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Index Pragmatism

Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870. [1]

191 relations: A priori and a posteriori, A. J. Ayer, Absolute idealism, Administration & Society, Aesthetics, Albert Schinz, Alexander Bain, Alfred North Whitehead, American philosophy, Analytic philosophy, Anti-foundationalism, Anti-realism, Argumentation theory, Arthur Burks, Arthur Oncken Lovejoy, Arthur Schopenhauer, Behaviorism, Bioethics, Bruno Latour, Cartesian doubt, Charles Cooley, Charles Hartshorne, Charles Sanders Peirce, Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography, Charles W. Morris, Charter school, Chauncey Wright, Cheating, Clarence Irving Lewis, Coherentism, Community of inquiry, Conceptual framework, Contemporary Pragmatism, Continental philosophy, Correspondence theory of truth, Critical theory, Daniel Collamore Heath, Daniel Dennett, David Hume, Deflationary theory of truth, Democracy, Designer baby, Direct and indirect realism, Doctrine of internal relations, Donald Davidson (philosopher), Embodied cognition, Emotivism, Empiricism, Epistemology, Ernest Nagel, ..., Experimental psychology, F. C. S. Schiller, Factual relativism, Fallibilism, Foundationalism, Founders of statistics, Foundherentism, Francis Bacon, Frank P. Ramsey, Functional psychology, Gary A. Olson, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Berkeley, George Herbert Mead, Giovanni Papini, Glenn McGee, Good reasons approach, Harvard University, Henri Bergson, Hilary Putnam, How We Think, Humanism, Idealism, Immanuel Kant, Inferential role semantics, Informal logic, Instrumentalism, Intelligence, International relations, Isaac Levi, J. B. Schneewind, James Hayden Tufts, James Mark Baldwin, Jane Addams, Jürgen Habermas, John Dewey, John Lachs, John Searle, John Stuart Mill, Joseph Margolis, Laurent Thévenot, Leadership, Linguistics, Literary criticism, Logic, Logical positivism, Logical truth, Louis Menand, Luc Boltanski, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Mark Johnson (philosopher), Materialism, Meaning (linguistics), Medical ethics, Meditations on First Philosophy, Meta-ethics, Metaphysics, Methodology, Michel Crozier, Michel Weber, Mike Sandbothe, Modal logic, Naïve realism, Naturalism (philosophy), Naturalized epistemology, Neologism, Neopragmatism, New legal realism, Nicholas Rescher, Nicholas St. John Green, Nominalism, Normative, Ontology, Optics, Ordinary language philosophy, Organism, Outsourcing, Participatory democracy, Patricia M. Shields, Paul Weiss (philosopher), Performance measurement, Phenomenalism, Philosophical realism, Philosophical skepticism, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, Philosophy of education, Philosophy of language, Philosophy of mathematics, Philosophy of science, Pierre Bourdieu, Pluralism (philosophy), Pluralism (political philosophy), Political science, Postanalytic philosophy, Pragmatic maxim, Pragmatic theory of truth, Pragmaticism, Pragmatics, Process philosophy, Psychology, Public administration, Radical empiricism, Reality, Reductionism, Relationship between religion and science, Religion, Richard Rorty, Robert Brandom, Roberto Mangabeira Unger, Rudolf Carnap, Scientific realism, Sidney Hook, Skeptical movement, Social epistemology, Social psychology, Southern Illinois University, Stanley Fish, Stephen Toulmin, Supreme Court of the United States, Susan Haack, Symbolic interactionism, Temporality, The Journal of Philosophy, The Life of Reason, The Metaphysical Club, The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America, The Natural Ontological Attitude, The Philadelphia Negro, Thomas Reid, Transcendence (philosophy), Two Dogmas of Empiricism, United States, Universal (metaphysics), Universal pragmatics, Urban planning, Urbanism, Utilitarianism, Verificationism, Wilfrid Sellars, Willard Van Orman Quine, William James. Expand index (141 more) »

A priori and a posteriori

The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.

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A. J. Ayer

Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer, FBA (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989), usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956).

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Absolute idealism

Absolute idealism is an ontologically monistic philosophy "chiefly associated with G. W. F. Hegel and Friedrich Schelling, both German idealist philosophers of the 19th century, Josiah Royce, an American philosopher, and others, but, in its essentials, the product of Hegel".

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Administration & Society

Administration and Society is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the field of public administration.

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Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Albert Schinz

Albert Schinz (1870 – December 19, 1943) was an American French and philosophical scholar, editor, and professor of French literature.

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Alexander Bain

Alexander Bain (11 June 1818 – 18 September 1903) was a Scottish philosopher and educationalist in the British school of empiricism and a prominent and innovative figure in the fields of psychology, linguistics, logic, moral philosophy and education reform.

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Alfred North Whitehead

Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.

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American philosophy

American philosophy is the activity, corpus, and tradition of philosophers affiliated with the United States.

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Analytic philosophy

Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.

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Anti-foundationalism (also called nonfoundationalism) is any philosophy which rejects a foundationalist approach.

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In analytic philosophy, anti-realism is an epistemological position first articulated by British philosopher Michael Dummett.

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Argumentation theory

Argumentation theory, or argumentation, is the interdisciplinary study of how conclusions can be reached through logical reasoning; that is, claims based, soundly or not, on premises.

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Arthur Burks

Arthur Walter Burks (October 13, 1915 – May 14, 2008) was an American mathematician who worked in the 1940s as a senior engineer on the project that contributed to the design of the ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic digital computer.

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Arthur Oncken Lovejoy

Arthur Oncken Lovejoy (October 10, 1873 – December 30, 1962) was an American philosopher and intellectual historian, who founded the discipline known as the history of ideas with his book The Great Chain of Being (1936), on the topic of that name, which is regarded as 'probably the single most influential work in the history of ideas in the United States during the last half century'.

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Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.

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Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.

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Bioethics is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in biology and medicine.

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Bruno Latour

Bruno Latour (born 22 June 1947) is a French philosopher, anthropologist and sociologist.

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Cartesian doubt

Cartesian doubt is a form of methodological skepticism associated with the writings and methodology of René Descartes (15961650).

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Charles Cooley

Charles Horton Cooley (August 17, 1864 – May 7, 1929) was an American sociologist and the son of Thomas M. Cooley.

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Charles Hartshorne

Charles Hartshorne (June 5, 1897 – October 9, 2000) was an American philosopher who concentrated primarily on the philosophy of religion and metaphysics.

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Charles Sanders Peirce

Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".

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Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography

This Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography consolidates numerous references to Charles Sanders Peirce's writings, including letters, manuscripts, publications, and Nachlass.

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Charles W. Morris

Charles William Morris (May 23, 1901 – January 15, 1979) was an American semiotician and philosopher.

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Charter school

A charter school is a school that receives government funding but operates independently of the established state school system in which it is located.

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Chauncey Wright

Chauncey Wright (September 10, 1830 – September 12, 1875) was an American philosopher and mathematician, who was an influential early defender of Darwinism and an important influence on American pragmatists such as Charles Sanders Peirce and William James.

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Cheating is the receiving of a reward for ability or finding an easy way out of an unpleasant situation by dishonest means.

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Clarence Irving Lewis

Clarence Irving Lewis (April 12, 1883 – February 3, 1964), usually cited as C. I. Lewis, was an American academic philosopher and the founder of conceptual pragmatism.

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Coherentism is the name given to a few philosophical theories in modern epistemology.

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Community of inquiry

The community of inquiry, abbreviated as CoI, is a concept first introduced by early pragmatist philosophers C.S.Peirce and John Dewey, concerning the nature of knowledge formation and the process of scientific inquiry.

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Conceptual framework

A conceptual framework is an analytical tool with several variations and contexts.

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Contemporary Pragmatism

Contemporary Pragmatism is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering discussions of applying pragmatism, broadly understood, to today's issues.

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Continental philosophy

Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.

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Correspondence theory of truth

The correspondence theory of truth states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world.

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Critical theory

Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.

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Daniel Collamore Heath

Daniel Collamore Heath (1843-1908) was the founder and president of D. C. Heath and Company, part of Houghton Mifflin.

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Daniel Dennett

Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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Deflationary theory of truth

In philosophy and logic, a deflationary theory of truth is one of a family of theories that all have in common the claim that assertions of predicate truth of a statement do not attribute a property called "truth" to such a statement.

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Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Designer baby

A designer baby is a human embryo which has been genetically modified, usually following guidelines set by the parent or scientist, to produce desirable traits.

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Direct and indirect realism

The question of direct or naïve realism, as opposed to indirect or representational realism, arises in the philosophy of perception and of mind out of the debate over the nature of conscious experience;Lehar, Steve.

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Doctrine of internal relations

The doctrine of internal relations is the philosophical doctrine that all relations are internal to their bearers, in the sense that they are essential to them and the bearers would not be what they are without them.

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Donald Davidson (philosopher)

Donald Herbert Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher.

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Embodied cognition

Embodied cognition is the theory that many features of cognition, whether human or otherwise, are shaped by aspects of the entire body of the organism.

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Emotivism is a meta-ethical view that claims that ethical sentences do not express propositions but emotional attitudes.

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In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Ernest Nagel

Ernest Nagel (November 16, 1901 – September 20, 1985) was an American philosopher of science.

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Experimental psychology

Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it.

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F. C. S. Schiller

Ferdinand Canning Scott Schiller (16 August 1864 – 6 August 1937), usually cited as F. C. S. Schiller, was a German-British philosopher.

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Factual relativism

Factual relativism (also called epistemic relativism, epistemological relativism, alethic relativism or cognitive relativism) is a way to reason where facts used to justify any claims are understood to be relative and subjective to the perspective of those proving or falsifying the proposition.

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Broadly speaking, fallibilism (from Medieval Latin: fallibilis, "liable to err") is the philosophical claim that no belief can have justification which guarantees the truth of the belief.

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Foundationalism concerns philosophical theories of knowledge resting upon justified belief, or some secure foundation of certainty such as a conclusion inferred from a basis of sound premises.

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Founders of statistics

Statistics is the theory and application of mathematics to the scientific method including hypothesis generation, experimental design, sampling, data collection, data summarization, estimation, prediction and inference from those results to the population from which the experimental sample was drawn.

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In epistemology, foundherentism is a theory of justification that combines elements from the two rival theories addressing infinite regress, foundationalism prone to arbitrariness, and coherentism prone to circularity (problems raised by the Münchhausen trilemma).

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Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.

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Frank P. Ramsey

Frank Plumpton Ramsey (22 February 1903 – 19 January 1930) was a British philosopher, mathematician and economist who made fundamental contributions to abstract algebra before his death at the age of 26.

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Functional psychology

Functional psychology or functionalism refers to a psychological philosophy that considers mental life and behaviour in terms of active adaptation to the person's environment.

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Gary A. Olson

Gary A. Olson (born December 12, 1954),is a scholar of rhetoric and culture, a literary biographer, and President of Daemen College.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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George Berkeley

George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).

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George Herbert Mead

George Herbert Mead (February 27, 1863 – April 26, 1931) was an American philosopher, sociologist and psychologist, primarily affiliated with the University of Chicago, where he was one of several distinguished pragmatists.

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Giovanni Papini

Giovanni Papini (January 9, 1881 – July 8, 1956) was an Italian journalist, essayist, literary critic, poet, and novelist.

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Glenn McGee

Glenn E. McGee (1967-) is a professor of management at the University of New Haven, who focuses on health policy.

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Good reasons approach

The Good Reasons approach is a meta-ethical theory that ethical conduct is justified if the actor has good reasons for that conduct.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Henri Bergson

Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.

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Hilary Putnam

Hilary Whitehall Putnam (July 31, 1926 – March 13, 2016) was an American philosopher, mathematician, and computer scientist, and a major figure in analytic philosophy in the second half of the 20th century.

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How We Think

How We Think is a book written by the American educational philosopher John Dewey, published in 1910.

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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

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In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Inferential role semantics

Inferential role semantics (also conceptual role semantics, functional role semantics, procedural semantics, inferentialism) is an approach to the theory of meaning that identifies the meaning of an expression with its relationship to other expressions, typically its inferential relations with other expressions.

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Informal logic

Informal logic, intuitively, refers to the principles of logic and logical thought outside of a formal setting.

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Instrumentalism is one of a multitude of modern schools of thought created by scientists and philosophers throughout the 20th century.

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Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.

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International relations

International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.

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Isaac Levi

Isaac Levi (born June 30, 1930), is the John Dewey Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at Columbia University.

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J. B. Schneewind

Jerome B. Schneewind (born 1930) is a Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at Johns Hopkins University.

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James Hayden Tufts

James Hayden Tufts (1862–1942), an influential American philosopher, was a professor of the then newly founded Chicago University.

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James Mark Baldwin

James Mark Baldwin (January 12, 1861, Columbia, South Carolina – November 8, 1934, Paris) was an American philosopher and psychologist who was educated at Princeton under the supervision of Scottish philosopher James McCosh and who was one of the founders of the Department of Psychology at the university.

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Jane Addams

Jane Addams (September 8, 1860May 21, 1935), known as the "mother" of social work, was a pioneer American settlement activist/reformer, social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, public administrator, protestor, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace.

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Jürgen Habermas

Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.

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John Dewey

John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.

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John Lachs

John Lachs is the Centennial Professor of Philosophy at Vanderbilt University, where he has taught since 1967.

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John Searle

John Rogers Searle (born 31 July 1932) is an American philosopher.

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John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

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Joseph Margolis

Joseph Zalman Margolis (born May 16, 1924) is an American philosopher.

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Laurent Thévenot

Laurent Thévenot (born 1949) is a French sociologist, Professor at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (Paris) who co-initiated in France two trends which rejuvenated the critical social sciences, and reached a certain international audience.

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Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.

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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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Literary criticism

Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.

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Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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Logical positivism

Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.

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Logical truth

Logical truth is one of the most fundamental concepts in logic, and there are different theories on its nature.

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Louis Menand

Louis Menand (born January 21, 1952) is an American critic and essayist, best known for his book The Metaphysical Club (2001), an intellectual and cultural history of late 19th and early 20th century America.

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Luc Boltanski

Luc Boltanski (born 4 January 1940) is a French sociologist, Professor at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris, and founder of the Groupe de Sociologie Politique et Morale, known as the leading figure in the new "pragmatic" school of French sociology.

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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.

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Mark Johnson (philosopher)

Mark L. Johnson (born 24 May 1949 in Kansas City, Missouri) is Knight Professor of Liberal Arts and Sciences in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Oregon.

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Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.

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Meaning (linguistics)

In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.

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Medical ethics

Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.

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Meditations on First Philosophy

Meditations on First Philosophy —The original Meditations, translated, in its entirety.

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Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments.

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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.

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Michel Crozier

Michel Crozier (6 November 1922, Sainte-Menehould, Marne – 24 May 2013, Paris) was a French sociologist and member of the Académie des sciences morales et politiques from 1999 until his death.

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Michel Weber

Michel Weber is a Belgian philosopher, born in Brussels in 1963.

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Mike Sandbothe

Mike Sandbothe (born June 26, 1961) is a German intellectual, philosopher and professor of culture and media at Jena University of Applied Sciences.

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Modal logic

Modal logic is a type of formal logic primarily developed in the 1960s that extends classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality.

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Naïve realism

In philosophy of mind, naïve realism, also known as direct realism or common sense realism, is the idea that the senses provide us with direct awareness of objects as they really are.

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Naturalism (philosophy)

In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.

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Naturalized epistemology

Naturalized epistemology, coined by W. V. O. Quine, is a collection of philosophic views concerned with the theory of knowledge that emphasize the role of natural scientific methods.

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A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.

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Neopragmatism, sometimes called linguistic pragmatism, is the philosophical tradition that infers that the meaning of words is a function of how they are used, rather than the meaning of what people intend for them to describe.

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New legal realism

New legal realism (NLR) is an emerging school of thought in American legal philosophy.

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Nicholas Rescher

Nicholas Rescher (born 15 July 1928) is a German-American philosopher at the University of Pittsburgh.

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Nicholas St. John Green

Nicholas St.

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In metaphysics, nominalism is a philosophical view which denies the existence of universals and abstract objects, but affirms the existence of general or abstract terms and predicates.

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Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard.

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Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

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Ordinary language philosophy

Ordinary language philosophy is a philosophical methodology that sees traditional philosophical problems as rooted in misunderstandings philosophers develop by distorting or forgetting what words actually mean in everyday use.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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In business, outsourcing is an agreement in which one company contracts its own internal activity to a different company.

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Participatory democracy

Participatory democracy emphasizes the broad participation of constituents in the direction and operation of political systems.

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Patricia M. Shields

Patricia M. Shields (born 1951) is a Professor of Political Science and Public Administration at Texas State University.

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Paul Weiss (philosopher)

Paul Weiss (May 19, 1901 – July 5, 2002) was an American philosopher.

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Performance measurement

Performance measurement is the process of collecting, analyzing and/or reporting information regarding the performance of an individual, group, organization, system or component.

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Phenomenalism is the view that physical objects cannot justifiably be said to exist in themselves, but only as perceptual phenomena or sensory stimuli (e.g. redness, hardness, softness, sweetness, etc.) situated in time and in space.

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Philosophical realism

Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.

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Philosophical skepticism

Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.

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Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature

Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature is a 1979 book by American philosopher Richard Rorty, in which the author attempts to dissolve modern philosophical problems instead of solving them by presenting them as pseudo-problems that only exist in the language-game of epistemological projects culminating in analytic philosophy.

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Philosophy of education

Philosophy of education can refer either to the application of philosophy to the problem of education, examining definitions, goals and chains of meaning used in education by teachers, administrators or policymakers.

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Philosophy of language

Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.

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Philosophy of mathematics

The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and purports to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics, and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives.

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Philosophy of science

Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.

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Pierre Bourdieu

Pierre Felix Bourdieu (1 August 1930 – 23 January 2002) was a French sociologist, anthropologist, philosopher, and public intellectual.

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Pluralism (philosophy)

Pluralism is a term used in philosophy, meaning "doctrine of multiplicity", often used in opposition to monism ("doctrine of unity") and dualism ("doctrine of duality").

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Pluralism (political philosophy)

Pluralism as a political philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles.

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Political science

Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.

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Postanalytic philosophy

Postanalytic philosophy describes a detachment from the mainstream philosophical movement of analytic philosophy, which is the predominant school of thought in English-speaking countries.

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Pragmatic maxim

The pragmatic maxim, also known as the maxim of pragmatism or the maxim of pragmaticism, is a maxim of logic formulated by Charles Sanders Peirce.

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Pragmatic theory of truth

A pragmatic theory of truth is a theory of truth within the philosophies of pragmatism and pragmaticism.

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Pragmaticism is a term used by Charles Sanders Peirce for his pragmatic philosophy starting in 1905, in order to distance himself and it from pragmatism, the original name, which had been used in a manner he did not approve of in the "literary journals".

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Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.

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Process philosophy

Process philosophy — also ontology of becoming, processism, or philosophy of organism — identifies metaphysical reality with change and development.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Public administration

Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.

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Radical empiricism

Radical empiricism is a philosophical doctrine put forth by William James.

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Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.

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Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.

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Relationship between religion and science

Various aspects of the relationship between religion and science have been addressed by philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Richard Rorty

Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.

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Robert Brandom

Robert Boyce Brandom (born March 13, 1950) is an American philosopher who teaches at the University of Pittsburgh.

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Roberto Mangabeira Unger

Roberto Mangabeira Unger (born 24 March 1947) is a philosopher and politician.

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Rudolf Carnap

Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 – September 14, 1970) was a German-born philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter.

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Scientific realism

Scientific realism is the view that the universe described by science is real regardless of how it may be interpreted.

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Sidney Hook

Sidney Hook (December 20, 1902 – July 12, 1989) was an American philosopher of the Pragmatist school known for his contributions to the philosophy of history, the philosophy of education, political theory, and ethics.

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Skeptical movement

The skeptical movement (also spelled sceptical) is a modern social movement based on the idea of scientific skepticism (also called rational skepticism).

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Social epistemology

Social epistemology refers to a broad set of approaches that can be taken in the study of knowledge that construes human knowledge as a collective achievement.

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Social psychology

Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.

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Southern Illinois University

Southern Illinois University is a state university system based in Carbondale, Illinois, United States, in the southern region of the state, with multiple campuses.

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Stanley Fish

Stanley Eugene Fish (born April 19, 1938) is an American literary theorist, legal scholar, author and public intellectual.

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Stephen Toulmin

Stephen Edelston Toulmin (25 March 1922 – 4 December 2009) was a British philosopher, author, and educator.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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Susan Haack

Susan Haack (born 1945) is Distinguished Professor in the Humanities, Cooper Senior Scholar in Arts and Sciences, Professor of Philosophy, and Professor of Law at the University of Miami.

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Symbolic interactionism

Symbolic interactionism is a sociological theory that develops from practical considerations and alludes to people's particular utilization of dialect to make images, normal implications, for deduction and correspondence with others.

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In philosophy, temporality is traditionally the linear progression of past, present, and future.

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The Journal of Philosophy

The Journal of Philosophy is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal on philosophy, founded in 1904 at Columbia University.

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The Life of Reason

The Life of Reason: The Phases of Human Progress is a book published in five volumes from 1905 to 1906, by Spanish-born American philosopher George Santayana (1863–1952).

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The Metaphysical Club

The Metaphysical Club was a conversational philosophical club that the future Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., the philosopher and psychologist William James, and the philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce formed in January 1872 in Cambridge, Massachusetts and dissolved in December 1872.

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The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America

The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America is a Pulitzer Prize-winning 2001 book by Louis Menand, an American writer and legal scholar, which won the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for History.

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The Natural Ontological Attitude

"The Natural Ontological Attitude" (1984) is the name of a paper published by philosopher Arthur Fine in which he coins the term "natural ontological attitude" (NOA).

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The Philadelphia Negro

The Philadelphia Negro is a sociological study of African Americans in Philadelphia written by W. E. B. Du Bois.

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Thomas Reid

Thomas Reid DD FRSE (26 April 1710 – 7 October 1796) was a religiously-trained British philosopher, a contemporary of David Hume as well as "Hume's earliest and fiercest critic".

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Transcendence (philosophy)

In philosophy, transcendence conveys the basic ground concept from the word's literal meaning (from Latin), of climbing or going beyond, albeit with varying connotations in its different historical and cultural stages.

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Two Dogmas of Empiricism

"Two Dogmas of Empiricism" is a paper by analytic philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine published in 1951.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Universal (metaphysics)

In metaphysics, a universal is what particular things have in common, namely characteristics or qualities.

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Universal pragmatics

Universal pragmatics, more recently placed under the heading of formal pragmatics, is the philosophical study of the necessary conditions for reaching an understanding through communication.

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Urban planning

Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.

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Urbanism is the study of how inhabitants of urban areas, such as towns and cities, interact with the built environment.

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Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.

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Verificationism, also known as the verification idea or the verifiability criterion of meaning, is the philosophical doctrine that only statements that are empirically verifiable (i.e. verifiable through the senses) are cognitively meaningful, or else they are truths of logic (tautologies).

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Wilfrid Sellars

Wilfrid Stalker Sellars (May 20, 1912 – July 2, 1989) was an American philosopher and prominent developer of critical realism, who "revolutionized both the content and the method of philosophy in the United States".

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Willard Van Orman Quine

Willard Van Orman Quine (known to intimates as "Van"; June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century." From 1930 until his death 70 years later, Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University in one way or another, first as a student, then as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory, and finally as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement.

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William James

William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pragmatism

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