274 relations: Adze, Agriculture, Alaska, Americas, Anatolia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Near East, Ancient Rome, Anthropologist, Anthropology, Antiquarian, Aquifer, Archaeoastronomy, Archaeological culture, Archaeology, Archaeology of the Americas, Archaic humans, Atlantic Europe, Aurignacian, Australasia, Axial Age, Azilian, Ötzi, Ötztal Alps, Ġgantija, Band society, Barley, Beer, Before Present, Behavioral modernity, Big Bang, Biology, Bow and arrow, Bread, Bronze, Bronze Age, Bronze Age Europe, Canoe, Cattle, Cave painting, Celts, Chalcolithic, Chauvet Cave, Châtelperronian, Chinese ritual bronzes, Chronology, Chronostratigraphy, Clothing, Clovis culture, ..., Common Era, Comparative linguistics, Control of fire by early humans, Copper, Copper Hoard Culture, Cuneiform script, Czech Republic, Daughters of Jacob Bridge, Deep history, Deforestation, Dolní Věstonice, Dolní Věstonice (archaeology), Domestic pig, Domestication, Early human migrations, Eastern Mediterranean, Egypt, Einkorn wheat, Epipalaeolithic, Era (geology), Etruscan civilization, Eurasia, Eurasian (mixed ancestry), European bison, Evolutionary history of life, Ferrous metallurgy, Fertile Crescent, Ficus, Fishing tackle, Flint, Gallo-Roman culture, Göbekli Tepe, Geneticist, Genetics, Geologic record, Geology, Gilgal I, Glacial period, Gravettian, Greek language, Gruel, Historical linguistics, History of Africa, History of agriculture, History of Asia, History of Central Asia, History of China, History of Earth, History of Mesopotamia, History of Siberia, History of the family, History of writing, Hittites, Hoard, Holocene, Hominini, Homo, Homo ergaster, Homo floresiensis, Homo habilis, Homo sapiens, Human evolution, Human taxonomy, Hunter-gatherer, Iberomaurusian, Indigenous Australians, Individual, Indus Valley Civilisation, Iraq, Iron, Iron Age, Iron Age Europe, Israel, Japanese Paleolithic, Jericho, Jordan Valley (Middle East), Kebaran, Keilor, Victoria, Language, Last Glacial Maximum, Last glacial period, Late Glacial, Legume, Levant, Life, Lineage-bonded society, Linen, Linguistics, List of languages by first written accounts, List of Stone Age art, List of time periods, Lithic stage, Loom, Lower Paleolithic, Magdalenian, Maglemosian culture, Mammoth, Maribyrnong River, Marsh, Megalith, Melbourne, Mesolithic, Mesopotamia, Metallurgy, Metalworking, Microburin, Microlith, Midden, Middle Paleolithic, Millet, Molecular genetics, Moravia, Mousterian, Mudbrick, Nation, Natufian culture, Neanderthal, Near East, Neolithic, Neolithic Europe, Neolithic Revolution, New Guinea, Nomad, North Africa, Northern Europe, Oceania, Ohalo, Old World, Omo remains, Origin of the domestic dog, Paleo-Indians, Paleoanthropology, Paleolithic, Paleolithic Europe, Paleolithic religion, Paleontology, Palynology, Pantribal sodality, Parietal art, Parthenocarpy, Periodization, Perth, Peter Bellwood, Plastered human skulls, Pleistocene, Plough, Pottery, Pre-Columbian era, Pre-Pottery Neolithic A, Prehistoric Armenia, Prehistoric art, Prehistoric Britain, Prehistoric Caucasus, Prehistoric Egypt, Prehistoric Europe, Prehistoric Georgia, Prehistoric Iberia, Prehistoric Ireland, Prehistoric Korea, Prehistoric medicine, Prehistoric music, Prehistoric North Africa, Prehistoric religion, Prehistoric technology, Prehistoric Thailand, Prehistoric warfare, Prehistory of Australia, Prehistory of Iran, Prehistory of Newfoundland and Labrador, Prehistory of Quebec, Prehistory of Southeastern Europe, Prehistory of Sri Lanka, Prehistory of the Canadian Maritimes, Protohistory, Quarterly Review, Reindeer, Roman Empire, Rye, Sahara, Serbia, Settlement of the Americas, Sheep, Siberia, Smelting, Social, Social stratification, Songline, Soup, South Asian Stone Age, Southeastern Anatolia Region, Southern Australia, Southwestern archaeology, Spelt, Spindle (textiles), Stone Age, Stone tool, Stonehenge, Stratum, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sumer, Sydney, Technology, The New York Times, Three-age system, Timna Valley, Tin, Toba catastrophe theory, Tool, Ubaid period, Universe, University of Western Australia, Upper Paleolithic, Uruk period, Veneration of the dead, Village, Vinča culture, Wheat, Woolen, Y chromosome, Younger Dryas, 1st millennium BC in North American history, 1st millennium in North American history, 2nd millennium BC in North American history, 4th millennium BC. Expand index (224 more) » « Shrink index
The adze (alternative spelling: adz) is a cutting tool shaped somewhat like an axe that dates back to the stone age.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin: antiquarius, meaning pertaining to ancient times) is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
Archaeoastronomy (also spelled archeoastronomy) is the study of how people in the past "have understood the phenomena in the sky, how they used these phenomena and what role the sky played in their cultures".
An archaeological culture is a recurring assemblage of artifacts from a specific time and place that may constitute the material culture remains of a particular past human society.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The archaeology of the Americas is the study of the archaeology of North America (Mesoamerica included), Central America, South America and the Caribbean.
A number of varieties of Homo are grouped into the broad category of archaic humans in the period contemporary and predating the emergence of the earliest anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) over 315 kya.
Atlantic Europe is a geographical and anthropological term for the western portion of Europe which borders the Atlantic Ocean.
The Aurignacian is an archaeological tradition of the Upper Palaeolithic associated with European early modern humans (EEMH).
Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).
Axial Age (also Axis Age, from Achsenzeit) is a term coined by German philosopher Karl Jaspers in the sense of a "pivotal age" characterizing the period of ancient history from about the 8th to the 3rd century BCE.
The Azilian is a name given by archaeologists to an industry in the Franco-Cantabrian region of northern Spain and southern France.
Ötzi (also called the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, the Tyrolean Iceman, and the Hauslabjoch mummy) is a nickname given to the well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived between 3400 and 3100 BCE.
The Ötztal Alps (Alpi Venoste, Ötztaler Alpen) are a mountain range in the Central Eastern Alps, in the State of Tyrol in southern Austria and the Province of South Tyrol in northern Italy.
Ġgantija ("Giants' Tower") is a megalithic temple complex from the Neolithic on the Mediterranean island of Gozo.
A band society, or horde, is the simplest form of human society.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
Behavioral modernity is a suite of behavioral and cognitive traits that distinguishes current Homo sapiens from other anatomically modern humans, hominins, and primates.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The European Bronze Age is characterized by bronze artifacts and the use of bronze implements.
A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
The Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc Cave in the Ardèche department of southern France is a cave that contains some of the best-preserved figurative cave paintings in the world, as well as other evidence of Upper Paleolithic life.
The Châtelperronian is a claimed industry of the Upper Palaeolithic, the existence of which is debated.
Sets of ritual bronzes (in chinese: 中国青铜器) are the most impressive surviving objects from the Chinese Bronze Age.
Chronology (from Latin chronologia, from Ancient Greek χρόνος, chrónos, "time"; and -λογία, -logia) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time.
Chronostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy that studies the age of rock strata in relation to time.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named for distinct stone tools found in close association with Pleistocene fauna at Blackwater Locality No. 1 near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.
The control of fire by early humans was a turning point in the cultural aspect of human evolution.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Selected hoard artefacts from 1-2 South Haryana, 3-4 Uttar Pradesh, 5 Madhya Pradesh, 6-8 South Bihar-North Orissa-Bengalen. Copper Hoards describe find-complexes which occur in the northern part of India.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
The Daughters of Jacob Bridge (גשר בנות יעקב, Gesher Bnot Ya'akov, or Arabic: Jisr Benat Ya'kub) is a site on the upper Jordan River.
Deep history is a term for the distant past of the human species.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Dolní Věstonice (Unterwisternitz) is a small village in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.
Dolní Věstonice (often without diacritics as Dolni Vestonice) refers to an Upper Paleolithic archaeological site near the village of Dolní Věstonice, Moravia in the Czech Republic,on the base of Děvín Mountain, dating to approximately 26,000 BP, as supported by radiocarbon dating.
The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus or only Sus domesticus), often called swine, hog, or simply pig when there is no need to distinguish it from other pigs, is a large, even-toed ungulate.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
The earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents began 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo erectus, followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis.
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Einkorn wheat (from German Einkorn, literally "single grain") can refer either to the wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum, or to the domesticated form, Triticum monococcum.
In archaeology, the Epipalaeolithic, Epipaleolithic (sometimes Epi-paleolithic etc) is a term for a period intervening between the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic in the Stone Age.
A geologic era is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an eon into smaller units of time.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
A Eurasian is a person of mixed Asian and European ancestry.
The European bison (Bison bonasus), also known as wisent or the European wood bison, is a Eurasian species of bison.
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.
Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of iron and its alloys.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in the family Moraceae.
Fishing tackle is the equipment used by anglers when fishing.
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.
The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.
Göbekli Tepe, Turkish for "Potbelly Hill", is an archaeological site in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, approximately northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa.
A geneticist is a biologist who studies genetics, the science of genes, heredity, and variation of organisms.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
The geologic record in stratigraphy, paleontology and other natural sciences refers to the entirety of the layers of rock strata — deposits laid down by volcanism or by deposition of sediment derived from weathering detritus (clays, sands etc.) including all its fossil content and the information it yields about the history of the Earth: its past climate, geography, geology and the evolution of life on its surface.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
Gilgal I (גלגל.) is an archaeological site in the Jordan Valley, West Bank, dated to the Neolithic period.
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.
The Gravettian was an archaeological industry of the European Upper Paleolithic that succeeded the Aurignacian circa 33,000 years BP..
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gruel is a food consisting of some type of cereal—oat, wheat or rye flour, or rice—boiled in water or milk.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
The history of Africa begins with the emergence of hominids, archaic humans and – around 5.6 to 7.5 million years ago.
The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively.
The history of Asia can be seen as the collective history of several distinct peripheral coastal regions such as, East Asia, South Asia, and the Middle East linked by the interior mass of the Eurasian steppe.
The history of Central Asia concerns the history of the various peoples that have inhabited Central Asia.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day.
The history of Mesopotamia ranges from the earliest human occupation in the Lower Paleolithic period up to the Late antiquity.
The early history of Siberia is greatly influenced by the sophisticated nomadic civilizations of the Scythians (Pazyryk) on the west of the Ural Mountains and Xiongnu (Noin-Ula) on the east of the Urals, both flourishing before the Christian era.
The history of the family is a branch of social history that concerns the sociocultural evolution of kinship groups from prehistoric to modern times.
The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks and also the studies and descriptions of these developments.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
A hoard or "wealth deposit" is an archaeological term for a collection of valuable objects or artifacts, sometimes purposely buried in the ground, in which case it is sometimes also known as a cache.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").
Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.
Homo ergaster (meaning "working man") or African Homo erectus is an extinct chronospecies of the genus Homo that lived in eastern and southern Africa during the early Pleistocene, between about 1.9 million and 1.4 million years ago.
Homo floresiensis ("Flores Man"; nicknamed "hobbit") is an extinct species in the genus Homo.
Homo habilis was a species of early humans, who lived between roughly 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.
Human taxonomy is the classification of the human species (systematic name Homo sapiens) within zoological taxonomy.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
The Iberomaurusian ("of Iberia and Mauritania"; it was once believed that it extended into Spain) or Oranian is a backed bladelet lithic industry found throughout North Africa.
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.
An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
In Europe, the Iron Age may be defined as including the last stages of the prehistoric period and the first of the proto-historic periods.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The is the period of human inhabitation in Japan predating the development of pottery, generally before 10,000 BCE.
Jericho (יְרִיחוֹ; أريحا) is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank.
The Jordan Valley (עֵמֶק הַיַרְדֵּן, Emek HaYarden; الغور, Al-Ghor or Al-Ghawr) forms part of the larger Jordan Rift Valley.
The Kebaran or Kebarian culture was an archaeological culture in the eastern Mediterranean area (c. 18,000 to 12,500 BP), named after its type site, Kebara Cave south of Haifa.
Keilor is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 18 km north-west of Melbourne's central business district.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
The Late Glacial climate warming (c. 13,000–10,000 years ago), or Tardiglacial ("Late Glacial"), is defined primarily by the beginning of the modern warm period, in which temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere rose substantially, causing a process of accelerated deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum (c. 25,000–13,000 years ago).
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
A lineage-bonded society is a type of acephalous society predicated on claims of a common ancestor.
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This is a list of languages arranged by the approximate dates of the oldest existing texts recording a complete sentence in the language.
This is a descriptive list of art from the Stone Age, the period of prehistory characterised by the widespread use of stone tools.
The categorization of the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time is called periodization.
In the sequence of cultural stages first proposed for the archaeology of the Americas by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips in 1958, the Lithic stage was the earliest period of human occupation in the Americas, as post-glacial hunters and collectors spread through the Americas.
A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry.
The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
The Magdalenian (also Madelenian; French: Magdalénien) refers to one of the later cultures of the Upper Paleolithic in western Europe, dating from around 17,000 to 12,000 years ago.
Maglemosian (c. 9000 – c. 6000 BC) is the name given to a culture of the early Mesolithic period in Northern Europe.
A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair.
The Maribyrnong River is a perennial river of the Port Phillip catchment, located in the northwestern suburbs of Melbourne, in the Australian state of Victoria.
A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
A microburin is a characteristic waste product from manufacture of lithic tools, sometimes confused with an authentic burin, which is characteristic of the Mesolithic, but which has been recorded from the end of the Upper Paleolithic until the Calcolithic.
A microlith is a small stone tool usually made of flint or chert and typically a centimetre or so in length and half a centimetre wide.
A midden (also kitchen midden or shell heap) is an old dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone, human excrement, botanical material, mollusc shells, sherds, lithics (especially debitage), and other artifacts and ecofacts associated with past human occupation.
The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
The Mousterian (or Mode III) is a techno-complex (archaeological industry) of flint lithic tools associated primarily with Neanderthals, as well as with the earliest anatomically modern humans in Eurasia.
A mudbrick or mud-brick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
The Epipaleolithic Natufian culture existed from around 12,500 to 9,500 BC in the Levant, a region in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Neolithic Europe is the period when Neolithic technology was present in Europe, roughly between 7000 BCE (the approximate time of the first farming societies in Greece) and c. 1700 BCE (the beginning of the Bronze Age in northwest Europe).
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Ohalo is the common designation for the archaeological site Ohalo II in the vicinity of the Sea of Galilee, and one of the best preserved hunter-gatherer archaeological sites of the Last Glacial Maximum, having been radiocarbon dated to around 19,400 BP.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
The Omo remains are a collection of homininThis article quotes historic texts that use the terms 'hominid' and 'hominin' with meanings that may be different from their modern usages.
The origin of the domestic dog is not clear.
Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.
Paleoanthropology or paleo-anthropology is a branch of archaeology with a human focus, which seeks to understand the early development of anatomically modern humans, a process known as hominization, through the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines within the family Hominidae, working from biological evidence (such as petrified skeletal remains, bone fragments, footprints) and cultural evidence (such as stone tools, artifacts, and settlement localities).
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Paleolithic Europe, the Lower or Old Stone Age in Europe encompasses the era from the arrival of the first archaic humans, about 1.4 million years ago until the beginning of the Mesolithic (also Epipaleolithic) around 10,000 years ago.
Paleolithic religions are a set of spiritual beliefs thought to have appeared during the Paleolithic time period.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Palynology is the "study of dust" (from palunō, "strew, sprinkle" and -logy) or "particles that are strewn".
In anthropology, a pantribal sodality is a social grouping which is not determined by family membership (non-kin), and which extends across an entire tribe.
Parietal art is the archaeological term for artwork done on cave walls or large blocks of stone.
In botany and horticulture, parthenocarpy (literally meaning "virgin fruit") is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules, which makes the fruit seedless.
Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of timeAdam Rabinowitz.
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia.
Peter Stafford Bellwood (born Leicester, England, 1943) is Emeritus Professor of Archaeology at the School of Archaeology and Anthropology of the Australian National University (ANU) in Canberra.
Plastered human skulls are reconstructed human skulls that were made in the ancient Levant between 7000 and 6000 BC in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) denotes the first stage in early Levantine and Anatolian Neolithic culture, dating BP.
The modern territory of Armenia has been settled by human groups from the Lower Paleolithic to modern days.
In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate, prehistorical cultures beginning somewhere in very late geological history, and generally continuing until that culture either develops writing or other methods of record-keeping, or makes significant contact with another culture that has, and that makes some record of major historical events.
Several species of humans have intermittently occupied Britain for almost a million years.
The Caucasus region, on the gateway between Southwest Asia, Europe and Central Asia, plays a pivotal role in the peopling of Eurasia, possibly as early as during the Homo erectus expansion to Eurasia, in the Upper Paleolithic peopling of Europe, and again in the re-peopling Mesolithic Europe following the Last Glacial Maximum, and in the expansion associated with the Neolithic Revolution.
The prehistory of Egypt spans the period from earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt around 3100 BC, starting with the first Pharaoh, Narmer for some egyptologists, Hor-Aha for others, (also known as Menes).
Prehistoric Europe is the designation for the period of human presence in Europe before the start of recorded history, beginning in the Lower Paleolithic.
The prehistory of Georgia is the period between the first human habitation of the territory of modern-day nation of Georgia and the time when Assyrian and Urartian, and more firmly, the Classical accounts, brought the proto-Georgian tribes into the scope of recorded history.
The prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula begins with the arrival of the first hominins 1.2 million years ago and ends with the Punic Wars, when the territory enters the domains of written history.
The prehistory of Ireland has been pieced together from archaeological and genetic evidence; it begins with the first evidence of humans in Ireland around 12,500 years ago and finishes with the start of the historical record around 400 AD.
Prehistoric Korea is the era of human existence in the Korean Peninsula for which written records do not exist.
Prehistoric medicine is any use of medicine from before the invention of writing and the documented history of medicine.
Prehistoric music (previously primitive music) is a term in the history of music for all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history.
The Prehistory of North Africa spans the period of earliest human presence in the region to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt in c. 3100 BC.
Prehistoric religions are the religious beliefs and practices of prehistoric people such as Paleolithic religion, Mesolithic religion, Neolithic religion and Bronze Age religion.
Prehistoric technology is technology that predates recorded history.
Prehistoric Thailand may be traced back as far as 1,000,000 years ago from the fossils and stone tools found in northern and western Thailand.
Prehistoric warfare refers to war that occurred between societies without recorded history.
The prehistory of Australia is the period between the first human habitation of the Australian continent and the colonization of Australia in 1788, which marks the start of consistent documentation of Australia.
The prehistory of the Iranian plateau, and the wider region now known as Greater Iran, as part of the prehistory of the Near East is conventinally divided into the Paleolithic, Epipaleolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age periods, spanning the time from the first settlement by archaic humans about a million years ago until the beginning historical record during Neo-Assyrian Empire, in the 8th century BC.
At the end of the last Ice Age, Newfoundland and Labrador were covered in thick ice sheets.
Humans have inhabited Quebec for 11,000 years beginning with the de-glaciated areas of the St.
The prehistory of Southeastern Europe, defined roughly as the territory of the wider Balkan peninsula (including the territories of the modern countries of Albania, Croatia, Kosovo, Serbia, Macedonia, Greece, Bosnia, Romania, Bulgaria, and European Turkey covers the period from the Upper Paleolithic, beginning with the presence of Homo sapiens in the area some 44,000 years ago, until the appearance of the first written records in Classical Antiquity, in Greece as early as the 8th century BC. Human prehistory in Southeastern Europe is conventionally divided into smaller periods, such as Upper Paleolithic, Holocene Mesolithic/Epipaleolithic, Neolithic Revolution, expansion of Proto-Indo-Europeans, and Protohistory. The changes between these are gradual. For example, depending on interpretation, protohistory might or might not include Bronze Age Greece (2800–1200 BC), Minoan, Mycenaean, Thracian and Venetic cultures. By one interpretation of the historiography criterion, Southeastern Europe enters protohistory only with Homer (See also Historicity of the Iliad, and Geography of the Odyssey). At any rate, the period ends before Herodotus in the 5th century BC.
This article deals with the prehistory of Sri Lanka since human habitation and covers the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and early Iron ages until the ancient history of Sri Lanka.
Humans have been present in the Canadian Maritime provinces for 10,600 years.
Protohistory is a period between prehistory and history, during which a culture or civilization has not yet developed writing but other cultures have already noted its existence in their own writings.
The Quarterly Review was a literary and political periodical founded in March 1809 by the well known London publishing house John Murray.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Paleolithic hunter-gatherers first entered North America from the North Asian Mammoth steppe via the Beringia land bridge which had formed between northeastern Siberia and western Alaska due to the lowering of sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Living organisms including humans are social when they live collectively in interacting populations, whether they are aware of it, and whether the interaction is voluntary or involuntary.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
Within the animist belief system of Indigenous Australians, a songline, also called dreaming track, is one of the paths across the land (or sometimes the sky) which mark the route followed by localised "creator-beings" during the Dreaming.
Soup is a primarily liquid food, generally served warm or hot (but may be cool or cold), that is made by combining ingredients of meat or vegetables with stock, juice, water, or another liquid.
The South Asian Stone Age covers the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in South Asia.
The Southeastern Anatolia Region (Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
The term Southern Australia is generally considered to include the states and territories of Australia of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and South Australia.
The Greater Southwest has long been occupied by hunter-gatherers and agricultural people.
Spelt (Triticum spelta; Triticum dicoccum), also known as dinkel wheat or hulled wheat, is a species of wheat cultivated since approximately 5000 BC.
A spindle is a straight spike usually made from wood used for spinning, twisting fibers such as wool, flax, hemp, cotton into yarn.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, west of Amesbury.
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The three-age system is the categorization of history into time periods divisible by three; for example, the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age, although it also refers to other tripartite divisions of historic time periods.
The Timna Valley is located in southern Israel in the southwestern Arava/Arabah, approximately north of the Gulf of Aqaba and the city of Eilat.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
The Toba supereruption was a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 75,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia.
A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.
The Ubaid period (c. 6500 to 3800 BC) is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of Western Australia (UWA) is a public research university in the Australian state of Western Australia.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period and succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period.
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand.
The Vinča culture, also known as Turdaș culture or Turdaș–Vinča culture, is a Neolithic archaeological culture in Serbia and smaller parts of Romania (particularly Transylvania), dated to the period 5700–4500 BC.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Woolen (American English) or woollen (Commonwealth English) is a type of yarn made from carded wool.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
The Younger Dryas (c. 12,900 to c. 11,700 years BP) was a return to glacial conditions which temporarily reversed the gradual climatic warming after the Last Glacial Maximum started receding around 20,000 BP.
The 1st millennium BC in North American prehistory is characterized by the overlap of the Formative stage with the early Woodland period cultures.
The 1st millennium in North American prehistory is characterized by the transition of the Middle Woodland Period (Hopewell tradition) to the Late Woodland Period in Eastern North America.
The 2nd millennium BC in North American prehistory is corresponds to the Late Archaic period within the Archaic period of 8000–1000 BC.
The 4th millennium BC spanned the years 4000 through 3001 BC.
Chronology of Human Prehistory, Early historic, Early history, Human prehistory, Pre history, Pre-History, Pre-historic, Pre-historic era, Pre-historic times, Pre-history, Prehistorian, Prehistoric, Prehistoric Age, Prehistoric People, Prehistoric age, Prehistoric animal, Prehistoric civilizations, Prehistoric era, Prehistoric people, Prehistoric peoples, Prehistoric period, Prehistoric times, Prehistoricity, Vorzeit.