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Index Prayer

Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship, typically a deity, through deliberate communication. [1]

344 relations: Aboriginal Australians, Acts of reparation, Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ, Adhan, Affirmations (New Age), Affirmative prayer, Agriculture, Aitareya Brahmana, Akal Purakh, Al-Fatiha, Albrecht Ritschl, Alternative medicine, Ambrose Bierce, Amen, American Heart Journal, Amidah, Ancestor veneration in China, Ancient Greek religion, Andrew B. Newberg, Anglo-Saxons, Animism, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, Anthropology, Apophatic theology, Arabic, Archaism, Ardās, Arthur Rackham, ArtScroll, Ashkenazi Hasidim, Astrology, Atheism, Augur, Australian Aboriginal religion and mythology, Æcerbot, Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr and Irpa, Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh, Battle of Hjörungavágr, Báb, Behavioral modernity, Belief, Biblical Hebrew, Blinded experiment, Book of Common Prayer, Brahma, Brahman, Bronze Age religion, Buddhism, Buddhism in Japan, ..., Carmen Arvale, Carmen Saliare, Catechism of the Catholic Church, Catholic Church, Cato the Elder, Celtic polytheism, Chabad.org, Chan Buddhism, Charles Coulson, Charles E. Raven, Christian contemplation, Christian devotional literature, Christian meditation, Christian Science, Christopher Hitchens, Communication, Comparative religion, Confounding, Contemplation, Continual prayer, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Creed, Cultural universal, Daily Prayer for Peace, Daniel Dennett, De Agri Cultura, Deference, Deity, Deity yoga, Deontological ethics, Dhāraṇī, Disciple (Christianity), Disease, Divine presence, Dua, Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eckankar, Edward Burnett Tylor, Edward McKendree Bounds, Ema (Shinto), Enheduanna, Etruscan language, Euhemerism, Evocation, Faith healing, Fasting, Felicitas Goodman, Folk religion, Fortune-telling, Francis Galton, Frederic de Forest Allen, Free Inquiry, Freyja, Friedrich Heiler, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Gayatri Mantra, George Barton Cutten, Germanic paganism, Ghusl, Glossolalia, Gospel, Grace (prayer), Gurbani, Guru Gobind Singh, Guru Granth Sahib, Haakon Sigurdsson, Hail Mary, Hasidic Judaism, Hesychasm, Hindu deities, Hinduism, Historical Vedic religion, Hoʻoponopono, Holy Spirit, Hopi, Hymn, Ian Barbour, Immanuel Kant, Incantation, India, Intercession, Intercession of saints, Interior life (Catholic theology), Internet Infidels, Invocation, Iron Age, Isaac Luria, Issues in Science and Religion, Jacob Emden, James George Frazer, Jómsvíkinga saga, Jörð, Jesus, Jesus Prayer, Jewish holidays, Jewish prayer, John Templeton Foundation, John Wesley, Joseph Albo, Joseph B. Soloveitchik, Judah Halevi, Kaaba, Kabbalah, Kami, Karl Barth, Kavanah, Kingship and kingdom of God, Kirtan, Krishna, Latin liturgical rites, Lectio Divina, Liberal Christianity, Linguistics Research Center at UT Austin, List of gestures, List of Jewish prayers and blessings, List of prayers, Liturgy, Lord's Prayer, Love, Maariv, Maban, Magical thinking, Magick (Thelema), Magnificat, Mahayana, Maimonides, Mandala, Mani stone, Mantra, Mary Baker Eddy, Mary, mother of Jesus, Mayo Clinic, Mecca, Medieval Latin, Meditation, Merseburg charms, Meta-analysis, Methodism, Mincha, Mind Stream, Minyan, Moment of silence, Moshe Chaim Luzzatto, Mosque, Muezzin, Muslim, Mussaf, Mysticism, Namaste, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, National Day of Prayer, National Institutes of Health, Native Americans in the United States, Neuroscience, Nianfo, Nosson Scherman, Obligatory Bahá'í prayers, Oddrúnargrátr, Odin, Old Norse religion, Om, Om mani padme hum, Oracle, Orans, Order of Saint Benedict, Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox Union, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Paath, Pavamana Mantra, Pentecostalism, Petition, Philosophy, Poetic Edda, Polytheism, Praise, Pranāma, Prayer beads, Prayer flag, Prayer in Latter Day Saint theology and practice, Prayer in the Catholic Church, Prayer stick, Prayer wheel, Prentice Hall, Prie-dieu, Prostration, Psalms, Puebloans, Pure Land Buddhism, Pyramid Texts, Qabala, Qiblih, Quran, R. K. Gordon, Raëlism, Rama, Rapport, Religion, Religion in ancient Rome, Religious experience, Religious law, Rerir, Ritual, Romanticism, Rosary, Routledge, Ruku, Saṃbhogakāya, Sacrifice, Salah, Samson Raphael Hirsch, Sati (Buddhism), Savitr, School prayer, Septuagint, Shabbat, Shacharit, Shamanism, Shema Yisrael, Shinran, Shinto, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Shiva, Shuckling, Siddur, Sign of the cross, Sigrdrífumál, Sigurd, Sikh, Skald, Slate (magazine), Slavic paganism, Soma (drink), Song of Hannah, Song of Moses, Sound symbolism, Spirituality, Statistics, Stephan Grundy, Studies on intercessory prayer, Subject-expectancy effect, Sufi whirling, Sufism, Sujud, Supplication, Syncretism, Tai chi, Tanakh, Tantra techniques (Vajrayana), Thanksgiving, The Varieties of Religious Experience, Thelema, Theravada, Theurgy, Tibetan Buddhism, Torah, Trance, Transfer of merit, Trikaya, Tutelary deity, University of Texas Press, Upaya, Valkyrie, Vættir, Völsunga saga, Völuspá, Vedas, Veneration of the dead, Vilna Gaon, Vipassanā, Vishnu, Votive offering, Vulgate, Waheguru, Wayne Proudfoot, Wessobrunn Prayer, Western esotericism, Wið færstice, Wicca, William Blake, William James, Worship, Wudu, Yajna, Yana (Buddhism), Yidam, Yiddish, Yoga, Zazen, Zen, `Abdu'l-Bahá. Expand index (294 more) »

Aboriginal Australians

Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).

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Acts of reparation

Reparation is a theological concept closely connected with those of atonement and satisfaction.

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Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ

Catholic tradition includes specific prayers and devotions as Acts of Reparation for insults and blasphemies against Jesus Christ and the Holy Name of Jesus.

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The adhan, athan, or azaan (أَذَان) (also called in Turkish: Ezan) is the Islamic call to worship, recited by the muezzin at prescribed times of the day.

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Affirmations (New Age)

Affirmations in New Thought and New Age terminology refer primarily to the practice of positive thinking and self-empowerment—fostering a belief that "a positive mental attitude supported by affirmations will achieve success in anything." More specifically, an affirmation is a carefully formatted statement that should be repeated to one's self and written down frequently.

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Affirmative prayer

Affirmative prayer is a form of prayer or a metaphysical technique that is focused on a positive outcome rather than a negative situation.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Aitareya Brahmana

The Aitareya Brahmana (ऐतरेय ब्राह्मण) is the Brahmana of the Shakala shakha of the Rigveda, an ancient Indian collection of sacred hymns.

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Akal Purakh

Akal Purakh is a Sikh name used for God.

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Sūrat al-Fātiḥah (سُورَةُ الْفَاتِحَة) is the first chapter (surah) of the Quran.

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Albrecht Ritschl

Albrecht Ritschl (25 March 182220 March 1889) was a German Protestant theologian.

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Alternative medicine

Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.

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Ambrose Bierce

Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842 – circa 1914) was an American short story writer, journalist, poet, and Civil War veteran.

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The word amen (Hebrew אָמֵן, Greek ἀμήν, Arabic آمِينَ) is a declaration of affirmation found in the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament.

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American Heart Journal

The American Heart Journal is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of cardiology.

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The Amidah (תפילת העמידה, Tefilat HaAmidah, "The Standing Prayer"), also called the Shmoneh Esreh ("The Eighteen", in reference to the original number of constituent blessings: there are now nineteen), is the central prayer of the Jewish liturgy.

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Ancestor veneration in China

Chinese ancestor worship, or Chinese ancestor veneration, also called the Chinese patriarchal religion, is an aspect of the Chinese traditional religion which revolves around the ritual celebration of the deified ancestors and tutelary deities of people with the same surname organised into lineage societies in ancestral shrines.

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Ancient Greek religion

Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.

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Andrew B. Newberg

Andrew Newberg, M.D. is an American neuroscientist who is the Director of Research at the Myrna Brind Center for Integrative Medicine at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital,Jefferson University Physician Profile.

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The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.

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Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.

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Annals of Behavioral Medicine

is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Behavioral Medicine.

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Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.

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Apophatic theology

Apophatic theology, also known as negative theology, is a form of theological thinking and religious practice which attempts to approach God, the Divine, by negation, to speak only in terms of what may not be said about the perfect goodness that is God.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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In language, an archaism (from the ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts.

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The Ardās (ਅਰਦਾਸ) is a set prayer in Sikhism.

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Arthur Rackham

Arthur Rackham (19 September 1867 – 6 September 1939) was an English book illustrator.

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ArtScroll is an imprint of translations, books and commentaries from an Orthodox Jewish perspective published by Mesorah Publications, Ltd., a publishing company based in Brooklyn, New York.

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Ashkenazi Hasidim

The Hasidim of Ashkenaz (חסידי אשכנז, trans. Khasidei Ashkenaz; "German Pietists") were a Jewish mystical, ascetic movement in the German Rhineland during the 12th and 13th centuries.

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Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.

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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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An augur was a priest and official in the classical Roman world.

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Australian Aboriginal religion and mythology

Australian Aboriginal religion and mythology (also known as Dreamtime or Dreaming stories, songlines, or Aboriginal oral literature) are the stories traditionally performed by Aboriginal peoples within each of the language groups across Australia.

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"Æcerbot" (Old English "Field-Remedy") is an Anglo-Saxon metrical charm recorded in the 11th century, intended to remedy fields that yielded poorly.

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Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr and Irpa

In Norse mythology, Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr (Thorgerdr Holgabrudr) and Irpa are divine figures.

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Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.

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Bahá'u'lláh (بهاء الله, "Glory of God"; 12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892 and Muharram 2, 1233 - Dhu'l Qa'dah 2, 1309), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí (میرزا حسین‌علی نوری), was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Battle of Hjörungavágr

The Battle of Hjörungavágr (Norwegian: Slaget ved Hjørungavåg) is a semi-legendary naval battle that took place in the late 10th century between the Jarls of Lade and a Danish invasion fleet led by the fabled Jomsvikings.

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The Báb, born Siyyid `Alí Muhammad Shírází (سيد علی ‌محمد شیرازی; October 20, 1819 – July 9, 1850) was the founder of Bábism, and one of the central figures of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Behavioral modernity

Behavioral modernity is a suite of behavioral and cognitive traits that distinguishes current Homo sapiens from other anatomically modern humans, hominins, and primates.

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Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.

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Biblical Hebrew

Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.

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Blinded experiment

A blind or blinded-experiment is an experiment in which information about the test is masked (kept) from the participant, to reduce or eliminate bias, until after a trial outcome is known.

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Book of Common Prayer

The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, Anglican realignment and other Anglican Christian churches.

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Brahma (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मा, IAST: Brahmā) is a creator god in Hinduism.

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In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.

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Bronze Age religion

Bronze Age religion may refer to.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Buddhism in Japan

Buddhism in Japan has been practiced since its official introduction in 552 CE according to the Nihon Shoki from Baekje, Korea, by Buddhist monks.

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Carmen Arvale

The Carmen Arvale is the preserved chant of the Arval priests or Fratres Arvales of ancient Rome.

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Carmen Saliare

The Carmen Saliare is a fragment of archaic Latin, which played a part in the rituals performed by the Salii (Salian priests, a.k.a. "leaping priests") of Ancient Rome.

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Catechism of the Catholic Church

The Catechism of the Catholic Church (Catechismus Catholicae Ecclesiae; commonly called the Catechism or the CCC) is a catechism promulgated for the Catholic Church by Pope John Paul II in 1992.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Cato the Elder

Cato the Elder (Cato Major; 234–149 BC), born and also known as (Cato Censorius), (Cato Sapiens), and (Cato Priscus), was a Roman senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization.

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Celtic polytheism

Celtic polytheism, commonly known as Celtic paganism, comprises the religious beliefs and practices adhered to by the Iron Age people of Western Europe now known as the Celts, roughly between 500 BCE and 500 CE, spanning the La Tène period and the Roman era, and in the case of the Insular Celts the British and Irish Iron Age.

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Chabad.org is the flagship website of the Chabad-Lubavitch Hasidic movement.

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Chan Buddhism

Chan (of), from Sanskrit dhyāna (meaning "meditation" or "meditative state"), is a Chinese school of Mahāyāna Buddhism.

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Charles Coulson

Charles Alfred Coulson (13 December 1910 – 7 January 1974) was a British applied mathematician, theoretical chemist and religious author.

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Charles E. Raven

Charles Earle Raven (4 July 1885 – 8 July 1964) was an English theologian, Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge, and Master of Christ's College, Cambridge.

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Christian contemplation

Christian contemplation, from contemplatio (Latin; Greek θεωρία, Theoria), refers to several Christian practices which aim at "looking at", "gazing at", "being aware of" God or the Divine.

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Christian devotional literature

Christian devotional literature (also called devotionals or Christian living literature) is religious writing that is neither doctrinal nor theological, but designed for individuals to read for their personal edification and spiritual formation.

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Christian meditation

Christian meditation is a form of prayer in which a structured attempt is made to become aware of and reflect upon the revelations of God.

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Christian Science

Christian Science is a set of beliefs and practices belonging to the metaphysical family of new religious movements.

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Christopher Hitchens

Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.

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Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.

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Comparative religion

Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions.

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In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable, confounding factor or lurking variable) is a variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable causing a spurious association.

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Contemplation is profound thinking about something.

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Continual prayer

Perpetual prayer (Latin: laus perennis) is the Christian practice of continuous prayer carried out by a group.

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Coronary artery bypass surgery

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.

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A creed (also known as a confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets.

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Cultural universal

A cultural universal (also called an anthropological universal or human universal), as discussed by Emile Durkheim, George Murdock, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Donald Brown and others, is an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all human cultures worldwide.

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Daily Prayer for Peace

The Daily Prayer for Peace is a spiritual discipline unique to the Community of Christ and practiced at the Independence Temple in the church's headquarters campus in Independence, Missouri.

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Daniel Dennett

Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.

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De Agri Cultura

De Agri Cultura (On Farming or On Agriculture), written by Cato the Elder, is the oldest surviving work of Latin prose.

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Deference (also called submission or passivity) is the condition of submitting to the espoused, legitimate influence of one's superior or superiors.

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A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.

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Deity yoga

Deity yoga (Tibetan: lha'i rnal 'byor; Sanskrit: Devata-yoga) is a practice of Vajrayana Buddhism involving identification with a chosen deity through visualisations and rituals, and the realisation of emptiness.

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Deontological ethics

In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on rules.

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A (Devanagari: धारणी) is a Sanskrit term for a type of ritual speech similar to a mantra.

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Disciple (Christianity)

In Christianity, the term disciple primarily refers to dedicated followers of Jesus.

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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Divine presence

Divine presence, presence of God, Inner God, or simply presence is a concept in religion, spirituality, and theology that deals with the ability of a god or gods to be "present" with human beings.

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In the terminology of Islam, (دُعَاء, plural: أدْعِيَة; archaically transliterated Doowa), literally meaning "invocation", is an act of supplication.

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Eastern Catholic Churches

The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Eckankar (meaning Co-worker with God), called "the Path of Spiritual Freedom", is a new religious movement founded by Paul Twitchell in 1965.

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Edward Burnett Tylor

Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (2 October 1832 – 2 January 1917) was an English anthropologist, the founder of cultural anthropology.

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Edward McKendree Bounds

Edward McKendree Bounds (August 15, 1835 – August 24, 1913) prominently known as E.M. Bounds, was an American author, attorney, and member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South clergy.

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Ema (Shinto)

are small wooden plaques, common to Japan, in which Shinto and Buddhist worshippers write prayers or wishes.

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Enheduanna (Sumerian:, also transliterated as Enheduana, En-hedu-ana, or variants; fl. 23rd century BC) "ca.

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Etruscan language

The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.

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Euhemerism is an approach to the interpretation of mythology in which mythological accounts are presumed to have originated from real historical events or personages.

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Evocation is the act of calling upon or summoning a spirit, demon, god or other supernatural agent, in the Western mystery tradition.

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Faith healing

Faith healing is the practice of prayer and gestures (such as laying on of hands) that are believed by some to elicit divine intervention in spiritual and physical healing, especially the Christian practice.

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Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.

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Felicitas Goodman

Felicitas D. Goodman (1914–2005) was an American linguist and anthropologist.

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Folk religion

In religious studies and folkloristics, folk religion, popular religion, or vernacular religion comprises various forms and expressions of religion that are distinct from the official doctrines and practices of organized religion.

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*For the origami, see Paper fortune teller.

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Francis Galton

Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, progressive, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.

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Frederic de Forest Allen

Frederic de Forest Allen (1844–1897) was an American classical scholar.

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Free Inquiry

Free Inquiry is a bi-monthly journal of secular humanist opinion and commentary published by the Council for Secular Humanism, which is a program of the Center for Inquiry.

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In Norse mythology, Freyja (Old Norse for "(the) Lady") is a goddess associated with love, sex, beauty, fertility, gold, seiðr, war, and death.

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Friedrich Heiler

Friedrich Heiler (January 30, 1892 – April 18, 1967) was a German theologian and historian of religion.

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Friedrich Schleiermacher

Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 – February 12, 1834) was a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity.

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Gayatri Mantra

The Gāyatrī Mantra, also known as the Sāvitrī mantra, is a highly revered mantra from the Rig Veda (Mandala 3.62.10), dedicated to Savitr, the sun deity.

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George Barton Cutten

George Barton Cutten (1874–1962) was a Canadian-born psychologist, moral philosopher, historian and university administrator.

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Germanic paganism

Germanic religion refers to the indigenous religion of the Germanic peoples from the Iron Age until Christianisation during the Middle Ages.

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(غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full-body ritual purification mandatory before the performance of various rituals and prayers, for any adult Muslim after having sexual intercourse, ejaculation or completion of the menstrual cycle.

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Glossolalia or speaking in tongues is a phenomenon in which people appear to speak in languages unknown to them.

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Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".

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Grace (prayer)

A grace is a short prayer or thankful phrase said before or after eating.

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Gurbani (ਗੁਰਬਾਣੀ) is a Sikh term, very commonly used by Sikhs to refer to various compositions by the Sikh Gurus and other writers of Guru Granth Sahib.

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Guru Gobind Singh

Guru Gobind Singh (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ) (5 January 1666 – 7 October 1708), born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher.

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Guru Granth Sahib

Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign, and eternal living guru following the lineage of the ten human Sikh gurus of the Sikh religion.

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Haakon Sigurdsson

Haakon Sigurdarson (Haakon Jarl) (Hákon Sigurðarson, Håkon Sigurdsson) (c. 937 – 995) was the de facto ruler of Norway from about 975 to 995.

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Hail Mary

The Hail Mary, also commonly called the Ave Maria (Latin) or Angelic Salutation, is a traditional Catholic prayer asking for the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus.

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Hasidic Judaism

Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.

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Hesychasm is a mystical tradition of contemplative prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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Hindu deities

Hindu deities are the gods and goddesses in Hinduism.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Historical Vedic religion

The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism) was the religion of the Indo-Aryans of northern India during the Vedic period.

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Hooponopono (ho-o-pono-pono) is a Hawaiian practice of reconciliation and forgiveness.

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Holy Spirit

Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.

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The Hopi are a Native American tribe, who primarily live on the Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona.

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A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.

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Ian Barbour

Ian Graeme Barbour (October 5, 1923 – December 24, 2013), was an American scholar on the relationship between science and religion.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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An incantation, enchantment, or magic spell is a set of words, spoken or unspoken, which are considered by its user to invoke some magical effect.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Intercession or intercessory prayer is the act of praying to a deity on behalf of others.

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Intercession of saints

Intercession of the saints is a doctrine held by the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches.

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Interior life (Catholic theology)

Interior life is a life which seeks God in everything, a life of prayer and the practice of living in the presence of God.

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Internet Infidels

Internet Infidels, Inc.

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An invocation (from the Latin verb invocare "to call on, invoke, to give") may take the form of.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Isaac Luria

Isaac (ben Solomon) Luria Ashkenazi (1534Fine 2003, p. – July 25, 1572) (יִצְחָק בן שלמה לוּרְיָא אשכנזי Yitzhak Ben Sh'lomo Lurya Ashkenazi), commonly known in Jewish religious circles as "Ha'ARI" (meaning "The Lion"), "Ha'ARI Hakadosh" or "ARIZaL", was a foremost rabbi and Jewish mystic in the community of Safed in the Galilee region of Ottoman Syria.

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Issues in Science and Religion

Issues in Science and Religion is a book by Ian Barbour.

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Jacob Emden

Jacob Emden, also known as Ya'avetz (June 4, 1697 – April 19, 1776), was a leading German rabbi and talmudist who championed Orthodox Judaism in the face of the growing influence of the Sabbatean movement.

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James George Frazer

Sir James George Frazer (1 January 1854 – 7 May 1941) was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion.

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Jómsvíkinga saga

The Jómsvíkinga saga (Saga of the Jomsvikings) is a medieval Icelandic saga composed by an anonymous Icelander.

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In Norse mythology, Jörð (Old Norse jǫrð, "earth" pronounced, Icelandic Jörð, pronounced, sometimes Anglicized as Jord or Jorth; also called Jarð, as in Old East Norse), is a female jötunn.

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Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Jesus Prayer

The Jesus Prayer (or The Prayer) is a short formulaic prayer esteemed and advocated especially within the Eastern churches: "Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner." The prayer has been widely taught and discussed throughout the history of the Orthodox Church.

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Jewish holidays

Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim ("Good Days", or singular Yom Tov, in transliterated Hebrew), are holidays observed in Judaism and by JewsThis article focuses on practices of mainstream Rabbinic Judaism.

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Jewish prayer

Jewish prayer (תְּפִלָּה, tefillah; plural תְּפִלּוֹת, tefillot; Yiddish תּפֿלה tfile, plural תּפֿלות tfilles; Yinglish: davening from Yiddish דאַוון daven ‘pray’) are the prayer recitations and Jewish meditation traditions that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism.

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John Templeton Foundation

The John Templeton Foundation (Templeton Foundation) is a philanthropic organization with a spiritual or religious inclination that funds inter-disciplinary research about human purpose and ultimate reality.

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John Wesley

John Wesley (2 March 1791) was an English cleric and theologian who, with his brother Charles and fellow cleric George Whitefield, founded Methodism.

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Joseph Albo

Joseph Albo (יוסף אלבו; c. 1380–1444) was a Jewish philosopher and rabbi who lived in Spain during the fifteenth century, known chiefly as the author of Sefer ha-Ikkarim ("Book of Principles"), the classic work on the fundamentals of Judaism.

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Joseph B. Soloveitchik

Joseph Ber Soloveitchik (יוסף דב הלוי סולובייצ׳יק Yosef Dov ha-Levi Soloveychik; February 27, 1903 - April 9, 1993) was a major American Orthodox rabbi, Talmudist, and modern Jewish philosopher.

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Judah Halevi

Judah Halevi (also Yehuda Halevi or ha-Levi; יהודה הלוי and Judah ben Shmuel Halevi; يهوذا اللاوي; 1075 – 1141) was a Spanish Jewish physician, poet and philosopher.

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The Kaaba (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة, "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

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Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.

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are the spirits or phenomena that are worshipped in the religion of Shinto.

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Karl Barth

Karl Barth (–) was a Swiss Reformed theologian who is often regarded as the greatest Protestant theologian of the twentieth century.

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Kavanah, kavvanah or kavana (also pronounced /kaˈvonə/ by some Ashkenazi Jews) (כַּוָּנָה; in Biblical Hebrew kawwānā), plural kavanot or kavanos, literally means "intention" or "sincere feeling, direction of the heart".

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Kingship and kingdom of God

The concept of the kingship of God appears in all Abrahamic religions, where in some cases the terms Kingdom of God and Kingdom of Heaven are also used.

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Kirtan or Kirtana (कीर्तन) is a Sanskrit word that means "narrating, reciting, telling, describing" of an idea or story.

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Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.

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Latin liturgical rites

Latin liturgical rites are Christian liturgical rites of Latin tradition, used mainly by the Catholic Church as liturgical rites within the Latin Church, that originated in the area where the Latin language once dominated.

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Lectio Divina

In Christianity, Lectio Divina (Latin for "Divine Reading") is a traditional Benedictine practice of scriptural reading, meditation and prayer intended to promote communion with God and to increase the knowledge of God's Word.

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Liberal Christianity

Liberal Christianity, also known as liberal theology, covers diverse philosophically and biblically informed religious movements and ideas within Christianity from the late 18th century onward.

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Linguistics Research Center at UT Austin

The Linguistics Research Center (LRC) at the University of Texas is a center for computational linguistics research & development directed by Prof.

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List of gestures

Gestures are a form of nonverbal communication in which visible bodily actions are used to communicate important messages, either in place of speech or together and in parallel with spoken words.

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List of Jewish prayers and blessings

Listed below are some Hebrew prayers and blessings that are part of Judaism that are recited by many Jews.

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List of prayers

This is a list of Prayers.

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Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.

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Lord's Prayer

The Lord's Prayer (also called the Our Father, Pater Noster, or the Model Prayer) is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray: Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthaen version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, "very likely in Judea".

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Love encompasses a variety of different emotional and mental states, typically strongly and positively experienced, ranging from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure.

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Maariv or Ma'ariv, also known as Arvit, is a Jewish prayer service held in the evening or night.

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Maban or Mabain is a material that is held to be magical in Australian Aboriginal mythology.

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Magical thinking

Magical thinking is a term used in anthropology and psychology, denoting the fallacious attribution of causal relationships between actions and events, with subtle differences in meaning between the two fields.

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Magick (Thelema)

Magick, in the context of Aleister Crowley's Thelema, is a term used to show and differentiate the occult from performance magic and is defined as "the Science and Art of causing Change to occur in conformity with Will", including both "mundane" acts of will as well as ritual magic.

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The Magnificat (Latin for " magnifies ") is a canticle, also known as the Song of Mary, the Canticle of Mary and, in the Byzantine tradition, the Ode of the Theotokos.

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Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.

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Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.

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A mandala (Sanskrit: मण्डल, maṇḍala; literally "circle") is a spiritual and ritual symbol in Hinduism and Buddhism, representing the universe.

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Mani stone

Mani stones are stone plates, rocks and/or pebbles, inscribed with the six syllabled mantra of Avalokiteshvara (Om mani padme hum, hence the name "Mani stone"), as a form of prayer in Tibetan Buddhism.

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A "mantra" ((Sanskrit: मन्त्र)) is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have psychological and spiritual powers.

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Mary Baker Eddy

Mary Baker Eddy (July 16, 1821 – December 3, 1910) established the Church of Christ, Scientist, as a Christian denomination and worldwide movement of spiritual healers.

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Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.

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Mayo Clinic

The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.

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Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.

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Medieval Latin

Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.

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Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.

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Merseburg charms

The Merseburg charms or Merseburg incantations (die Merseburger Zaubersprüche) are two medieval magic spells, charms or incantations, written in Old High German.

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A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.

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Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.

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Mincha (מִנחַה, pronounced as; sometimes spelled Minchah or Minha) is the afternoon prayer service in Judaism.

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Mind Stream

Mind Stream (citta-santāna) in Buddhist philosophy is the moment-to-moment continuum (Sanskrit: saṃtāna) of sense impressions and mental phenomena, which is also described as continuing from one life to another.

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In Judaism, a minyan (מִנְיָן lit. noun count, number; pl. minyanim) is the quorum of ten Jewish adults required for certain religious obligations.

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Moment of silence

A moment of silence is a period of silent contemplation, prayer, reflection, or meditation.

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Moshe Chaim Luzzatto

Moshe Chaim Luzzatto (משה חיים לוצאטו, also Moses Chaim, Moses Hayyim, also Luzzato) (1707 in Padua – 16 May 1746 in Acre (26 Iyar 5506)), also known by the Hebrew acronym RaMCHaL (or RaMHaL), was a prominent Italian Jewish rabbi, kabbalist, and philosopher.

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A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.

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A muezzin (müezzin from مؤذن) is the person appointed at a mosque to lead and recite the call to prayer for every event of prayer and worship in the mosque.

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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Mussaf (also spelled Musaf) is an additional service that is recited on Shabbat, Yom Tov, Chol Hamoed, and Rosh Chodesh.

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Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.

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Namaste (Devanagari: नमस्ते), sometimes spoken as Namaskar, Namaskaram is a respectful form of greeting in Hindu custom, found on the Indian subcontinent mainly in India and Nepal and among the Indian diaspora.

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National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health

The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) is a United States government agency which explores complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).

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National Day of Prayer

The National Day of Prayer is an annual day of observance held on the first Thursday of May, designated by the United States Congress, when people are asked "to turn to God in prayer and meditation".

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.

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Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Nianfo (Japanese:,, Phật) is a term commonly seen in Pure Land Buddhism.

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Nosson Scherman

Nosson Scherman (נתן שרמן, born 1935, Newark, New Jersey) is an American Haredi rabbi best known as the general editor of ArtScroll/Mesorah Publications.

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Obligatory Bahá'í prayers

Obligatory Bahá'í prayers are prayers which are to be said daily by Bahá'ís according to a fixed form decreed by Bahá'u'lláh.

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Oddrúnargrátr (Oddrún's lament) or Oddrúnarkviða (Oddrún's poem) is an Eddic poem, found in the Codex Regius manuscript where it follows Guðrúnarkviða III and precedes Atlakviða.

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In Germanic mythology, Odin (from Óðinn /ˈoːðinː/) is a widely revered god.

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Old Norse religion

Old Norse religion developed from early Germanic religion during the Proto-Norse period, when the North Germanic people separated into a distinct branch of the Germanic peoples.

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Om (IAST: Auṃ or Oṃ, Devanagari) is a sacred sound and a spiritual symbol in Hindu religion.

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Om mani padme hum

(ॐ मणिपद्मे हूँ) is the six-syllabled Sanskrit mantra particularly associated with the four-armed Shadakshari form of Avalokiteshvara (Chenrezig, Guanyin, かんのん Kannon or Kanzeon, Мэгжид Жанрайсиг Migjid Janraisig), the bodhisattva of compassion.

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In classical antiquity, an oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the god.

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Orans, a loanword from Medieval Latin ōrāns translated as one who is praying or pleading, also orant or orante, is a posture or bodily attitude of prayer, usually standing, with the elbows close to the sides of the body and with the hands outstretched sideways, palms up.

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Order of Saint Benedict

The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.

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Orthodox Judaism

Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.

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Orthodox Union

The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America (UOJCA), more popularly known as the Orthodox Union (OU), is one of the oldest Orthodox Jewish organizations in the United States.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Paath or Path, from the Sanskrit patha which means reading or recitation, is, in the religious context, reading or recitation of the holy texts.

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Pavamana Mantra

The Pavamana Mantra (pavamāna meaning "being purified, strained", historically a name of Soma), also known as pavamāna abhyāroha (abhyāroha, lit. "ascending", being an Upanishadic technical term for "prayer") is a Hindu mantra introduced in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad (1.3.28.) The mantra was originally meant to be recited during the introductory praise of the Soma sacrifice by the patron sponsoring the sacrifice.

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Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.

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A petition is a request to do something, most commonly addressed to a government official or public entity.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Poetic Edda

Poetic Edda is the modern attribution for an unnamed collection of Old Norse anonymous poems, which is different from the Edda written by Snorri Sturluson.

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Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.

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Praise is a form of social interaction expressing recognition, reassurance or admiration.

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Praṇāma (Sanskrit, "obeisance, bowing down") is a form of "respectful salutation" or "reverential bowing" before something, or another person - usually grandparents, parents, elders or teachers or someone deeply respected such as a deity.

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Prayer beads

Prayer beads are used by members of various religious traditions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Sikhism and the Bahá'í Faith to mark the repetitions of prayers, chants or devotions, such as the rosary of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Catholicism, and dhikr (remembrance of God) in Islam.

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Prayer flag

A prayer flag is a colorful rectangular cloth, often found strung along mountain ridges and peaks high in the Himalayas.

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Prayer in Latter Day Saint theology and practice

Prayer is one of the central teachings of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) as taught by LDS scripture and church leaders.

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Prayer in the Catholic Church

In the Catholic Church, prayer is "the raising of one's mind and heart to God or the requesting of good things from God." It is an act of the moral virtue of religion, which Catholic theologians identify as a part of the cardinal virtue of justice.

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Prayer stick

A prayer stick is a stick-shaped object used for prayer.

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Prayer wheel

A prayer wheel is a cylindrical wheel on a spindle made from metal, wood, stone, leather or coarse cotton.

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Prentice Hall

Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.

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A prie-dieu (French: literally, "pray God", plural prie-dieux) is a type of prayer desk primarily intended for private devotional use, but may also be found in churches.

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Prostration is the placement of the body in a reverentially or submissively prone position as a gesture.

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The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.

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The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common agricultural, material and religious practices.

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Pure Land Buddhism

Pure Land Buddhism (浄土仏教 Jōdo bukkyō; Korean:; Tịnh Độ Tông), also referred to as Amidism in English, is a broad branch of Mahayana Buddhism and one of the most widely practiced traditions of Buddhism in East Asia.

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Pyramid Texts

The Pyramid Texts are a collection of ancient Egyptian religious texts from the time of the Old Kingdom.

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Gabala (Qəbələ, Гәбәлә; Кьвепеле, Q̇wepele, قوه‌په‌له‌), also known as Qabala, is a city in Azerbaijan and the capital of the Qabala Rayon.

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In the Bahá'í Faith the Qiblih (قبلة, "direction") is the location that Bahá'ís should face when saying their daily obligatory prayers, and is fixed at the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, near Acre, in present-day Israel; approximately at.

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The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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R. K. Gordon

Robert Kay Gordon (1887–1973) was an English scholar of medieval and early modern English literature and administrator at the University of Alberta in Canada.

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Raëlism (also known as Raëlianism or the Raëlian movement) is a UFO religion that was founded in 1974 by Claude Vorilhon (b. 1946), now known as Raël.

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Rama or Ram (Sanskrit: राम, IAST: Rāma), also known as Ramachandra, is a major deity of Hinduism.

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Rapport is a close and harmonious relationship in which the people or groups concerned are “in sync” with each other, understand each other's feelings or ideas, and communicate smoothly.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Religion in ancient Rome

Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.

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Religious experience

A religious experience (sometimes known as a spiritual experience, sacred experience, or mystical experience) is a subjective experience which is interpreted within a religious framework.

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Religious law

Religious law refers to ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions.

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In Völsunga saga, Rerir, the son of Sigi, succeeds his murdered father and avenges his death.

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A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".

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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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The Holy Rosary (rosarium, in the sense of "crown of roses" or "garland of roses"), also known as the Dominican Rosary, refers to a form of prayer used in the Catholic Church and to the string of knots or beads used to count the component prayers.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Rukūʿ (رُكوع) refers to two things in ISLAM.

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The Saṃbhogakāya (Sanskrit: "body of enjoyment", Tib: longs spyod rdzog pa'i sku) is the second mode or aspect of the Trikaya.

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Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.

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Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.

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Samson Raphael Hirsch

Samson Raphael Hirsch (June 20, 1808 – December 31, 1888) was a German Orthodox rabbi best known as the intellectual founder of the Torah im Derech Eretz school of contemporary Orthodox Judaism.

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Sati (Buddhism)

Sati (in Pali; Sanskrit: smṛti) is mindfulness or awareness, a spiritual or psychological faculty (indriya) that forms an essential part of Buddhist practice.

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Savitaṛ (Sanskrit: stem, nominative singular) is a deity celebrated in the Rigveda, and is one of the Adityas i.e. off-spring of the Vedic primeval mother goddess Aditi.

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School prayer

School prayer, in the context of religious liberty, is state-sanctioned or mandatory prayer by students in public schools.

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The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.

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Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.

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For the Israeli think tank, see Shaharit (NPO) Shacharit (שַחֲרִית šaḥăriṯ), or Shacharis in Ashkenazi Hebrew, is the morning Tefillah (prayer) of the Jewish people, one of the three daily prayers.

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Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.

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Shema Yisrael

Shema Yisrael (or Sh'ma Yisrael; שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל; "Hear, Israel") are the first two words of a section of the Torah, and is the title (better known as The Shema) of a prayer that serves as a centerpiece of the morning and evening Jewish prayer services.

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Popular Buddhism In Japan: Shin Buddhist Religion & Culture by Esben Andreasen, pp.

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or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.

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Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee

The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (or SGPC) is an organization in India responsible for the management of gurdwaras, Sikh places of worship in three states of Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh and union territory of Chandigarh.

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Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.

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Shuckling (also written as shokeling), from the Yiddish word meaning "to shake", is the ritual swaying of worshippers during Jewish prayer, usually forward and back but also from side to side.

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A siddur (סדור; plural siddurim סדורים) is a Jewish prayer book, containing a set order of daily prayers.

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Sign of the cross

The sign of the cross (signum crucis), or blessing oneself or crossing oneself, is a ritual blessing made by members of most branches of Christianity.

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Sigrdrífumál (also known as Brynhildarljóð) is the conventional title given to a section of the Poetic Edda text in Codex Regius.

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Sigurd (Old Norse: Sigurðr) or Siegfried (Middle High German: Sîvrit) is a legendary hero of Germanic mythology, who killed a dragon and was later murdered.

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A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

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The term skald, or skáld (Old Norse:, later;, meaning "poet"), is generally used for poets who composed at the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking Age and Middle Ages.

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Slate (magazine)

Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.

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Slavic paganism

Slavic paganism or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs, godlores and ritual practices of the Slavs before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites.

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Soma (drink)

Soma (सोम) or haoma (Avestan) is a Vedic ritual drink of importance among the early Indians.

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Song of Hannah

The Song of Hannah is a poem interrupting the prose text of the Books of Samuel.

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Song of Moses

The Song of Moses is the name sometimes given to the poem which appears in Deuteronomy of the Hebrew Bible, which according to the Bible was delivered just prior to Moses' death on Mount Nebo.

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Sound symbolism

In linguistics, sound symbolism, phonesthesia or phonosemantics is the idea that vocal sounds or phonemes carry meaning in and of themselves.

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Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.

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Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Stephan Grundy

Stephan Scott Grundy (born 1967 in New York City, New York, United States), commonly known as Stephan Grundy, and also known by the pen-name Kveldulf Gundarsson, is an American author, scholar, goði and proponent of Asatru. Grundy grew up in Dallas in the U.S. state of Texas. He now lives in Shinrone, County Offaly, Ireland. He has over two dozen published books and a number of published papers. He is best known for his modern adaptations of legendary sagas and also a non-fiction writer on Germanic mythology, Germanic paganism, and Germanic neopaganism.

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Studies on intercessory prayer

Some religions claim that praying for somebody who is sick can have positive effects on the health of the person being prayed for.

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Subject-expectancy effect

The subject-expectancy effect, is a form of reactivity that occurs in scientific experiments or medical treatments when a research subject or patient expects a given result and therefore unconsciously affects the outcome, or reports the expected result.

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Sufi whirling

Sufi whirling (or Sufi turning) (Semazen) is a form of Sama or physically active meditation which originated among Sufis, and which is still practiced by the Sufi Dervishes of the Mevlevi order and other orders such as the Rifa'i-Marufi.

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Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Sujūd (سُجود), or sajdah (سجدة), is an Arabic word meaning prostration to God (Arabic: الله Allah) in the direction of the Kaaba at Mecca which is usually done during the daily prayers (salat).

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Supplication (also known as petitioning) is a form of prayer, wherein one party humbly or earnestly asks another party to provide something, either for the party who is doing the supplicating (e.g., "Please spare my life.") or on behalf of someone else.

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Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.

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Tai chi

Tai chi (taiji), short for T'ai chi ch'üan, or Taijiquan (pinyin: tàijíquán; 太极拳), is an internal Chinese martial art practiced for both its defense training and its health benefits.

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The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.

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Tantra techniques (Vajrayana)

Tantra techniques in Vajrayana Buddhism are techniques used to attain Buddhahood.

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Thanksgiving Day is a national holiday celebrated in Canada, the United States, some of the Caribbean islands, and Liberia.

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The Varieties of Religious Experience

The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature is a book by Harvard University psychologist and philosopher William James.

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Thelema is a social or spiritual philosophy derived from Western esotericism.

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Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.

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Theurgy (from Greek θεουργία, Theourgia) describes the practice of rituals, sometimes seen as magical in nature, performed with the intention of invoking the action or evoking the presence of one or more gods, especially with the goal of achieving henosis (uniting with the divine) and perfecting oneself.

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Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.

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Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.

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Trance denotes any state of awareness or consciousness other than normal waking consciousness.

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Transfer of merit

Transfer of merit (italic, italic or pattānumodanā) is a standard part of Buddhist spiritual discipline where the practitioner's religious merit, resulting from good deeds, is transferred to deceased relatives, to deities, or to all sentient beings.

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The Trikāya doctrine (Sanskrit, literally "three bodies") is a Mahayana Buddhist teaching on both the nature of reality and the nature of Buddhahood.

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Tutelary deity

A tutelary (also tutelar) is a deity or spirit who is a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture, or occupation.

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University of Texas Press

The University of Texas Press (or UT Press) is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin.

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Upaya (Sanskrit:, expedient means, pedagogy) is a term used in Mahayana Buddhism to refer to an aspect of guidance along the Buddhist Paths to liberation where a conscious, voluntary action is driven by an incomplete reasoning about its direction.

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In Norse mythology, a valkyrie (from Old Norse valkyrja "chooser of the slain") is one of a host of female figures who choose those who may die in battle and those who may live.

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Vættir (Old Norse; singular '''Vættr''') or wights are nature spirits in Norse mythology.

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Völsunga saga

The Völsunga saga (often referred to in English as the Volsunga Saga or Saga of the Völsungs) is a legendary saga, a late 13th century Icelandic prose rendition of the origin and decline of the Völsung clan (including the story of Sigurd and Brynhild and destruction of the Burgundians).

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Völuspá (Old Norse Vǫluspá or Vǫluspǫ́, Prophecy of the Völva (Seeress); reconstructed Old Norse, Modern Icelandic) is the first and best known poem of the Poetic Edda.

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The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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Veneration of the dead

The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.

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Vilna Gaon

Elijah ben Solomon Zalman, (ר' אליהו בן שלמה זלמן Rabbi Eliyahu ben Shlomo Zalman) known as the Vilna Gaon (דער װילנער גאון, Gaon z Wilna, Vilniaus Gaonas) or Elijah of Vilna, or by his Hebrew acronym HaGra ("HaGaon Rabbenu Eliyahu") or Elijah Ben Solomon (Sialiec, April 23, 1720 – Vilnius October 9, 1797), was a Talmudist, halakhist, kabbalist, and the foremost leader of misnagdic (non-hasidic) Jewry of the past few centuries.

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Vipassanā (Pāli) or vipaśyanā (विपश्यन) in the Buddhist tradition means insight into the true nature of reality.

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Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.

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Votive offering

A votive deposit or votive offering is one or more objects displayed or deposited, without the intention of recovery or use, in a sacred place for broadly religious purposes.

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The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.

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Waheguru (ਵਾਹਿਗੁਰੂ) is a name given to God in Sikhism.

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Wayne Proudfoot

Wayne Lee Proudfoot (born November 17, 1939) is an American scholar of religion and has written several works in that field, specializing in the philosophy of religion.

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Wessobrunn Prayer

The Wessobrunn Prayer, sometimes called the Wessobrunn Creation Poem (Wessobrunner Gebet, Wessobrunner Schöpfungsgedicht), believed to date from c790, is among the earliest known poetic works in Old High German.

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Western esotericism

Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.

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Wið færstice

"Wið færstice" is an Old English medical text surviving in the collection known now as Lacnunga in the British Library.

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Wicca, also termed Pagan Witchcraft, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement.

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William Blake

William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.

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William James

William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.

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Worship is an act of religious devotion usually directed towards a deity.

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Wuḍūʾ (الوضوء) is the Islamic procedure for washing parts of the body, a type of ritual purification.

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Yajna (IAST) literally means "sacrifice, devotion, worship, offering", and refers in Hinduism to any ritual done in front of a sacred fire, often with mantras.

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Yana (Buddhism)

Yāna (Sanskrit and Pāli: "vehicle") refers to a mode or method of spiritual practice in Buddhism, and in particular to divisions of various schools of Buddhism according to their type of practice.

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Yidam is a type of deity associated with tantric or Vajrayana Buddhism said to be manifestations of Buddhahood or enlightened mind.

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Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.

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Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.

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Zazen (literally "seated meditation"; 座禅;, pronounced) is a meditative discipline that is typically the primary practice of the Zen Buddhist tradition.

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Zen (p; translit) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism.

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`Abdu’l-Bahá' (Persian: عبد البهاء‎, 23 May 1844 – 28 November 1921), born `Abbás (عباس), was the eldest son of Bahá'u'lláh and served as head of the Bahá'í Faith from 1892 until 1921.

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Redirects here:

Approaches to prayer, Daily prayer, Daily prayers, Devotional prayer, Namāz, Orisons, Pray, Prayed, Prayer group, Prayer in Buddhism, Prayers, Praying, The Prayer, The Prayer (\song), The Prayers.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prayer

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