (formerly DUEWAG).
The Congress of Gniezno (Zjazd gnieźnieński, Akt von Gnesen or Gnesener Übereinkunft) was an amical meeting between the Polish Duke Bolesław I the Brave and Emperor Otto III, which took place at Gniezno on March 11, 1000.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
Coronations in Poland officially began in 1025 and continued until 1764, when the final king of an independent Poland, Stanisław August Poniatowski, was crowned at St. John's Cathedral in Warsaw.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
Cybina is a river in Greater Poland, a right affluent of Warta.
Cyryl Ratajski (3 March 1875, in Zalesie Wielkie – 19 October 1942, in Warsaw) was a Polish politician and lawyer.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Dariusz Lipiński (born August 4, 1955 in Warsaw) is a Polish politician.
Dębińska Road Stadium Stadion przy Drodze Dębińskiej, sometimes informally called The Warta Stadium Stadion Warty and nicknamed Ogródek Little Garden; is a football stadium located in the Wilda district of Poznań, Poland.
Democratic Left Alliance (Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is a social-democratic political party in Poland.
Baron Dezydery Chłapowski (1788 in Turew – 27 March 1879) was a Polish general, businessman and political activist.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
Dopiewo (Wanenfeld) is a village in Poznań County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.
A dry ski slope or artificial ski slope is a ski slope that mimics the attributes of snow using materials that are stable at room temperature, to enable people to ski, snowboard or snow tube in places where natural, snow-covered slopes are inconvenient or unavailable.
The Duchy of Bohemia, also referred to as the Czech Duchy, (České knížectví) was a monarchy and a principality in Central Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages.
The Duchy of Greater Poland was a historical Polish province established in 1138 according to the Testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.
In the Polish system of local administration, a dzielnica (Polish plural dzielnice) is an administrative subdivision or quarter of a city or town.
The economy of Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and the largest among the former Eastern Bloc members of the European Union.
Edmund Szyc Stadium (Stadion im.) is a ruined multi-purpose stadium in Poznań, Poland, named after Edmund Szyc, one of founders of Warta Poznań.
Compulsory education in Poland starts at the age of six from the mandatory "0" reception class (Polish zerówka or klasa 0, literally Year 0).
Count Edward Raczyński, of the Nałęcz coat-of-arms (April 2, 1786 in Poznań – January 20, 1845 in Zaniemyśl) was a Polish conservative politician, protector of arts, founder of the Raczyński Library in Poznań.
Dame Olga Maria Elisabeth Friederike Schwarzkopf, (9 December 19153 August 2006) was a German-born Austro-British soprano.
The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.
Ernst Hartwig Kantorowicz (May 3, 1895 – September 9, 1963) was a German-American historian of medieval political and intellectual history and art, known for his 1927 book Kaiser Friedrich der Zweite on Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, and The King's Two Bodies (1957) on medieval and early modern ideologies of monarchy and the state.
The FIBA EuroBasket 2009 was the 36th FIBA EuroBasket, the biennial regional basketball championship contested by European nations and held by FIBA Europe.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
Ewaryst Estkowski (1820–1856) was a Polish teacher, education activist, and editor of Szkoła Polska (Polish School) magazine.
Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family.
Filip Andrzej Kaczmarek (born on 22 November 1966 in Poznań) is a Polish politician and Member of the European Parliament.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland was the largest of a series of flights and expulsions of Germans in Europe during and after World War II.
Fort VII, officially Konzentrationslager Posen (renamed later), was a Nazi German death camp set up in Poznań in German-occupied Poland during World War II, located in one of the 19th-century forts circling the city.
Fort Winiary was part of Festung Posen ("Fortress Poznań"), a system of defensive fortifications around the Polish city of Poznań.
Four-cross (4X), also called mountain-cross, not to be confused with fourcross, is a relatively new style of mountain bike racing where four bikers race downhill on a prepared, BMX like, track, simply trying to get down first.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franciszek Dobrowolski (1830-1896) was a Polish theatre director, editor of Dziennik Poznański (Poznań Daily).
Frederick (Fredrak) W. Fraske (March 8, 1872 – June 18, 1973) is believed to have been the last surviving veteran of the Indian Wars.
The Freedom Union (UW) was a liberal democratic political party in Poland.
Friedrich Leopold Goltz (14 August 1834 in Posen (Poznań), Grand Duchy of Posen – 5 May 1902 in Straßburg (Strasbourg)) was a German physiologist and nephew of the writer Bogumil Goltz.
Friedrich Wilhelm Eduard Gerhard (29 November 1795 – 12 May 1867) was a German archaeologist.
Günther von Kluge (30 October 1882 – 19 August 1944) was a German field marshal during World War II.
Gądki (Gondeck) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Kórnik, within Poznań County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) for the United States Air Force (USAF).
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
Genesis were an English rock band formed at Charterhouse School, Godalming, Surrey in 1967.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Gerard Ettinger (29 December 1909 – 30 June 2002) was the founder of the British designer and manufacturer of luxury leather goods G Ettinger Ltd, as well as a German film producer.
Gerard Labuda (Gerard Labùda; 28 December 1916 – 1 October 2010) was a Polish historian whose main fields of interest were the Middle Ages and the Western Slavs.
Gerhard Friedrich Ernst Flesch (8 October 1909 – 28 February 1948) was a German SS functionary during the Nazi era.
Germaine Luise Krull (20 November 1897 – 31 July 1985) was a photographer, political activist, and hotel owner.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German strongholds during World War II (Festung "fortresses") were the selected towns and cities so designated by Adolf Hitler to resist the Allied offensives where the defenders were ordered to defend them at all costs.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
Germanische Altertumskunde Online, formerly called Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, is a German encyclopedia of the study of Germanic history and cultures, as well as the cultures that were in close contact with them.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (abbreviated GmbH and also GesmbH in Austria) is a type of legal entity very common in Germany, Austria, Switzerland (where it is equivalent to a société à responsabilité limitée) and Liechtenstein.
GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) is a British pharmaceutical company headquartered in Brentford, London.
The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization.
Gniezno (Gnesen) is a city in central-western Poland, about east of Poznań, with about 70,000 inhabitants.
Grażyna Kulczyk (1950–present) is a Polish investor, art collector and philanthropist.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
The Grand Duchy of Posen (Großherzogtum Posen; Wielkie Księstwo Poznańskie) was part of the Kingdom of Prussia, created from territories annexed by Prussia after the Partitions of Poland, and formally established following the Napoleonic Wars in 1815.
Grand Theatre, Poznań (Polish: Teatr Wielki im. Stanisława Moniuszki w Poznaniu) is a neoclassical opera house located in Poznań, Poland.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (Großpolen; Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland.
Greater Poland uprising of 1806 was a military insurrection by Poles in Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) against the occupying Prussian forces after the Partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1772–1795).
The Greater Poland uprising of 1848 or Poznań Uprising (powstanie wielkopolskie 1848 roku or powstanie poznańskie) was an unsuccessful military insurrection of Poles against Prussian forces, during the Spring of Nations period.
The Greater Poland uprising of 1918–1919, or Wielkopolska uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku; Großpolnischer Aufstand) or Posnanian War was a military insurrection of Poles in the Greater Poland region (German: Grand Duchy of Poznań or Provinz Posen) against German rule.
Greater Poland Voivodeship (in Polish: Województwo Wielkopolskie), also known as Wielkopolska Voivodeship, Wielkopolska Province, or Greater Poland Province, is a voivodeship, or province, in west-central Poland.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Grunwald Poznań is a sports club based in Poznań, Poland, with several sections.
Grunwald is a part of the city of Poznań in western Poland.
Guben (Polish and Sorbian: Gubin) is a town on the Lusatian Neisse river in the state of Brandenburg, Germany.
Gustaw Potworowski, count, (June 3, 1800, Bielewo - November 23, 1860, Poznań) was a Polish activist, founder of the Kasyno in Gostyń, activist of the Polish League (Liga Polska).
Győr (Raab, Ráb, names in other languages) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron County and Western Transdanubia region, and—halfway between Budapest and Vienna—situated on one of the important roads of Central Europe.
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
Hanna Banaszak (born April 24, 1957) is a Polish jazz singer and poet.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
Health care in Poland is delivered through a publicly funded health care system called the National Health Fund (in Polish: Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia), which is free for all the citizens of Poland provided they fall into the "insured" category (usually meaning that they have their health insurance paid for by their employer, or are the spouse or child of an insured person).
Heinrich Caro (February 13, 1834 in Posen, Prussia Germany now Poznań, Poland – September 11, 1910 in Dresden), was a German chemist.
Heinrich Mendelssohn (21 February 1881 – 7 August 1959) was a German contractor and real estate developer.
The international Henryk Wieniawski Violin Competition is a competition for violinists up to age 30 that takes place every five years in Poznań, Poland, in honor of the virtuoso and composer Henryk Wieniawski.
Henryk Zygalski (15 July 1908 in Posen – 30 August 1978 in Liss) was a Polish mathematician and cryptologist who worked at breaking German Enigma ciphers before and during World War II.
Herbert Baum (February 10, 1912 – June 11, 1942) was a Jewish member of the German resistance against National Socialism.
Hipolit Cegielski (6 January 1813, Ławki – 30 November 1868, Posen (Poznań), Kingdom of Prussia) was a Polish businessman and social and cultural activist.
The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.
The history of Poland from 1939 to 1945 encompasses primarily the period from the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany to the end of World War II.
The period of rule by the Piast dynasty between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of the Polish nation.
Hubert Aleksander Wagner (also known as Hubert Jerzy Wagner) (born 4 March 1941 – 13 March 2002) was a former Polish volleyball player and head coach, a member of Poland men's national volleyball team in 1963–1971, a participant of the Olympic Games Mexico 1968, a bronze medalist of the European Championship 1967, as head coach he led the Polish men's national volleyball team to titles of World Champions 1974 and Olympic Champions 1976.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
In Greek as well as Roman mythology, Hygieia (also Hygiea or Hygeia; Ὑγιεία or Ὑγεία, Hygēa or Hygīa), was one of the Aeclepiadae; the sons and daughters of the god of medicine, Asclepius, and the goddess of healing, Epione.
The ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships are an international event in canoeing, one of two Summer Olympic sport events organized by the International Canoe Federation (the other being the ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships).
The Imperial Castle in Poznań, popularly called Zamek (Zamek Cesarski w Poznaniu, Königliches Residenzschloss Posen), is a palace in Poznań, in Poland.
Isidor Ascheim (איזידור אשהיים; 1891-1968) was a German-born Israeli painter and printmaker.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jacek Tomczak (born July 27, 1973 in Poznań) is a Polish politician and lawyer.
The Jagiellonian dynasty was a royal dynasty, founded by Jogaila (the Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized as Władysław, married Queen regnant (also styled "King") Jadwiga of Poland, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. The dynasty reigned in several Central European countries between the 14th and 16th centuries. Members of the dynasty were Kings of Poland (1386–1572), Grand Dukes of Lithuania (1377–1392 and 1440–1572), Kings of Hungary (1440–1444 and 1490–1526), and Kings of Bohemia (1471–1526). The personal union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (converted in 1569 with the Treaty of Lublin into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) is the reason for the common appellation "Poland–Lithuania" in discussions about the area from the Late Middle Ages onward. One Jagiellonian briefly ruled both Poland and Hungary (1440–44), and two others ruled both Bohemia and Hungary (1490–1526) and then continued in the distaff line as a branch of the House of Habsburg. The Polish "Golden Age", the period of the reigns of Sigismund I and Sigismund II, the last two Jagiellonian kings, or more generally the 16th century, is most often identified with the rise of the culture of Polish Renaissance. The cultural flowering had its material base in the prosperity of the elites, both the landed nobility and urban patriciate at such centers as Kraków and Gdańsk.
The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.
Jan Andrzej Paweł Kaczmarek (born 29 April 1953) is a Polish composer who has lived and worked in the United States since 1989.
Jan Filip Libicki (born January 17, 1971 in Poznań) is a Polish politician.
Jan Jerzy Kułakowski (25 August 1930 – 25 June 2011) was a Polish politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Greater Poland Voivodship (2004–2009) with the Freedom Union, part of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe and sat on the European Parliament's Committee on Employment and Social Affairs.
Jan Tadeusz Masiel (born 28 March 1963 in Siemiatycze) is a Polish politician.
Jan Węglarz (born 1947 in Poznań) is a Polish computer scientist.
Janusz Pałubicki (born 1948) is a Polish politician and activist.
Jarocin (Jarotschin) is a town in central Poland with 25,700 inhabitants (1995), the administrative capital of Jarocin County.
Jarosław Saturnin Leitgeber (18 November 1848 - 22 May 1933) was a Polish writer, bookseller and publisher.
Jean Gebser (August 20, 1905 – May 14, 1973) was a philosopher, a linguist, and a poet, who described the structures of human consciousness.
Jeżyce is a part of the city of Poznań in western Poland.
Jerzy Witold Różycki (July 24, 1909 in Vilshana, Ukraine – January 9, 1942 in Mediterranean Sea, near the Balearic Islands) was a Polish mathematician and cryptologist who worked at breaking German Enigma-machine ciphers before and during World War II.
Jerzy Topolski (1928–1998) was a Polish historian.
Johannes Wilhelm Gad (30 June 1842 – 1926) was a German neurophysiologist who was a native of Posen.
John Jonston (in Polish, Jan Jonston; in Latin, Joannes Jonstonus; Szamotuły, 15 September 1603 – 1675, Legnica) was a Polish scholar and physician, descended from Scottish nobility and closely associated with the Polish magnate family of the Leszczyńskis.
Jordan (died in 982 or 984) was the first Bishop of Poland from 968 with his seat, most probably, in Poznań.
Jorge Isaac Veytia (born April 23, 1981) is a Mexican actor and lawyer.
Josephus Struthius (Polish: Józef Struś; 1510 in Poznań – between 27 July 1568 and 26 January 1569 in Poznań) was a Polish professor of medicine in Padua (1535–1537) and personal doctor of Polish kings.
Judah Loew ben Bezalel, alt.
was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).
Jyväskylä is a city and municipality in Finland and in the western part of the Finnish Lakeland.
Kalisz (Old Greek: Καλισία, Latin: Calisia, Yiddish: קאַליש, Kalisch) is a city in central Poland with 101,625 inhabitants (December 2017), the capital city of the Kalisz Region.
Karl-Friedrich Merten (15 August 1905 – 2 May 1993) commanded the U-boat in Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.
Karlsruhe (formerly Carlsruhe) is the second-largest city in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in southwest Germany, near the French-German border.
Karol Libelt (8 April 1807, Chwaliszewo, Poznań, Duchy of Warsaw - 9 June 1875, Brdowo) was a Polish philosopher, writer, political and social activist, social worker and liberal, nationalist politician, president of the PTPN.
Karol Marcinkowski (23 June 1800 in Posen, Kingdom of Prussia, today Poznań in Poland–6 November 1846) was a Polish physician, social activist in the Greater Poland region (also called the Grand Duchy of Posen), supporter of the basic education (Praca organiczna) programmes, organizer of the Scientific Help Society (Towarzystwo Pomocy Naukowej) and the Poznań Bazar (Bazar Poznański) - the Polish mall in Poznań that included a hotel, meeting rooms, crafts and shops.
Katowice (Katowicy; Kattowitz; officially Miasto Katowice) is a city in southern Poland, with a population of 297,197 and the center of the Silesian Metropolis, with a population of 2.2 million.
Kazimierz Piwarski (b. 19 February 1903, d. 1968) was a Polish historian, professor of Jagiellonian University in Kraków since 1946 and Poznań University in years 1953-1955, member of Polish Academy of Skills (Polska Akademia Umiejętności, PAU) since 1945, and member of Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk, PAN) since 1958.
Kórnik (Kurnik, 1939-45 Burgstadt) is a town with about 6,800 inhabitants (2006), located in western Poland, about south-east of the city of Poznań.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
Kiekrz is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Rokietnica, within Poznań County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
KKS Wiara Lecha is a football club from Poznań founded by Lech Poznań supporters in 2011 and ran by the former official Lech Poznań supporter group Wiara Lecha.
Klaudia Rynkowska (born 14 June 1986 in Poznań, Poland) is a Polish gymnast.
Kościan (Kosten) is a town on the Obra canal in west-central Poland, with a population of 23 952 inhabitants as of June 2014.
Koleje Wielkopolskie (Polish for Greater Poland Railways; KW) is a regional rail operator in the Greater Poland Voivodeship of Poland.
Komorniki is a village in Poland, located in Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poznań County, Gmina Komorniki (Poznań metropolitan area), with approximately 5,500 inhabitants.
Konstanty Antoni Gorski (Lida, June 13, 1859 – May 31, 1924, Poznań) was a Polish composer, violinist, organist and music teacher.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Krystyna Maria Łybacka (born 10 February 1946 in Jutrosin) is a Polish political figure who has been serving in the country's national Parliament (Sejm), since 1991 and, from October 2001 to May 2004, was a member of the cabinet, with the title of Minister of National Education.
Krystyna Zofia Feldman (1 March 1916 – 24 January 2007) was a Polish actress.
Krzysztof Komeda (born Krzysztof Trzciński; 27 April 1931 – 23 April 1969) was a Polish film music composer and jazz pianist.
Kuehne + Nagel International AG (or Kühne + Nagel) is a global transport and logistics company based in Schindellegi, Switzerland.
Kutaisi (ქუთაისი; ancient names: Aea/Aia, Kotais, Kutatisi, Kutaïsi) is the legislative capital of Georgia, and its 3rd most populous city.
Lake Malta, known also as the Maltański Reservoir,Gołdyn R., Kozak A., Kostka K. 1994.
Lake Rusałka is an artificial lake in Poznań, Poland with an area of 367,000 square metres.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Law and Justice (Polish), abbreviated to PiS, is a national-conservative, and Christian democratic political party in Poland.
The League of Polish Families (Polish: Liga Polskich Rodzin, LPR) is a nationalist conservative political party in Poland, part of the Catholic-National Movement and with many elements of far-right ideology.
Lech Poznań is a Polish professional football club based in Poznań and currently competing in the Ekstraklasa, the nation's highest division.
Lech Trzeciakowski (24 December 1931 – 7 January 2017) was a Polish historian who served as director of the Western Institute (Instytut Zachodni) in Poznań from 1974 to 1978.
Leo Königsberger (15 October 1837 – 15 December 1921) was a German mathematician, and historian of science.
Leon Wegner (31 March 1824, Poznań – 9 July 1873, Poznań) was a Polish economist and historian, co-founder of Poznań Society of Friends of Arts and Sciences.
Leopold Damrosch (October 22, 1832 – February 15, 1885) was a German American orchestral conductor and composer.
Light rail, light rail transit (LRT), or fast tram is a form of urban rail transport using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, and often on an exclusive right-of-way.
Lilli Palmer (born Lilli Marie Peiser; 24 May 1914 – 27 January 1986) was a German actress and writer.
A limited liability company (LLC) is the United States of America-specific form of a private limited company.
This page contains a list of cities and towns in Poland, preceded by a table of major Polish cities.
This is a list of major corporations based in Poznań and the city's vicinity.
Historic Monument (pomnik historii) is one of several categories of objects of cultural heritage (in the singular, zabytek) in Poland.
Below is a list of museums in Poznań, Poland.
This is a list of universities in Poland.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Vizeadmiral Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière (March 18, 1886 – February 24, 1941), born in Posen (now Poznań, Poland) and of French-German descent, was a German U-boat commander during World War I. With 194 ships and sunk, he is the most successful submarine ace ever.
Luboń (Luban) is a town situated on the Warta River, in the Poznań metro area, in the Greater Poland Voivodeship (since 1999).
The Lubrański Academy (Polish: Akademia Lubrańskiego; Latin: Collegium Lubranscianum) was a university college that was established in 1518 in Poznań by Bishop Jan Lubrański.
Ludwig Dessoir, original name Leopold Dessauer (15 December 1810 – 30 December 1874) was a German actor born in Posen, the son of a Jewish tradesman.
Małgorzata Musierowicz (born 9 January 1945) is a popular Polish writer, author of many stories and novels for children and teenagers, but read with pleasure by adults too.
Małgorzata Stryjska (born August 3, 1953 in Poznań) is a Polish politician.
Magdeburg rights (Magdeburger Recht; also called Magdeburg Law) were a set of town privileges first developed by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor (936–973) and based on the Flemish law, which regulated the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages, granted by the local ruler.
Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.
Maksymilian Jackowski (11 October 1815 in Slupia, Grand Duchy of Posen – 14 January 1905 in Posen) was a Polish activist, secretary-general of the Central Economic Society (Centralne Towarzystwo Gospodarcze), patron of the agricultural circles.
Marcin Libicki (born February 2, 1939 in Poznań) is a Polish politician, former member of the Polish parliament (Sejm), elected for the Poznań constituency.
Marek Karpinski is a computer scientist and mathematician known for his research in the theory of algorithms and their applications, combinatorial optimization, computational complexity, and mathematical foundations.
Marek Maciej Siwiec (born 13 March 1955 in Piekary Slaskie) is a Polish politician and from 2004 to 2014 Member of the European Parliament for the Greater Poland Voivodship with the Democratic Left Alliance-Labor Union and Your Movement, part of the Socialist Group and sits on the European Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs.
Małgorzata Dydek (28 April 1974 – 27 May 2011), known as Margo Dydek in the United States, was a Polish professional basketball player.
Maria Pasło-Wiśniewska (born March 27, 1959 in Szamotuły) is a Polish politician.
Marian Adam Rejewski (16 August 1905 – 13 February 1980) was a Polish mathematician and cryptologist who reconstructed the Nazi German military Enigma cipher machine sight-unseen in 1932.
Saint Martin of Tours (Sanctus Martinus Turonensis; 316 or 336 – 8 November 397) was Bishop of Tours, whose shrine in France became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela in Spain.
Michał Sczaniecki (1910 – 1977) was a Polish historian of state and law, especially of Poland and France; professor of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań from 1951 to 1965, and director of the Western Institute (Instytut Zachodni) in Poznań from 1961 to 1964, later professor at Warsaw University.
Michał Stuligrosz (born 17 September 1950 in Poznań) is a Polish politician.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mieszko I (– 25 May 992) was the ruler of the Polans from about 960 until his death.
Mieszko II Lambert (c. 990 – 10/11 May 1034) was King of Poland from 1025–1031, and Duke from 1032 until his death.
Mieszko III the Old (Mieszko III Stary) (c. 1126/27 – 13 March 1202), of the royal Piast dynasty, was Duke of Greater Poland from 1138 and High Duke of Poland, with interruptions, from 1173 until his death.
Miniature golf, also known as minigolf, crazy golf, or putt-putt, is an offshoot of the sport of golf focusing solely on the putting aspect of its parent game.
Mirosław Szymkowiak (born 12 November 1976) is a retired Polish footballer, who played as a playmaker.
Morasko is a part of the Stare Miasto district of Poznań, in western Poland.
The Morasko meteorite nature reserve (Rezerwat przyrody meteoryt Morasko) is located in Morasko, on the northern edge of the city of Poznań, Poland.
Motorcycle speedway, usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit.
Mountain biking is the sport of riding bicycles off-road, often over rough terrain, using specially designed mountain bikes.
A multiplex is a movie theater complex with multiple screens within a single complex.
Nablus (نابلس, שכם, Biblical Shechem ISO 259-3 Škem, Νεάπολις Νeapolis) is a city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, (approximately by road), with a population of 126,132.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Heritage Board of Poland (Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa,NID) is a Polish governmental institution responsible for the objects considered most important to the nation's cultural heritage.
The National Museum, Poznań (Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu), Poland, popularly abbreviated as MNP, is a state-owned cultural institution and one of the largest museums in Poland.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
Nottinghamshire (pronounced or; abbreviated Notts) is a county in the East Midlands region of England, bordering South Yorkshire to the north-west, Lincolnshire to the east, Leicestershire to the south, and Derbyshire to the west.
Nowe Miasto ("New Town") is a part of the city of Poznań in western Poland.
Nowy Tomyśl (Neutomischel) is a town in western Poland, in Greater Poland Voivodeship.
Oborniki (Obornik) is a town in Poland, in Greater Poland Voivodeship, about 30 km north of Poznań.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
HKS Odlew Poznań is a Polish amateur association football club from Poznań, Greater Poland.
Olędrzy (Singluar form: Olęder; Holländer, Hauländer) were people, often of Dutch or German ancestry, who lived in settlements in Poland organized under a particular type of law.
TS Olimpia Poznań is a Polish multi-sport club from Poznań.
Osiedle (Polish plural: osiedla) is a term used in Poland to denote a designated subdivision of a city or town, or of a dzielnica, with its own council and executive.
Ostrów Tumski (Polish pronunciation:, meaning "Cathedral Island"; German Dom Insel) is an island between two branches of the river Warta in the city of Poznań in western Poland.
Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.
The pagan reaction in Poland was a series of events in the Kingdom of Poland in the 1030s that culminated in a popular uprising or rebellion, or series of these, which for a time destabilized the Kingdom of Poland.
Panelák is a colloquial term in Czech and Slovak for a panel building constructed of pre-fabricated, pre-stressed concrete, such as those extant in the former Czechoslovakia and elsewhere in the world.
A panorama (formed from Greek πᾶν "all" + ὅραμα "sight") is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a three-dimensional model.
The Park Tenisowy Olimpia is a tennis complex in Poznań, Poland, owned by the city since November 2013.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
Paul Saladin Leonhardt (13 November 1877 – 14 December 1934) was a German chess master.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
Sir Paweł Edmund Strzelecki (24 June 17976 October 1873), also known as Paul Edmund de Strzelecki, was a Polish explorer and geologist who in 1845 also became a British subject.
Ryszard "Peja" Andrzejewski (born 17 September 1976 in Poznań) is a Polish rap musician, songwriter and producer.
Per capita is a Latin prepositional phrase: per (preposition, taking the accusative case, meaning "by means of") and capita (accusative plural of the noun caput, "head").
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.
Piątkowo is a part of the city of Poznań in western Poland.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Poland national men's volleyball team is controlled by the Polski Związek Piłki Siatkowej (PZPS), which represents the country in international competitions and friendly matches.
The Polans (also known as Polanes, Polanians;, derived from Old Slavic pole, "field" or "plain", see polje) were a West Slavic tribe, part of the Lechitic group, inhabiting the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Polonia Poznań is an omnisport club based in Poznań, Poland.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
A powiat (pronounced; Polish plural: powiaty) is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (LAU-1, formerly NUTS-4) in other countries.
The Poznań 1956 protests, also known as the Poznań 1956 uprising, Poznań June or Polish Revolution of 1956 (Poznański Czerwiec), were the first of several massive protests against the communist government of the Polish People's Republic.
The Archcathedral Basilica of St.
Poznań County (powiat poznański) is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Greater Poland Voivodeship, west-central Poland.
Poznań Department (Polish: Departament Poznański) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Polish Duchy of Warsaw in years 1806-1815.
Poznań Fortress, known in German as Festung Posen (Polish: Twierdza Poznań) was a set of fortifications in the city of Poznań (German: Posen) in western Poland, built under Prussian rule in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Poznań Główny (Polish for Poznan main station), commonly called Dworzec Główny, is the main railway station for the city of Poznań, Poland's fifth largest city, and capital of the Greater Poland voivodeship.
The Poznań International Fair (PIF, Międzynarodowe Targi Poznańskie, MTP) is the biggest industrial fair in Poland.
The Poznańskie Słowiki (en: Poznań Nightingales fr: Rossignols de Poznan de: Posener Nachtigallen) is a leading Polish choir founded in 1939.
Poznań Old Town is the centermost neighbourhood of the city of Poznań in western Poland, covering the area of the once walled medieval city of Poznań.
The Poznań Open is a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor red clay courts.
The Royal-Imperial Route in Poznań (Trakt Królewsko-Cesarski w Poznaniu, Route der Könige und Kaiser) is a tourist walk running through the most important parts of the city and presenting the history, culture and identity of Poznań.
The Poznań Society of Friends of Learning (Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, PTPN) is a learned society in Poznań, Poland, established in 1857, of scholars and scientists in all branches of learning.
Poznań Town Hall or Ratusz is a historic building in the city of Poznań in western Poland, located at the Poznań Old Town in the centre of Old Market Square (Stary Rynek).
The Poznań University of Economics and Business is one of the business schools in Poland.
Poznań University of Technology, PUT (Polish name: Politechnika Poznańska) is a university located in Poznań, Poland.
Poznań Voivodeship was the name of several former administrative regions (województwo, rendered as voivodeship and usually translated as "province") in Poland, centered on the city of Poznań, although the exact boundaries changed over the years.
Poznań–Ławica Henryk Wieniawski Airport, built in 1913, is one of the oldest airports in Poland.
Poznan University of Medical Sciences (Uniwersytet Medyczny im.) is a prominent Polish medical university, located in the city of Poznań in western Poland.
Pozuelo de Alarcón is a municipality in the Community of Madrid.
The Province of Posen (Provinz Posen, Prowincja Poznańska) was a province of Prussia from 1848 and as such part of the German Empire from 1871 until 1918.
The Prussian Settlement Commission (Königlich Preußische Ansiedlungskommission in den Provinzen Westpreußen und Posen; Królewska Komisja Osadnicza dla Prus Zachodnich i Poznańskiego) was a Prussian government commission that operated between 1886 and 1924, but actively only until 1918.
Przemysł I (5 June 1220/4 June 1221 – 4 June 1257), a member of the Piast dynasty, was Duke of Greater Poland from 1239 until his death, from 1241 with his brother Bolesław the Pious as co-ruler.
Przemysł II (also given in English and Latin as Premyslas or Premislaus or less properly Przemysław; 14 October 1257 – 8 February 1296), was the Duke of Poznań from 1257–1279, of Greater Poland from 1279–1296, of Kraków from 1290–1291, and Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomerelia) from 1294–1296, and then King of Poland from 1295 until his death.
Poznańskie Stowarzyszenie Żużlowe (Poznań Speedway Association) is a Polish speedway team based in Poznań who currently race in First League (2nd division).
A public limited company (legally abbreviated to plc) is a type of public company under the United Kingdom company law, some Commonwealth jurisdictions, and the Republic of Ireland.
Ra'anana (רַעֲנָנָּה, lit. "Fresh") is a city in the heart of the southern Sharon Plain of the Central District of Israel.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
Raben Group offers services in the following fields: contract logistics, warehousing, international road forwarding, domestic distribution, sea and air freight, intermodal transport and comprehensive logistics service for fresh products (Fresh Logistics).
The Raczyński Library was founded by Count Edward Raczyński in Poznań.
Rafał Marek Szukała (born 9 April 1971 in Poznań) is a former butterfly swimmer from Poland, who won the silver medal in the men's 100 m butterfly at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Rataje is a large residential area in the eastern part of the city of Poznań in western Poland.
Raymond Wilson (born 8 September 1968) is a Scottish singer and guitarist, best known as vocalist in the post-grunge band Stiltskin, and in Genesis from 1996 to 1998.
RC Posnania is a Polish rugby union club based in Poznań, Poland.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Reichsgau Wartheland (initially Reichsgau Posen, also: Warthegau) was a Nazi German Reichsgau formed from parts of Polish territory annexed in 1939 during World War II.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Rennes (Roazhon,; Gallo: Resnn) is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport in which individuals or groups of five manipulate one or two pieces of apparatus: rope, hoop, ball, clubs, ribbon and freehand (no apparatus).
Richard Kandt (17 December 1867, in Posen – 29 April 1918, in Nuremberg; original name Kantorowicz) was a German physician and explorer of Africa.
Richard Rothe (28 January 1799 – 20 August 1867) was a German Lutheran theologian.
Roller skating is the traveling on surfaces with roller skates.
Roman Szymański (4 August 1840, Kostrzyn - 18 December 1908, Poznań) was a Polish political activist, publicist, editor of Orędownik magazine.
Roman Wilhelmi (June 6, 1936 in Poznań – November 3, 1991 in Warsaw) was a Polish theatre and film actor, notable for his roles in two of the most popular Polish television series of the 1980s.
Rowing, often referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times.
The Royal Castle in Poznań (Zamek Królewski w Poznaniu) dates from 1249 and the reign of Przemysł I. Located in the Polish city of Poznań, it was largely destroyed during the Second World War but has since been partly rebuilt.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.
Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water (sailing ship, sailboat, windsurfer, or kitesurfer), on ice (iceboat) or on land (land yacht) over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation.
Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
The Second Northern War (1655–60, also First or Little Northern War) was fought between Sweden and its adversaries the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1655–60), Russia (1656–58), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657–60), the Habsburg Monarchy (1657–60) and Denmark–Norway (1657–58 and 1658–60).
The 1793 Second Partition of Poland was the second of three partitions (or partial annexations) that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland (Samoobrona Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej, SRP) is a populist, agrarian, and nationalist political party and trade union in Poland.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China.
Shooting is the act or process of discharging a projectile from a ranged weapon (such as a gun, slingshot, crossbow, or bow. Even the acts of launching/discharging artillery, darts, grenades, rockets and guided missiles can be considered acts of shooting. When using a firearm, the act of shooting is often called firing as it involves initiating a combustion process (deflagration). Shooting can take place in a shooting range or in the field, in shooting sports, hunting or in combat. A person involved in the shooting activity is a shooter. A proficient shooter is a marksman or sharpshooter. A person's level of shooting proficiency is referred to as marksmanship.
Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Solaris Bus & Coach S.A. is a Polish multinational bus, coach, trolleybus and tram manufacturer based in Bolechowo near Poznań, Poland.
South Prussia (Südpreußen; Prusy Południowe) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1793 to 1807.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spółka z ograniczoną odpowiedzialnością (literally: Limited liability company), abbreviated Sp.
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.
A sports club or sporting club, sometimes athletics club or sports society or sports association, is a group of people formed for the purpose of playing sports.
Squatting is the action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land or a building, usually residential, that the squatter does not own, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use.
Saint Martin's day, also known as the Feast of Saint Martin, Martinstag or Martinmas, as well as Old Halloween and Old Hallowmas Eve, is the feast day of Saint Martin of Tours (Martin le Miséricordieux) and is celebrated on November 11 each year.
The Municipal Stadium in Poznań (Stadion Miejski w Poznaniu), sometimes called Bułgarska Street Stadium (Bulgarian Street Stadium) after the road it is situated on, or INEA Stadion for sponsorship reasons, is an association football stadium in Poznań, Poland.
Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.
Stanisław Barańczak (November 13, 1946 – December 26, 2014) was a Polish poet, literary critic, scholar, editor, translator and lecturer.
Stare Miasto is a part of the city of Poznań in western Poland.
Stargard (Stargard in Pommern; Stôrgard) is a city in northwestern Poland, with a population of 71,017 (2005).
Shopping, Arts and Business Center "Stary Browar" - the center of commerce and art, built in November 2003, located in the center of Poznań, Poland at 42 Półwiejska Street.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
A street is a public thoroughfare (usually paved) in a built environment.
Suchy Las (Steimersdorf) is a village in Poznań County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.
The Superbrands organization publishes surveys related to brands.
Swarzędz (German: Schwersenz) is a town (miasto) in central Poland of 29,766 inhabitants and a mixed urban-rural commune (gmina miejsko-wiejska) of 40,166 inhabitants (2006 estimates).
SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities or simply SWPS University (SWPS Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny) is a private university in Poland affiliated with the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology and the Institute of Psychology, Polish Academy of Sciences.
Synchronised swimming (renamed as artistic swimming since July 2017 by the global governing body FINA), is a hybrid form of swimming, dance, and gymnastics, consisting of swimmers performing a synchronised routine (either solo, duet, mixed duet, free team, free combination, and highlight) of elaborate moves in the water, accompanied by music.
Syracuse University Press, founded in 1943, is a university press that is part of Syracuse University.
The Taizé Community is an ecumenical Christian monastic community in Taizé, Saône-et-Loire, Burgundy, France.
Tarnowo Podgórne is an urbanized village in Poznań County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.
Teatr Biuro Podróży (Travel Agency Theatre) is an award-winning alternative theatre company based in Poznan, Poland.
TU Dortmund University (Technische Universität Dortmund) is a university in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany with over 30,000 students, and over 6,000 staff, offering around 80 Bachelor's and master's degree programs.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
Teodor Teofil Matecki (April 25, 1810 – May 15, 1886) was a Polish physician, social activist and member of Poznań Society of Friends of Learning.
The last will and testament of the Piast duke Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland, established rules for governance of the Polish kingdom by his four surviving sons after his death.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
In common with other European countries, the most frequent and most popular form of theatre in Poland is dramatic theatre, based on the existence of relatively stable artistic companies.
Thietmar (also Dietmar or Dithmar; 25 July 975 – 1 December 1018), Prince-Bishop of Merseburg from 1009 until his death, was an important chronicler recording the reigns of German kings and Holy Roman Emperors of the Ottonian (Saxon) dynasty.
A toboggan is a simple sled which is a traditional form of transport used by the Innu and Cree of northern Canada.
Toledo is a city in and the county seat of Lucas County, Ohio, United States.
Tomasz Górski (born August 15, 1973 in Poznań) is a Polish politician.
Thomas Wiseau is a European actor, writer, director and filmmaker.
Poland is a part of the global tourism market with constantly increasing number of visitors.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Tytus Adam Działyński (1796–1861, son of Ksawery, father to Jan Kanty) was a Polish political activist and protector of arts and a Prussian politician.
The 2012 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2012 or simply Euro 2012, was the 14th European Championship for men's national football teams organised by UEFA.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
University of Arts in Poznań (in Polish: Uniwersytet Artystyczny w Poznaniu) is one of the major fine-art academies in Poland.
The University of Life Sciences in Poznań (Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu, literally "University of Nature in Poznań") is a higher-education institution in Poznań, Poland.
Urszula Sipińska (born September 19, 1947) is Polish singer-songwriter, architect and writer.
Vehicle registration plates of Poland indicate the region of registration of the vehicle encoded in the number plate.
A województwo (plural: województwa) is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries.
In Nazi German terminology, Volksdeutsche were "Germans in regard to people or race" (Ethnic Germans), regardless of citizenship.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
Waldy Dzikowski (born July 23, 1959 in Wschowa) is a Polish politician.
The War of the Polish Succession (1733–35) was a major European war sparked by a Polish civil war over the succession to Augustus II, which the other European powers widened in pursuit of their own national interests.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Warta (Polish pronunciation: Warthe; Varta) is a river in western-central Poland, a tributary of the Oder River (Odra).
Warta Poznań is a multi-sports club based in Poznań, Poland.
Wawel is a fortified architectural complex erected over many centuries atop a limestone outcrop on the left bank of the Vistula river in Kraków, Poland, at an altitude of 228 metres above sea level.
Wągrowiec (Wongrowitz) is a town in northwestern Poland, from both Poznań and Bydgoszcz.
Władysław Markiewicz (2 January 1920 – 18 January 2017) was a Polish sociologist; professor of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań since 1966, and Warsaw University since 1972, director of the Western Institute (Instytut Zachodni) in Poznań in years 1966-1973, member of Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk, PAN) since 1972.
Władysław Niegolewski (1819, in Włościejewki – 1885) was a Polish liberal politician and member of parliament, insurgent in Greater Poland Uprising 1846, Greater Poland Uprising 1848 and January Uprising 1863, cofounder of Central Economic Society (TCL) in 1861 and People's Libraries Society (CTG) in 1880.
Władysław Oleszczyński (17 December 1807 in Końskowola – 11 April 1866 in Rome) was a Polish sculptor who created a monument of Adam Mickiewicz in Poznań and the tombstone of Juliusz Słowacki at the Montmartre Cemetery in Paris.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
The Western Institute in Poznań (Polish: Instytut Zachodni, German West-Institut, French: L'Institut Occidental) is a scientific research society focusing on the Western provinces of Poland - Kresy Zachodnie (including Greater Poland, Silesia, Pomerania), history, economy and politics of Germany, and the Polish-German relations in history and today.
Wilda (German Wilda or Wilde) is a southern part of the city of Poznań in western Poland.
Winogrady is a part of the Stare Miasto district of the city of Poznań in western Poland.
Witold Tomczak (born 5 April 1957, in Kępno) is a right-wing Polish politician, a member of the European Parliament 2004-2009.
Wojciech Fibak (popular Wojtek Fibak; born 30 August 1952) is a Polish former tennis player best known for his doubles success with Tom Okker and Kim Warwick, but also for having reached the Top 10 in singles.
The World Rowing Championships is an international rowing regatta organized by FISA (the International Rowing Federation).
The World Rowing Cup is an international rowing competition organized by FISA (the International Rowing Federation).
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Września (Wreschen) is a town in west-central Poland with 28,600 inhabitants (1995).
WSB Universities (Wyższe Szkoły Bankowe, Wyższa Szkoła Bankowa) is group of private universities in Poland.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Zygmunt Bauman (19 November 1925 – 9 January 2017) was a Polish sociologist and philosopher.
Zygmunt Wojciechowski (27 April 1900 – 14 October 1955) was a Polish historian and nationalist politician.
The 1990 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships were held in Poznań, Poland on Lake Malta.
The 2001 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships were held in Poznań, Poland at Lake Malta.
The UEFA European Under-19 Championship 2006 Final Tournament was held in Poland between 18 July and 29 July 2006.
The 2008 United Nations Climate Change Conference took place at PIF Congress Centre, Poznań International Fair (PIF), in Poznań, Poland, between December 1 and December 12, 2008.
The 2010 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships were held 19–22 August 2010 in Poznań, Poland, on Lake Malta.
The 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games (officially known as II Summer Youth Olympic Games) (Chinese: 第二届夏季青年奧林匹克运动会) were the second Summer Youth Olympic Games, an international sports, education and cultural festival for teenagers, held from 16 to 28 August 2014 in Nanjing, China.
The 31st Air Base (31.) is a Polish Air Force base, located in Krzesiny, part of the Nowe Miasto district of Poznań.
City of Poznań, Civitas Posnaniensis, Haupt- und Residenzstadt Posen, Pawsner, Podnan, Posen (Poznan), Posna, Posnan, Posnania, Poznan, Poznan', Poznan, Poland, Poznan-Glowna, Poznania, Poznań, Poland, Poznán, Stołeczne Miasto Poznań, The Capital City of Poznań, UN/LOCODE:PLPOZ.