The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
The comune (plural: comuni) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.
The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Italian: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica; Istat) is the main producer of official statistics in Italy.
The Italo-Normans, or Siculo-Normans when referring to Sicily and Southern Italy, are the Italian-born descendants of the first Norman conquerors to travel to southern Italy in the first half of the eleventh century.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The province of Cosenza (provincia di Cosenza; Cosentino: pruvincia i Cusenza) is a province in the Calabria region of Italy.
A rocca (literally: "rock") is a type of Italian fortified stronghold, or fortress, typically located on a hilltop, beneath or on which a village or town historically clustered so that the inhabitants might take refuge at times of trouble.
A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine.
The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mar Tirreno, Mer Tyrrhénienne, Mare Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy.