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Index Pregnancy

Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. [1]

291 relations: A Child Is Born (book), Abdomen, Abortion, Absorbed dose, Activities of daily living, All Things Considered, Allotransplantation, Amenorrhea, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Anemia, Artificial insemination, Assisted reproductive technology, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Baby shower, Basal body temperature, BBC News, Bed rest, Belly cast, Biomarker (medicine), Birth control, Birth defect, Birth weight, Blastocyst, Body mass index, Braxton Hicks contractions, Breast pain, Breastfeeding, Caesarean section, Calcium, California Department of Public Health, Callisto (mythology), Cannabis in pregnancy, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cephalic presentation, Cerebral palsy, Cervix, Chadwick's sign, Chemical hazard, Childbirth, Choosing Wisely, Christianity, Circulatory system, Citrus, Coeliac disease, Complications of pregnancy, Constipation, CT scan, Danny Osborne, Deep vein thrombosis, Denial of pregnancy, ..., Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy, Docosahexaenoic acid, Down syndrome, Ectopic pregnancy, Edema, Egg cell, Electroencephalography, Electrolyte imbalance, Embryo, Environmental toxicants and fetal development, Estrogen, Ethanol, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Eurasia, Exercise, Fallopian tube, False pregnancy, Faust, Part One, Fertilisation, Fertility in art, Fertility medication, Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Fetal viability, Fetus, Figurine, Figurines, Folate, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Folliculogenesis, Food and Drug Administration, Fruit, Fundal height, Gamete, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Gestational age, Gestational diabetes, Gestational hypertension, Gingivitis, Gluten, Gluten-free diet, Glycemic index, Goodell's sign, Gravidity and parity, Gums, Heartburn, Hegar's sign, Hematology, Hemorrhoid, Human, Human chorionic gonadotropin, Human embryogenesis, Human fertilization, Hypercoagulability in pregnancy, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Hyperpigmentation, Hypertensive disease of pregnancy, ICD-10 Chapter XV: Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium, Immune tolerance in pregnancy, Implantation (human embryo), In vitro fertilisation, Indication (medicine), Infant, Inferior vena cava, Intellectual disability, Intercurrent disease in pregnancy, Intrauterine growth restriction, Ionizing radiation, Iron-deficiency anemia, Isthmus, Jaundice, Kidney, Labor induction, Large for gestational age, Latin, Lead paint, Lead poisoning, Leaf vegetable, Leap year, Legitimacy (family law), Legume, Lennart Nilsson, Linea alba (abdomen), Linea nigra, List of fetal abnormalities, List of microbiota species of the lower reproductive tract of women, Listeria, Low birth weight, Madonna del Parto, Magnetic resonance imaging, March of Dimes, Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, Martin Lister (MP), Maternity clothing, Maternity Protection Convention, 2000, Mayo Clinic, Medical imaging, Medical sign, Menstrual cycle, Menstruation, Mercury poisoning, Merriam-Webster, Merrion Square, Metabolism, Micronutrient, Midwifery, Miscarriage, Mobile app, Month, Montpellier, Morning sickness, MRI contrast agent, Multiple birth, Multivitamin, Musée Fabre, National Academy of Medicine, National Health Service, Nausea, Navel, Neonatal lupus erythematosus, Niger, Nuchal scan, Nutrition, Obesity, Obstetric ultrasonography, Obstetrical bleeding, Obstetrics, Obstructed labour, Oceania, Octave Tassaert, Offspring, Oogenesis, Oral hygiene, Organic food, Origin (mathematics), Ovary, Overweight, Ovulation, Oxytocin, Parental brain, Parental leave, Pelvic girdle pain, Periodontal disease, Phys.org, Physical examination, Physiology, Placenta, Placenta praevia, Placental abruption, Politics & Gender, Polyhydramnios, Polyuria, Postpartum bleeding, Postpartum depression, Postpartum infections, Postpartum psychosis, Postterm pregnancy, Pre-Columbian era, Pre-conception counseling, Pre-eclampsia, Pregnancy, Pregnancy discrimination, Pregnancy test, Premature rupture of membranes, Prenatal care, Prenatal cocaine exposure, Prenatal development, Preterm birth, Progesterone, Projectional radiography, Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, Pseudopregnancy, Pulmonary embolism, Pyogenic granuloma, Quickening, Recreational drug use, Reference group, Regurgitation (digestion), Renal function, Reproductive system disease, Republic of Macedonia, Respiration (physiology), Respirator, Respiratory minute volume, Role, Rupture of membranes, Salmonella, Sexual intercourse, Shift work, Shortness of breath, Shoulder dystocia, Singapore, Small for gestational age, Smoking and pregnancy, Smooth muscle tissue, Sociology of the family, Spermatozoon, Spina bifida, Standard deviation, Stillbirth, Surrogacy, Susceptibility and severity of infections in pregnancy, Symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy, Systemic lupus erythematosus and pregnancy, Tennessee, Teratology, Tess of the d'Urbervilles, Thalidomide, TheFreeDictionary.com, Theotokos, Thrombophilia, Thrombophlebitis, Thrombosis, Thyroid disease in pregnancy, Total fertility rate, Toxoplasma gondii, Toxoplasmosis, Traditional medicine, Transient tachypnea of the newborn, Transvaginal oocyte retrieval, Twin, Umbilical cord, Unborn Victims of Violence Act, Unintended pregnancy, Urinary bladder, Urinary tract infection, Urine, Uterine contraction, Uterus, Vagina, Varicose veins, Vegetable, Venae cavae, Venus figurines, Visitation (Christianity), Vitamin D, Vulva, Woman, World Health Organization, Zygote. Expand index (241 more) »

A Child Is Born (book)

A Child Is Born (full title: A Child Is Born: The drama of life before birth in unprecedented photographs. A practical guide for the expectant mother; original Swedish title: Ett barn blir till) is a 1965 photographic book by Swedish photojournalist Lennart Nilsson.

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The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.

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Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.

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Absorbed dose

Absorbed dose is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionizing radiation.

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Activities of daily living

Activities of daily living (ADLs or ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people's daily self care activities.

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All Things Considered

All Things Considered (ATC) is the flagship news program on the American network National Public Radio (NPR).

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Allotransplant (allo- meaning "other" in Greek) is the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs, to a recipient from a genetically non-identical donor of the same species.

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Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.

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American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists is a professional association of physicians specializing in obstetrics and gynecology in the United States.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Artificial insemination

Artificial insemination (AI) is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse.

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Assisted reproductive technology

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is the technology used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Baby shower

A baby shower is a way to celebrate the expected or delivered birth of a child by presenting gifts to the mother at a party, whereas other cultures host a baby shower to celebrate the transformation of a woman into a mother.

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Basal body temperature

Basal body temperature (BBT or BTP) is the lowest body temperature attained during rest (usually during sleep).

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Bed rest

Bed rest, also referred to as the rest-cure, is a medical treatment in which a person lies in bed for most of the time to try to cure an illness.

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Belly cast

A belly cast is a three-dimensional plaster sculpture of a woman's pregnant abdomen as a keepsake of her pregnancy.

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Biomarker (medicine)

In medicine, a biomarker is a measurable indicator of the severity or presence of some disease state.

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Birth control

Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Birth weight

Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.

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The blastocyst is a structure formed in the early development of mammals.

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Body mass index

The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.

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Braxton Hicks contractions

Braxton Hicks contractions, also known as practice contractions, are sporadic uterine contractions that sometimes start around six weeks into a pregnancy.

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Breast pain

Breast pain is a medical symptom that is most often associated with a developing disease or condition of the breast.

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Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.

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Caesarean section

Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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California Department of Public Health

The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) is the state department responsible for public health in California.

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Callisto (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Callisto or Kallisto (Καλλιστώ) was a nymph, or the daughter of King Lycaon; the myth varies in such details.

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Cannabis in pregnancy

Cannabis consumption in pregnancy might be associated with restrictions in growth of the fetus, miscarriage, and cognitive deficits.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Cephalic presentation

A cephalic presentation or head presentation or head-first presentation is a situation at childbirth where the fetus is in a longitudinal lie and the head enters the pelvis first; the most common form of cephalic presentation is the vertex presentation where the occiput is the leading part (the part that first enters the birth canal).

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Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood.

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The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.

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Chadwick's sign

Chadwick's sign is a bluish discoloration of the cervix, vagina, and labia resulting from increased blood flow.

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Chemical hazard

A chemical hazard is a type of occupational hazard caused by exposure to chemicals in the workplace.

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Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.

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Choosing Wisely

Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.

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Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.

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Complications of pregnancy

Complications of pregnancy are health problems that are caused by pregnancy.

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Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Danny Osborne

Danny Osborne is an artist born in Dorset, England in 1949.

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Deep vein thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.

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Denial of pregnancy

Denial of pregnancy (also called pregnancy denial) is a rare form of denial exhibited by women to either the fact or the implications of their own pregnancy.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy

For pregnant women with diabetes mellitus some particular challenges for both mother and child.

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Docosahexaenoic acid

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina.

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Down syndrome

Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.

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Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo attaches outside the uterus.

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Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.

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Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.

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Electrolyte imbalance

Electrolyte imbalance is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolytes in the body.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Environmental toxicants and fetal development

Environmental toxicants and fetal development is the impact of different toxic substances from the environment on the development of the fetus.

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Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States Department of Health and Human Services.

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Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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Fallopian tube

The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or salpinges (singular salpinx), are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus, via the uterotubal junction.

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False pregnancy

False pregnancy, also known as phantom, hysterical pregnancy, pregnancy scares or pseudocyesis, is the appearance of clinical or subclinical signs and symptoms associated with pregnancy when the person is not actually pregnant.

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Faust, Part One

Faust: A Tragedy (Faust., or retrospectively) is the first part of Faust by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and is considered by many as the greatest work of German literature.

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Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.

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Fertility in art

Fertility in art refers to any artistic work representing or portraying fertility, which usually refers to successful breeding among humans, although it may also mean successful agriculture and animal husbandry.

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Fertility medication

Fertility medication, better known as fertility drugs, are drugs which enhance reproductive fertility.

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Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.

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Fetal viability

Fetal viability or foetal viability is the ability of a fetus to survive outside the uterus.

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A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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A figurine (a diminutive form of the word figure) or statuette is a small statue that represents a human, deity or animal, or in practice a pair or small group of them.

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Figurines is an indie rock band from Denmark, formed in the mid-1990s.

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Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.

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Follicle-stimulating hormone

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.

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In biology, folliculogenesis is the maturation of the ovarian follicle, a densely packed shell of somatic cells that contains an immature oocyte.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.

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Fundal height

Fundal height, or McDonald's rule, is a measure of the size of the uterus used to assess fetal growth and development during pregnancy.

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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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Germanisches Nationalmuseum

The Germanisches Nationalmuseum is a museum in Nuremberg, Germany.

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Gestational age

Gestational age is a measure of the age of a pregnancy which is taken from the woman's last menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available.

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Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.

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Gestational hypertension

Gestational hypertension or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is the development of new hypertension in a pregnant woman after 20 weeks' gestation without the presence of protein in the urine or other signs of pre-eclampsia.

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Gingivitis is a non-destructive disease that occurs around the teeth.

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Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.

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Gluten-free diet

A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).

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Glycemic index

The glycemic index or glycaemic index (GI) is a number associated with the carbohydrates in a particular type of food that indicates the effect of these carbohydrates on a person's blood glucose (also called blood sugar) level.

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Goodell's sign

In medicine, Goodell's sign is an indication of pregnancy.

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Gravidity and parity

In biology and human medicine, gravidity and parity are the number of times a female is or has been pregnant (gravidity) and carried the pregnancies to a viable gestational age (parity).

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The gums or gingiva (plural: gingivae), consist of the mucosal tissue that lies over the mandible and maxilla inside the mouth.

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Heartburn, also known as acid indigestion, is a burning sensation in the central chest or upper central abdomen.

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Hegar's sign

Hegar's sign is a non-sensitive indication of pregnancy in women — its absence does not exclude pregnancy.

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Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.

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Hemorrhoids, also called piles, are vascular structures in the anal canal.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human chorionic gonadotropin

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.

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Human embryogenesis

Human embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development.

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Human fertilization

Human fertilization is the union of a human egg and sperm, usually occurring in the ampulla of the fallopian tube.

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Hypercoagulability in pregnancy

Hypercoagulability in pregnancy is the propensity of pregnant women to develop thrombosis (blood clots).

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Hyperemesis gravidarum

Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a pregnancy complication that is characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and possibly dehydration.

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Hyperpigmentation is the darkening of an area of skin or nails caused by increased melanin.

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Hypertensive disease of pregnancy

Hypertensive disease of pregnancy, also known as maternal hypertensive disorder, is a group of diseases that includes preeclampsia, eclampsia, gestational hypertension, and chronic hypertension.

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ICD-10 Chapter XV: Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium

ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.

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Immune tolerance in pregnancy

Immune tolerance in pregnancy or gestational/maternal immune tolerance is the absence of a maternal immune response against (in other words, immune tolerance towards) the fetus and placenta during pregnancy, which thus may be viewed as unusually successful allografts, since they genetically differ from the mother.

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Implantation (human embryo)

In humans, implantation is the stage of pregnancy at which the already fertilized egg adheres to the wall of the uterus.

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In vitro fertilisation

In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass").

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Indication (medicine)

In medicine, an indication is a valid reason to use a certain test, medication, procedure, or surgery.

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An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.

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Inferior vena cava

The inferior vena cava (or IVC) is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart.

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Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

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Intercurrent disease in pregnancy

An intercurrent (or concurrent, concomitant or, in most cases, pre-existing) disease in pregnancy is a disease that is not directly caused by the pregnancy (in contrast to a complication of pregnancy), but which may become worse or be a potential risk to the pregnancy (such as causing pregnancy complications).

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Intrauterine growth restriction

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) refers to poor growth of a fetus while in the mother's womb during pregnancy.

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Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.

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Iron-deficiency anemia

Iron-deficiency anemia is anemia caused by a lack of iron.

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An isthmus (or; plural: isthmuses; from neck) is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated.

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Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Labor induction

Labor induction is the process or treatment that stimulates childbirth and delivery.

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Large for gestational age

Large for gestational age (LGA) is an indication of high prenatal growth rate.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lead paint

Lead paint or lead-based paint is paint containing lead.

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Lead poisoning

Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.

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Leaf vegetable

Leaf vegetables, also called leafy greens, salad greens, pot herbs, vegetable greens, or simply greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots.

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Leap year

A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year containing one additional day (or, in the case of lunisolar calendars, a month) added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year.

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Legitimacy (family law)

Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law, is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce.

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A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).

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Lennart Nilsson

Lennart Nilsson (24 August 1922 – 28 January 2017) was a Swedish photographer and scientist.

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Linea alba (abdomen)

The white line (linea alba) is a fibrous structure that runs down the midline of the abdomen in humans and other vertebrates.

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Linea nigra

Linea nigra (Latin for "black line"), better known as pregnancy line, is a dark vertical line that appears on the abdomen in about three quarters of all pregnancies.

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List of fetal abnormalities

Fetal abnormalities are conditions that affect a fetus or embryo and may be fatal or cause disease after birth.

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List of microbiota species of the lower reproductive tract of women

This is the list of healthy vaginal microbiota (VMB), which is defined as the group of species and genera that generally are found to have lack of symptoms, absence of various infections, and result in good pregnancy outcomes.

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Listeria is a genus of bacteria that, until 1992, contained 10 known species, each containing two subspecies.

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Low birth weight

Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of a infant of 2,499 g or less, regardless of gestational age.

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Madonna del Parto

A Madonna del Parto ("Madonna of Parturition") is an iconic depiction of the Virgin Mary shown as pregnant, which was developed in Italy, mainly in Tuscany in the 14th century.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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March of Dimes

March of Dimes is a United States nonprofit organization that works to improve the health of mothers and babies by preventing birth defects, premature birth and infant mortality.

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Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger

Marcus Gheeraerts (also written as Gerards or Geerards) (Bruges, 1561/62 – 19 January 1636) was a Flemish artist working at the Tudor court, described as "the most important artist of quality to work in England in large-scale between Eworth and Van Dyck"Strong 1969, p. 22 He was brought to England as a child by his father Marcus Gheeraerts the Elder, also a painter.

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Martin Lister (MP)

Sir Martin Lister (1602/03, Midhope, Yorkshire – 1670, Burwell, Lincolnshire) was an English farmer and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 to 1648.

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Maternity clothing

Maternity clothing is worn by women in some cultures as an adaptation to changes in body size during pregnancy.

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Maternity Protection Convention, 2000

Maternity Protection Convention, 2000 is an International Labour Organization Convention.

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Mayo Clinic

The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

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Medical sign

A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a patient or anyone, especially a physician, before or during a physical examination of a patient.

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Menstrual cycle

The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.

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Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.

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Mercury poisoning

Mercury poisoning is a type of metal poisoning due to mercury exposure.

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Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.

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Merrion Square

Merrion Square is a Georgian garden square on the southside of Dublin city centre.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.

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Midwifery is the health science and health profession that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (including care of the newborn), in addition to the sexual and reproductive health of women throughout their lives.

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Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.

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Mobile app

A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone/tablet or watch.

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A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as a natural period related to the motion of the Moon; month and Moon are cognates.

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Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.

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Morning sickness

Morning sickness, also called nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), is a symptom of pregnancy that involves nausea or vomiting.

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MRI contrast agent

MRI contrast agents are contrast agents used to improve the visibility of internal body structures in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

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Multiple birth

A multiple birth is the culmination of one multiple pregnancy, wherein the mother delivers two or more offspring.

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A multivitamin is a preparation intended to serve as a dietary supplement - with vitamins, dietary minerals, and other nutritional elements.

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Musée Fabre

The Musée Fabre is a museum in the southern French city of Montpellier, capital of the Hérault département.

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National Academy of Medicine

The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National Health Service

The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.

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Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.

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The navel (clinically known as the umbilicus, colloquially known as the belly button, or tummy button) is a hollowed or sometimes raised area on the abdomen at the attachment site of the umbilical cord.

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Neonatal lupus erythematosus

Neonatal lupus erythematosus is the occurrence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) symptoms in an infant born from a mother with SLE, most commonly presenting with a rash resembling subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and sometimes with systemic abnormalities such as complete heart block or hepatosplenomegaly.

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Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.

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Nuchal scan

A nuchal scan or nuchal translucency (NT) scan/procedure is a sonographic prenatal screening scan (ultrasound) to detect cardiovascular abnormalities in a fetus, though altered extracellular matrix composition and limited lymphatic drainage can also be detected.

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Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Obstetric ultrasonography

Obstetric ultrasonography is the use of medical ultrasonography in pregnancy, in which sound waves are used to create real-time visual images of the developing embryo or fetus in its mother's uterus (womb).

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Obstetrical bleeding

Obstetrical bleeding also known as obstetrical hemorrhage and maternal hemorrhage, refers to heavy bleeding during pregnancy, labor, or the postpartum period.

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Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.

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Obstructed labour

Obstructed labour, also known as labour dystocia, is when, even though the uterus is contracting normally, the baby does not exit the pelvis during childbirth due to being physically blocked.

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Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.

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Octave Tassaert

Octave Tassaert (Paris, 26 July 1800 – Paris, 24 April 1874) was a French painter of portraits and genre, religious, historical and allegorical paintings, as well as a lithographer and engraver, though this family was of Flemish origin.

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In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.

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Oogenesis, ovogenesis, or oögenesis is the differentiation of the ovum (egg cell) into a cell competent to further development when fertilized.

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Oral hygiene

Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping one's mouth clean and free of disease and other problems (e.g. bad breath) by regular brushing and cleaning between the teeth.

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Organic food

Organic food is food produced by methods that comply with the standards of organic farming.

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Origin (mathematics)

In mathematics, the origin of a Euclidean space is a special point, usually denoted by the letter O, used as a fixed point of reference for the geometry of the surrounding space.

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The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.

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Being overweight or fat is having more body fat than is optimally healthy.

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Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.

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Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.

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Parental brain

Parental experience, as well as changing hormone levels during pregnancy and postpartum, cause changes in the parental brain.

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Parental leave

Parental leave or family leave is an employee benefit available in almost all countries.

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Pelvic girdle pain

Pelvic girdle pain (abbreviated PGP) is a pregnancy discomfort that causes pain, instability and limitation of mobility and functioning in any of the three pelvic joints.

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Periodontal disease

Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth.

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Phys.org is a science, research and technology news aggregator where much of the content is republished directly from press releases and news agencies-in a practice known as churnalism.

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Physical examination

A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.

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Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.

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Placenta praevia

Placenta praevia is when the placenta attaches inside the uterus but near or over the cervical opening.

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Placental abruption

Placental abruption is when the placenta separates early from the uterus, in other words separates before childbirth.

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Politics & Gender

Politics & Gender is a quarterly peer-reviewed journal which focuses on gender and politics as well as women and politics.

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Polyhydramnios (polyhydramnion, hydramnios, polyhydramnios) is a medical condition describing an excess of amniotic fluid in the amniotic sac.

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Polyuria is excessive or an abnormally large production or passage of urine (greater than 2.5 or 3 L over 24 hours in adults).

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Postpartum bleeding

Postpartum bleeding or postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is often defined as the loss of more than 500 ml or 1,000 ml of blood within the first 24 hours following childbirth.

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Postpartum depression

Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression, is a type of mood disorder associated with childbirth, which can affect both sexes.

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Postpartum infections

Postpartum infections, also known as childbed fever and puerperal fever, are any bacterial infections of the female reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage.

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Postpartum psychosis

Postpartum psychosis is a rare psychiatric emergency in which symptoms of high mood and racing thoughts (mania), depression, severe confusion, loss of inhibition, paranoia, hallucinations and delusions set in, beginning suddenly in the first two weeks after childbirth.

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Postterm pregnancy

Postterm pregnancy is the condition of a baby that has not yet been born after 42 weeks of gestation, two weeks beyond the normal 40.

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Pre-Columbian era

The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.

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Pre-conception counseling

Pre-conception counseling (also called pre-conceptual counseling) is a meeting with a health-care professional (generally a physician or midwife) by a woman before attempting to become pregnant.

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Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Pregnancy discrimination

Pregnancy discrimination is a type of employment discrimination that occurs when expectant women are fired, not hired, or otherwise discriminated against due to their pregnancy or intention to become pregnant.

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Pregnancy test

A pregnancy test attempts to determine whether or not a woman is pregnant.

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Premature rupture of membranes

Premature rupture of membranes (PROM), or pre-labor rupture of membranes, is a condition that can occur in pregnancy.

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Prenatal care

Prenatal care, also known as antenatal care, is a type of preventive healthcare.

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Prenatal cocaine exposure

Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), theorized in the 1970s, occurs when a pregnant woman uses cocaine and thereby exposes her fetus to the drug.

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Prenatal development

Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.

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Preterm birth

Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.

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Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.

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Projectional radiography

Projectional radiography is a form of radiography and medical imaging that produces two-dimensional images by x-ray radiation.

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Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy

Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP), known in United Kingdom as polymorphic eruption of pregnancy (PEP), is a chronic hives-like rash that strikes some women during pregnancy.

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Pseudopregnancy is the term used to describe a false pregnancy in the wider mammalian species.

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Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).

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Pyogenic granuloma

Pyogenic granuloma (also known as a "eruptive hemangioma", "granulation tissue-type hemangioma", "granuloma gravidarum", "lobular capillary hemangioma", "pregnancy tumor", and "tumor of pregnancy") is a vascular lesion that occurs on both mucosa and skin, and appears as an overgrowth of tissue due to irritation, physical trauma, or hormonal factors.

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In pregnancy terms, quickening is the moment in pregnancy when the pregnant woman starts to feel or perceive fetal movements in the uterus.

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Recreational drug use

Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

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Reference group

A reference group is a group to which an individual or another group is compared.

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Regurgitation (digestion)

Regurgitation is the expulsion of material from the pharynx, or esophagus, usually characterized by the presence of undigested food or blood.

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Renal function

Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.

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Reproductive system disease

A reproductive system disease is any disease of the reproductive system.

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Republic of Macedonia

Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Respiration (physiology)

In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.

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A respirator is a device designed to protect the wearer from inhaling particulate matter, including airborne microorganisms, fumes, vapours and gases.

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Respiratory minute volume

Respiratory minute volume (or minute ventilation or minute volume) is the volume of gas inhaled (inhaled minute volume) or exhaled (exhaled minute volume) from a person's lungs per minute.

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A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behaviors, rights, obligations, beliefs, and norms as conceptualized by people in a social situation.

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Rupture of membranes

Rupture of membranes (ROM) or amniorrhexis is a term used during pregnancy to describe a rupture of the amniotic sac.

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Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

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Sexual intercourse

Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.

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Shift work

Shift work is an employment practice designed to make use of, or provide service across, all 24 hours of the clock each day of the week (often abbreviated as 24/7).

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Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.

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Shoulder dystocia

Shoulder dystocia is a specific case of obstructed labour whereby after the delivery of the head, the anterior shoulder of the infant cannot pass below, or requires significant manipulation to pass below, the pubic symphysis.

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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Small for gestational age

Small for gestational age (SGA) newborns are those who are smaller in size than normal for the gestational age, most commonly defined as a weight below the 10th percentile for the gestational age.

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Smoking and pregnancy

Tobacco smoking and pregnancy is related to many effects on health and reproduction, in addition to the general health effects of tobacco.

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Smooth muscle tissue

Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.

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Sociology of the family

Sociological studies of the family look at.

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A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.

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Spina bifida

Spina bifida is a birth defect where there is incomplete closing of the backbone and membranes around the spinal cord.

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Standard deviation

In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.

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Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.

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Surrogacy is a method or agreement whereby a woman agrees to carry a pregnancy for another person or persons, who will become the newborn child's parent(s) after birth.

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Susceptibility and severity of infections in pregnancy

In pregnancy, there is an increased susceptibility and/or severity of several infectious diseases.

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Symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy

Symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy are those presentations and conditions that result from pregnancy but do not significantly interfere with activities of daily living or pose any significant threat to the health of the mother or baby, in contrast to pregnancy complications.

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Systemic lupus erythematosus and pregnancy

For women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), pregnancy can present some particular challenges for both mother and child.

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Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.

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Tess of the d'Urbervilles

Tess of the d'Urbervilles: A Pure Woman Faithfully Presented is a novel by Thomas Hardy.

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Thalidomide, sold under the brand name Immunoprin, among others, is an immunomodulatory drug and the prototype of the thalidomide class of drugs.

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TheFreeDictionary.com is an American online dictionary and encyclopedia that gathers information from a variety of sources.

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Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, mother of God, used especially in Eastern Christianity.

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Thrombophilia (sometimes hypercoagulability or a prothrombotic state) is an abnormality of blood coagulation that increases the risk of thrombosis (blood clots in blood vessels).

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Thrombophlebitis is a phlebitis (inflammation of a vein) related to a thrombus (blood clot).

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Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.

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Thyroid disease in pregnancy

Thyroid disease in pregnancy can affect the health of the mother as well as the child before and after delivery.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Toxoplasma gondii

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis.

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Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.

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Traditional medicine

Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.

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Transient tachypnea of the newborn

Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN, TTNB, or "transitory tachypnea of newborn") is a respiratory problem that can be seen in the newborn shortly after delivery.

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Transvaginal oocyte retrieval

Transvaginal oocyte retrieval (TVOR), also referred to as oocyte retrieval (OCR), is a technique used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) in order to remove oocytes from the ovary of a woman, enabling fertilization outside the body.

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Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.

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Umbilical cord

In placental mammals, the umbilical cord (also called the navel string, birth cord or funiculus umbilicalis) is a conduit between the developing embryo or fetus and the placenta.

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Unborn Victims of Violence Act

The Unborn Victims of Violence Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-212) is a United States law which recognizes an embryo or fetus in utero as a legal victim, if they are injured or killed during the commission of any of over 60 listed federal crimes of violence.

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Unintended pregnancy

Unintended pregnancies are pregnancies that are mistimed, unplanned or unwanted at the time of conception.

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Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.

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Urinary tract infection

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.

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Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.

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Uterine contraction

A uterine contraction is a muscle contraction of the uterine smooth muscle.

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The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.

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In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.

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Varicose veins

Varicose veins are veins that have become enlarged and twisted.

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Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.

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Venae cavae

The venae cavae (from the Latin for "hollow veins", singular "vena cava") are two large veins (venous trunks) that return deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart.

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Venus figurines

A Venus figurine is any Upper Paleolithic statuette portraying a woman,Fagan, 740 although the fewer images depicting men or figures of uncertain sex, and those in relief or engraved on rock or stones are often discussed together.

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Visitation (Christianity)

The Visitation is the visit of Mary to Elizabeth as recorded in the Gospel of Luke,.

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.

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The vulva (wrapper, covering, plural vulvae or vulvas) consists of the external female sex organs.

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A woman is an adult female human being.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pregnancy

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