181 relations: Adaptation, Adaptive Coloration in Animals, Aggressive mimicry, Ambush predator, Anglerfish, Animal, Animal Behaviour (journal), Animal echolocation, Ant, Antenna (biology), Anti-predator adaptation, Apex predator, Aposematism, Baleen whale, Bat, Beaver, Bee, Big cat, Binocular vision, Biodiversity, Biological interaction, Biological pest control, Bird of prey, Bison, Black-and-white colobus, Blue jay, Bobcat, Bottlenose dolphin, Box jellyfish, Branchiura, Brown bear, Cambrian, Camouflage, Canine tooth, Carnassial, Carnivore, Cat, Cattle, Cestoda, Cheetah, Chemical defense, Chimpanzee, Chital, Claw, Co-operation (evolution), Coevolution, Competition (biology), Compound eye, Consumer-resource systems, Cormorant, ..., Cougar, Countershading, Coyote, Dazzled and Deceived, Deimatic behaviour, Disruptive coloration, E. O. Wilson, Eagle, Ecological pyramid, Ecology, Ecosystem, Egg, Eristalis tenax, Eurasian lynx, Evolutionarily stable strategy, Evolutionary arms race, Evolutionary pressure, Eye, Eyespot (mimicry), Falcon, Fecundity, Felidae, Firefly, Fishing, Fishing cat, Fitness (biology), Flower mantis, Fly, Food chain, Food web, Frog, Frogfish, Gene-centered view of evolution, Gnathiidae, Gray fox, Gray wolf, Great blue heron, Harris's hawk, Hawk, Hearing, Hematophagy, Herbivore, Heron, Heterotroph, Host (biology), Human, Humpback whale, Hunting, Hyena, Insect, Intraguild predation, Jack jumper ant, Jaw, Jumping spider, Kelp, Keystone species, Komodo dragon, Krill, Ladakh, Lamprey, Leech, Leopard, Lion, List of camouflage methods, List of feeding behaviours, Lotka–Volterra equations, Mammal, Mandible (insect mouthpart), Mantis, Mathematical model, Mellinus arvensis, Meristem, Mimicry, Mobbing (animal behavior), Mosquito, Natural selection, Ocelot, Olfaction, Olivia Judson, Orchidaceae, Owl, Oxford University Press, Pack hunter, Parasitism, Parasitoid, Parasitoid wasp, Pesticide, Photuris, Phytoplankton, Pinophyta, Poaceae, Population dynamics, Predator–prey reversal, Pursuit predation, Python molurus, Rattlesnake, Red-tailed hawk, Refuge (ecology), Science (journal), Scientific American, Seed, Seed predation, Sheep, Shrew, Signalling theory, Skunk, Snake, Snow leopard, Sperm whale, Spider, Spider wasp, Springbok, Stipe (botany), Stotting, Striated frogfish, Taenia solium, The Selfish Gene, Thomisidae, Thomson's gazelle, Tiger, Trapping, Trophic level, Ungulate, Vampire bat, Venom, Wa-Tor, White stork, Wildebeest, Willow, Yellowstone National Park, Zooplankton. Expand index (131 more) » « Shrink index
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Adaptive Coloration in Animals is a 500-page textbook about camouflage, warning coloration and mimicry by the Cambridge zoologist Hugh Cott, first published during the Second World War in 1940; the book sold widely and made him famous.
Aggressive mimicry is a form of mimicry in which predators, parasites or parasitoids share similar signals, using a harmless model, allowing them to avoid being correctly identified by their prey or host.
Ambush predators or sit-and-wait predators are carnivorous animals or other organisms, such as some nematophagous fungi and carnivorous plants, that capture or trap prey by stealth or by strategy (typically not conscious strategy), rather than by speed or by strength.
Anglerfish are fish of the teleost order Lophiiformes.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Animal Behaviour is a double-blind peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1953 as The British Journal of Animal Behaviour, before obtaining its current title in 1958.
Echolocation, also called bio sonar, is the biological sonar used by several kinds of animals.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
Antennae (singular: antenna), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods.
Anti-predator adaptations are mechanisms developed through evolution that assist prey organisms in their constant struggle against predators.
An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain, with no natural predators.
Aposematism (from Greek ἀπό apo away, σῆμα sema sign) is a term coined by Edward Bagnall PoultonPoulton, 1890.
Baleen whales (systematic name Mysticeti), known earlier as whalebone whales, form a parvorder of the infraorder Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises).
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
The informal term "big cat" is typically used to refer to any of the five living members of the genus Panthera, namely tiger, lion, jaguar, leopard and snow leopard.
In biology, binocular vision is a type of vision in which an animal having two eyes is able to perceive a single three-dimensional image of its surroundings.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Biological interactions are the effects that the organisms in a community have on each other.
Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.
A bird of prey, predatory bird, or raptor is any of several species of bird that hunts and feeds on rodents and other animals.
Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae.
Black-and-white colobuses (or colobi) are Old World monkeys of the genus Colobus, native to Africa.
The blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata) is a passerine bird in the family Corvidae, native to North America.
The bobcat (Lynx rufus) is a North American cat that appeared during the Irvingtonian stage of around 1.8 million years ago (AEO).
Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin.
Box jellyfish (class Cubozoa) are cnidarian invertebrates distinguished by their cube-shaped medusae.
Branchiura is a group of crustaceans ranked as a subclass of the class Maxillopoda.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dog teeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth.
Carnassials are paired upper and lower teeth (either molars or premolars and molars) modified in such a way as to allow enlarged and often self-sharpening edges to pass by each other in a shearing manner.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms in the flatworm (Platyhelminthes) phylum, commonly known as tapeworms.
List |F. jubata Erxleben, 1777 |F. jubatus Schreber, 1775 |Felis guttata Hermann, 1804 |F. venatica Griffith, 1821 |Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 |F. fearonii Smith, 1834 |F. megaballa Heuglin, 1868 |C. jubatus Blanford, 1888 |Cynælurus jubata Mivart, 1900 |C. guttatus Hollister, 1911 --> The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae that occurs in Southern, North and East Africa, and a few localities in Iran. The species is IUCN Red Listed as vulnerable, as it suffered a substantial decline in its historic range in the 20th century due to habitat loss, poaching, illegal pet trade, and conflict with humans. By 2016, the global cheetah population has been estimated at approximately 7,100 individuals in the wild. Several African countries have taken steps to improve cheetah conservation measures. It is the fastest land animal. The only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, the cheetah was formally described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted coat, small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and long spotted tail. Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats, making it more similar to the cougar. The cheetah reaches nearly at the shoulder, and weighs. Though taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Typically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, with hunting their major activity. Adult males are sociable despite their territoriality, forming groups called coalitions. Females are not territorial; they may be solitary or live with their offspring in home ranges. Carnivores, cheetah mainly prey upon antelopes and gazelles. They will stalk their prey to within, charge towards it and kill it by tripping it during the chase and biting its throat to suffocate it to death. Cheetahs can reach speeds of in short bursts, but this is disputed by more recent measurements. The average speed of cheetahs is about. Cheetahs are induced ovulators, breeding throughout the year. Gestation is nearly three months long, resulting in a litter of typically three to five cubs (the number can vary from one to eight). Weaning occurs at six months; siblings tend to stay together for some time. Cheetah cubs face higher mortality than most other mammals, especially in the Serengeti region. Cheetahs inhabit a variety of habitatsdry forests, scrub forests and savannahs. Because of its prowess at hunting, the cheetah was tamed and used to kill game at hunts in the past. The animal has been widely depicted in art, literature, advertising and animation.
Chemical defense is a life history strategy employed by many organisms to avoid consumption by producing toxic or repellent metabolites.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
The chital or cheetal (Axis axis), also known as spotted deer or axis deer, is a species of deer that is native in the Indian subcontinent.
A claw is a curved, pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger in most amniotes (mammals, reptiles, birds).
In evolution, co-operation is the process where groups of organisms work or act together for common or mutual benefits.
In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution.
Competition is an interaction between organisms or species in which both the organisms or species are harmed.
A compound eye is a visual organ found in arthropods such as insects and crustaceans.
Consumer-resource interactions are the core motif of ecological food chains or food webs, and are an umbrella term for a variety of more specialized types of biological species interactions including prey-predator (see predation), host-parasite (see parasitism), plant-herbivore and victim-exploiter systems.
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of approximately 40 species of aquatic birds commonly known as cormorants and shags.
The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.
Countershading, or Thayer's law, is a method of camouflage in which an animal's coloration is darker on the upper side and lighter on the underside of the body.
The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.
Dazzled and Deceived: Mimicry and Camouflage is a 2009 book on camouflage and mimicry, in nature and military usage, by the science writer and journalist Peter Forbes.
Deimatic behaviour, threat display, or startle display in animals means any pattern of behaviour, such as suddenly displaying conspicuous eyespots, to scare off or momentarily distract a predator, thus giving the prey animal an opportunity to escape.
Disruptive coloration (also known as disruptive camouflage or disruptive patterning) is a form of camouflage that works by breaking up the outlines of an animal, soldier or military vehicle with a strongly contrasting pattern.
Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher, theorist, naturalist and author.
Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
An ecological pyramid (also trophic pyramid, eltonian pyramid, energy pyramid, or sometimes food pyramid) is a graphical representation designed to show the biomass or bio productivity at each trophic level in a given ecosystem.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
Eristalis tenax is a hoverfly, also known as the drone fly (or "dronefly").
The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
An evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a strategy which, if adopted by a population in a given environment, cannot be invaded by any alternative strategy that is initially rare.
In evolutionary biology, an evolutionary arms race is a struggle between competing sets of co-evolving genes, traits, or species, that develop adaptations and counter-adaptations against each other, resembling an arms race.
Any cause that reduces reproductive success in a portion of a population potentially exerts evolutionary pressure, selective pressure or selection pressure.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
An eyespot (sometimes ocellus) is an eye-like marking.
Falcons are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which includes about 40 species.
In human demography and population biology, fecundity is the potential for reproduction of an organism or population, measured by the number of gametes (eggs), seed set, or asexual propagules.
The biological family Felidae is a lineage of carnivorans colloquially referred to as cats.
The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
The fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) is a medium-sized wild cat of South and Southeast Asia.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
Flower mantises are those species of praying mantis that mimic flowers.
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
A food web (or food cycle) is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community.
A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).
Frogfishes are any member of the anglerfish family Antennariidae, of the order Lophiiformes.
The gene-centered view of evolution, gene's eye view, gene selection theory, or selfish gene theory holds that adaptive evolution occurs through the differential survival of competing genes, increasing the allele frequency of those alleles whose phenotypic trait effects successfully promote their own propagation, with gene defined as "not just one single physical bit of DNA all replicas of a particular bit of DNA distributed throughout the world".
The Gnathiidae are a family of isopod crustaceans.
The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), or grey fox, is a carnivorous mammal of the family Canidae, widespread throughout North America and Central America.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) is a large wading bird in the heron family Ardeidae, common near the shores of open water and in wetlands over most of North America and Central America, as well as the Caribbean and the Galápagos Islands.
The Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus) formerly known as the bay-winged hawk or dusky hawk, is a medium-large bird of prey that breeds from the southwestern United States south to Chile, central Argentina, and Brazil.
Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.
Hematophagy (sometimes spelled haematophagy or hematophagia) is the practice by certain animals of feeding on blood (from the Greek words αἷμα haima "blood" and φάγειν phagein "to eat").
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
The herons are the long-legged freshwater and coastal birds in the family Ardeidae, with 64 recognised species, some of which are referred to as egrets or bitterns rather than herons.
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a species of baleen whale.
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.
Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and sometimes eating of potential competitors.
The Myrmecia pilosula, commonly known as the jack jumper, jumping jack, hopper ant, or jumper ant, is a species of venomous ant native to Australia.
The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth, typically used for grasping and manipulating food.
Jumping spiders are a group of spiders that constitute the family Salticidae.
Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.
A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.
The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), also known as the Komodo monitor, is a species of lizard found in the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, and Padar.
Krill are small crustaceans of the order Euphausiacea, and are found in all the world's oceans.
Ladakh ("land of high passes") is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.
Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.
Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
Camouflage is the concealment of animals or objects of military interest by any combination of methods that helps them to remain unnoticed.
Feeding is the process by which organisms, typically animals, obtain food.
The Lotka–Volterra equations, also known as the predator–prey equations, are a pair of first-order nonlinear differential equations, frequently used to describe the dynamics of biological systems in which two species interact, one as a predator and the other as prey.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Insect mandibles are a pair of appendages near the insect’s mouth, and the most anterior of the three pairs of oral appendages (the labrum is more anterior, but is a single fused structure).
Mantises are an order (Mantodea) of insects that contains over 2,400 species in about 430 genera in 15 families.
A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.
Mellinus arvensis, the field digger wasp, is a species of solitary wasp.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.
In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one organism, usually an animal, to another that has evolved because the resemblance is selectively favoured by the behaviour of a shared signal receiver that can respond to both.
Mobbing in animals is an antipredator adaptation in which individuals of prey species mob a predator by cooperatively attacking or harassing it, usually to protect their offspring.
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a wild cat native to the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central and South America.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
Olivia P. Judson (born 1970) is an evolutionary biologist and science writer.
The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.
Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons, and feathers adapted for silent flight.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A pack hunter or social predator is a predator belonging to the animal kingdom which hunts its prey by working together with other members of its species.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
A parasitoid is an organism that lives in close association with its host and at the host's expense, and which sooner or later kills it.
Parasitoid wasps are a large group of hymenopteran superfamilies, all but the wood wasps (Orussoidea) being in the wasp-waisted Apocrita.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Photuris is a genus of fireflies (beetles of the family Lampyridae).
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
Population dynamics is the branch of life sciences that studies the size and age composition of populations as dynamical systems, and the biological and environmental processes driving them (such as birth and death rates, and by immigration and emigration).
Predator–prey reversal is a biological interaction where an organism that is typically prey in the predation interaction instead acts as the predator.
Pursuit predation is a form of predation in which predators give chase to fleeing prey.
Python molurus is a large nonvenomous python species found in many tropic and subtropic areas of the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus of the subfamily Crotalinae (the pit vipers).
The red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) is a bird of prey that breeds throughout most of North America, from the interior of Alaska and northern Canada to as far south as Panama and the West Indies.
A refuge is a concept in biology and ecology, in which an organism obtains protection from predation by hiding in an area where it is inaccessible or cannot easily be found.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Seed predation, often referred to as granivory, is a type of plant-animal interaction in which granivores (seed predators) feed on the seeds of plants as a main or exclusive food source,Hulme, P.E. and Benkman, C.W. (2002) "Granivory", pp.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
A shrew (family Soricidae) is a small mole-like mammal classified in the order Eulipotyphla.
Within evolutionary biology, signalling theory is a body of theoretical work examining communication between individuals, both within species and across species.
Skunks are North and South American mammals in the family Mephitidae.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
The snow leopard or ounce (Panthera uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.
The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
Wasps in the family Pompilidae are commonly called spider wasps or pompilid wasps.
The springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) is a medium-sized antelope found mainly in southern and southwestern Africa.
In botany, a stipe is a stalk that supports some other structure.
Stotting (also called pronking or pronging) is a behavior of quadrupeds, particularly gazelles, in which they spring into the air, lifting all four feet off the ground simultaneously.
The striated frogfish or hairy frogfish (Antennarius striatus) is a marine fish belonging to the family Antennariidae.
Taenia solium is the pork tapeworm belonging to cyclophyllid cestodes in the family Taeniidae.
The Selfish Gene is a 1976 book on evolution by Richard Dawkins, in which the author builds upon the principal theory of George C. Williams's Adaptation and Natural Selection (1966).
The Thomisidae are a family of spiders, including about 175 genera and over 2,100 species.
Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii) is one of the best-known gazelles.
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.
Animal trapping, or simply trapping, is the use of a device to remotely catch an animal.
The trophic level of an organism is the position it occupies in a food chain.
Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.
Vampire bats are bats whose food source is blood, a dietary trait called hematophagy.
Venomous Animals Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.
Wa-Tor is a population dynamics simulation devised by Alexander Keewatin DewdneyDewdney 1984 and presented in the December 1984 issue of Scientific American in a 5-page article entitled "Computer Recreations: Sharks and fish wage an ecological war on the toroidal planet Wa-Tor".
The white stork (Ciconia ciconia) is a large bird in the stork family Ciconiidae.
The wildebeests, also called gnus, are a genus of antelopes, scientific name Connochaetes.
Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.
Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho.
Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.
Coevolution of predators and prey, Egg predator, Natural enemy, Natural predator, Opportunist predator, Predaceous, Predacious, Predate, Predated, Predating, Predation/Old, Predations, Predator, Predator (biology), Predator and prey, Predator-prey, Predatory, Predatory insect, Predator–prey, Prey, Prey animal, Preyed, Preying, Preys, Raptatory, Size selective predation, Size-selective predation, Social predation, Stalk (zoology), True predation, True predator.