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# Precession

Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. [1]

69 relations: Albert Einstein, Ancient Greek astronomy, Angular momentum, Angular velocity, Apsidal precession, Axial precession, Basis (linear algebra), Bicycle, California Institute of Technology, Cambridge University Press, Classical mechanics, Cone, Coriolis force, Earth, Ecliptic, Ecliptic coordinate system, Equatorial bulge, Equatorial coordinate system, Euler angles, Frame of reference, Frequency, General relativity, Geodetic effect, Gimbal, Gyrocompass, Gyroscope, Hipparchus, History of China, Ice age, Jin dynasty (265–420), Jupiter, Larmor precession, Lense–Thirring precession, Magnitude (mathematics), Max Born, Mercury (planet), Milankovitch cycles, Moment of inertia, Moon, Nodal precession, Normal force, Nutation, Orbit, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital node, Orbital pole, Orientation (geometry), Perimeter, Physics, Polar motion, ... Expand index (19 more) »

## Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

## Ancient Greek astronomy

Greek astronomy is astronomy written in the Greek language in classical antiquity.

## Angular momentum

In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.

## Angular velocity

In physics, the angular velocity of a particle is the rate at which it rotates around a chosen center point: that is, the time rate of change of its angular displacement relative to the origin.

## Apsidal precession

In celestial mechanics, apsidal precession or orbital precession is the precession (rotation) of the orbit of a celestial body.

## Axial precession

In astronomy, axial precession is a gravity-induced, slow, and continuous change in the orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis.

## Basis (linear algebra)

In mathematics, a set of elements (vectors) in a vector space V is called a basis, or a set of, if the vectors are linearly independent and every vector in the vector space is a linear combination of this set.

## Bicycle

A bicycle, also called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other.

## California Institute of Technology

The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.

## Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

## Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

## Cone

A cone is a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base (frequently, though not necessarily, circular) to a point called the apex or vertex.

## Coriolis force

In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.

## Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

## Ecliptic

The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.

## Ecliptic coordinate system

The ecliptic coordinate system is a celestial coordinate system commonly used for representing the apparent positions and orbits of Solar System objects.

## Equatorial bulge

An equatorial bulge is a difference between the equatorial and polar diameters of a planet, due to the force exerted by its rotation.

## Equatorial coordinate system

The equatorial coordinate system is a celestial coordinate system widely used to specify the positions of celestial objects.

## Euler angles

The Euler angles are three angles introduced by Leonhard Euler to describe the orientation of a rigid body with respect to a fixed coordinate system.

## Frame of reference

In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements.

## Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

## General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

## Geodetic effect

The geodetic effect (also known as geodetic precession, de Sitter precession or de Sitter effect) represents the effect of the curvature of spacetime, predicted by general relativity, on a vector carried along with an orbiting body.

## Gimbal

A gimbal is a pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis.

## Gyrocompass

A gyrocompass is a type of non-magnetic compass which is based on a fast-spinning disc and the rotation of the Earth (or another planetary body if used elsewhere in the universe) to find geographical direction automatically.

## Gyroscope

A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.

## Hipparchus

Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.

## History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

## Ice age

An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.

## Jin dynasty (265–420)

The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.

## Jupiter

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

## Larmor precession

In physics, Larmor precession (named after Joseph Larmor) is the precession of the magnetic moment of an object about an external magnetic field.

## Lense–Thirring precession

In general relativity, Lense–Thirring precession or the Lense–Thirring effect (named after Josef Lense and Hans Thirring) is a relativistic correction to the precession of a gyroscope near a large rotating mass such as the Earth.

## Magnitude (mathematics)

In mathematics, magnitude is the size of a mathematical object, a property which determines whether the object is larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind.

## Max Born

Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.

## Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.

## Milankovitch cycles

Milankovitch cycles describe the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements on its climate over thousands of years.

## Moment of inertia

The moment of inertia, otherwise known as the angular mass or rotational inertia, of a rigid body is a tensor that determines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about a rotational axis; similar to how mass determines the force needed for a desired acceleration.

## Moon

The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

## Nodal precession

Nodal precession is the precession of the orbital plane of a satellite around the rotation axis of an astronomical body such as Earth.

## Normal force

In mechanics, the normal force F_n\ is that component of the contact force that is perpendicular to the surface that an object contacts.

## Nutation

Nutation (from Latin nūtātiō, "nodding, swaying") is a rocking, swaying, or nodding motion in the axis of rotation of a largely axially symmetric object, such as a gyroscope, planet, or bullet in flight, or as an intended behavior of a mechanism.

## Orbit

In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.

## Orbital eccentricity

The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.

## Orbital node

An orbital node is either of the two points where an orbit intersects a plane of reference to which it is inclined.

## Orbital pole

An orbital pole is either point at the ends of an imaginary line segment that runs through the center of an orbit (of a revolving body like a planet) and is perpendicular to the orbital plane.

## Orientation (geometry)

In geometry the orientation, angular position, or attitude of an object such as a line, plane or rigid body is part of the description of how it is placed in the space it occupies.

## Perimeter

A perimeter is a path that surrounds a two-dimensional shape.

## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

## Polar motion

Polar motion of the Earth is the motion of the Earth's rotational axis relative to its crust.

## Polaris

Polaris, designated Alpha Ursae Minoris (Ursae Minoris, abbreviated Alpha UMi, UMi), commonly the North Star or Pole Star, is the brightest star in the constellation of Ursa Minor.

## Precession (mechanical)

Precession, also called epicyclic fretting precession, (or more accurately hypocyclic fretting precession since "epicyclic" applies to a round part spinning outside a circle and "hypocyclic" applies to a round part spinning inside a circle) is the process of a round part in a round hole rotating with respect to that hole because of clearance between them and a radial force on the part that changes direction.

## Relative direction

The most common relative directions are left, right, forward(s), backward(s), up, and down.

## Right angle

In geometry and trigonometry, a right angle is an angle of exactly 90° (degrees), corresponding to a quarter turn.

## Rotation

A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.

## Rotation around a fixed axis

Rotation around a fixed axis or about a fixed axis of revolution or motion with respect to a fixed axis of rotation is a special case of rotational motion.

## Solid

Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).

## Speed

In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.

## Spheroid

A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.

## Sun

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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## Theory of relativity

The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

## Thomas precession

In physics, the Thomas precession, named after Llewellyn Thomas, is a relativistic correction that applies to the spin of an elementary particle or the rotation of a macroscopic gyroscope and relates the angular velocity of the spin of a particle following a curvilinear orbit to the angular velocity of the orbital motion.

## Tidal force

The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.

## Top

A spinning top is a toy designed to spin rapidly on the ground, the motion of which causes it to remain precisely balanced on its tip because of its rotational inertia.

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## Torque

Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.

## Velocity

The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.

## Vortex

In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved.

## Winter solstice

The winter solstice (or hibernal solstice), also known as midwinter, is an astronomical phenomenon marking the day with the shortest period of daylight and the longest night of the year.

## Yu Xi

Yu Xi (虞喜; 307-345 AD), courtesy name Zhongning (仲寧), was a Chinese official, scholar, and astronomer of the Jin dynasty (265-420 AD).

## References

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