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Prehistory of Iran

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The prehistory of the Iranian plateau, and the wider region now known as Greater Iran, as part of the prehistory of the Near East is conventinally divided into the Paleolithic, Epipaleolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age periods, spanning the time from the first settlement by archaic humans about a million years ago until the beginning historical record during Neo-Assyrian Empire, in the 8th century BC. [1]

70 relations: Abbas Alizadeh, Anatolia, Archaic humans, Assyria, Azerbaijan (Iran), Bisitun Cave, Bronze, Bronze Age, Caucasus, Chalcolithic, Chlorite, Chogha Bonut, Chogha Golan, Chogha Mish, Copper, Darband Cave, Elam, Epipalaeolithic, Epipalaeolithic Near East, Excavation (archaeology), Fertile Crescent, Ganj Dareh, Ganj Par, Greater Iran, History of Khuzestan Province, History of the Middle East, Igor M. Diakonoff, Iranian peoples, Iranian Plateau, Iron Age, Jar, Jiroft culture, Kashafrud, Kerman, Kermanshah, Khorramabad, Kura–Araxes culture, Kurdistan, Lapis lazuli, Mahabad, Medes, Middle Paleolithic, Mousterian, Neanderthal, Near East, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neolithic, Paleolithic, Parthia, Persian people, ..., Pontic–Caspian steppe, Prehistoric Asia, Prehistory, Qaleh Bozi, Rock art in Iran, Sefīd-Rūd, Sumer, Susa, Tepe Sialk, Terracotta, University of Pennsylvania, Upper Paleolithic, Urartu, Uruk period, Walter de Gruyter, Warwasi, Wine, Yafteh, Zagros Mountains, Zayandeh River Culture. Expand index (20 more) »

Abbas Alizadeh

. Abbas Alizadeh (born 1951) is an Iranologist and Persian archaeologist.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Archaic humans

A number of varieties of Homo are grouped into the broad category of archaic humans in the period contemporary and predating the emergence of the earliest anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) over 315 kya.

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Assyria

Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Azerbaijan (Iran)

Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (آذربایجان Āzarbāijān; آذربایجان Azərbaycan), also known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, Turkey, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.

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Bisitun Cave

Bisitun cave is an archaeological site of prehistoric human habitation in the Zagros Mountains in the Kermanshah province, north-west Iran, associated with the discovery of Mousterian stone tools of the Middle Paleolithic.

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Bronze

Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Caucasus

The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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Chalcolithic

The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.

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Chlorite

The chlorite ion, or chlorine dioxide anion, is.

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Chogha Bonut

Chogha Bonut (Persian Choghā bonut) is an archaeological site in south-western Iran, located in the Khuzistan Province.

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Chogha Golan

Chogha Golan is an aceramic Neolithic archaeological site in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains in Iran, about from the right bank of the Konjan Cham River.

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Chogha Mish

Tappeh-ye Choghā Mīsh (Persian language; چغامیش čoġā mīš) dating back to 6800 BC, is the site of a Chalcolithic settlement in Western Iran, located in the Khuzistan Province on the Susiana Plain.

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Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Darband Cave

Darband Cave is a Lower Paleolithic site in the Gilan Province in northern Iran, located on the north side of a deep tributary canyon of the Siahrud River, a tributary of the Sefīd-Rūd River that flows into the Caspian Sea.

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Elam

Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.

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Epipalaeolithic

In archaeology, the Epipalaeolithic, Epipaleolithic (sometimes Epi-paleolithic etc) is a term for a period intervening between the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic in the Stone Age.

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Epipalaeolithic Near East

In the prehistory of the Near East, the Epipalaeolithic ("Final Old Stone Age") is the period after the Upper Palaeolithic and before the Neolithic, between approximately 20,000 and 10,000 years Before Present (BP).

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Excavation (archaeology)

In archaeology, excavation is the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains.

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Fertile Crescent

The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.

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Ganj Dareh

Ganj Dareh (Persian: تپه گنج دره; "Treasure Valley" in Persian,Smith, Philip E.L., World Archaeology, Vol. 21, No. 3 (February, 1990), pp. 323-335 or "Treasure Valley Hill" if tepe/tappeh (hill) is appended to the name) is a Neolithic settlement in the Iranian Kurdistan.

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Ganj Par

Ganj Par (گنج پر) is a Lower Paleolithic site located in the Gilan province in northern Iran.

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Greater Iran

Greater Iran (ایران بزرگ) is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various imperial dynasties of Persian Empire (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajars), having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic peoples who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and Tajikistan).

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History of Khuzestan Province

The history of Khuzestan Province, a province in southwestern Iran, extends from the ancient pre-Aryan Elamite civilization to the modern day Islamic Republic.

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History of the Middle East

Home to the Cradle of Civilization, the Middle East (usually interchangeable with the Near East) has seen many of the world's oldest cultures and civilizations.

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Igor M. Diakonoff

Igor Mikhailovich Diakonoff (И́горь Миха́йлович Дья́конов; 12 January 1915 – 2 May 1999) was a Russian historian, linguist, and translator and a renowned expert on the Ancient Near East and its languages.

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Iranian peoples

The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

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Iranian Plateau

The Iranian Plateau or the Persian Plateau is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Jar

A jar is a rigid, approximately cylindrical container with a wide mouth or opening.

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Jiroft culture

A "Jiroft culture" has been postulated as an early Bronze Age (late 3rd millennium BC) archaeological culture, located in the territory of present-day Balochistan and Kermān Provinces of Iran.

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Kashafrud

Kashafrud Basin is an archaeological site in Iran, known for the Lower Palaeolithic artifacts collected there; these are the oldest-known evidence for human occupation of Iran., There are some collections of simple core and flake stone artifacts collected by C. Thibault in 1974-75.

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Kerman

Kerman (كرمان, also Romanized as Kermān, Kermun, and Kirman; also known as Carmania) is the capital city of Kerman Province, Iran.

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Kermanshah

Kermanshah (کرمانشاه, کرماشان, Kirmashan; Kermānshāh; also known as Bākhtarān or Kermānshāhān), the capital of Kermanshah Province, is located from Tehran in the western part of Iran.

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Khorramabad

Khorramabad (خرم‌آباد - also Romanized as Khorramābād, Khoramabad, Khurramabad, Khorram Abad and Khur Ramābād) is a city and capital of Lorestan Province, Iran.

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Kura–Araxes culture

The Kura–Araxes culture or the early trans-Caucasian culture was a civilization that existed from about 4000 BC until about 2000 BC, which has traditionally been regarded as the date of its end; in some locations it may have disappeared as early as 2600 or 2700 BC.

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Kurdistan

Kurdistan (کوردستان; lit. "homeland of the Kurds") or Greater Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture, languages and national identity have historically been based.

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Lapis lazuli

Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.

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Mahabad

Mahabad (مهاباد; also Romanized as Mihābād and Muhābād), (Mehabad: مەهاباد); is a city and capital of Mahabad County, West Azarbaijan Province, Iran.

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Medes

The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.

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Middle Paleolithic

The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Mousterian

The Mousterian (or Mode III) is a techno-complex (archaeological industry) of flint lithic tools associated primarily with Neanderthals, as well as with the earliest anatomically modern humans in Eurasia.

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Neanderthal

Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.

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Near East

The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.

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Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.

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Neolithic

The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Paleolithic

The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.

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Parthia

Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.

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Persian people

The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.

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Pontic–Caspian steppe

The Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontic steppe or Ukrainian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova and eastern Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east.

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Prehistoric Asia

Prehistoric Asia refers to events in Asia during the period of human existence prior to the invention of writing systems or the documentation of recorded history.

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Prehistory

Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.

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Qaleh Bozi

Qaleh Bozi is a complex of caves sites located about south-southwest of Isfahan, Iran; northeast of Dizicheh and north of Nekouabad and Hassanabad villages.

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Rock art in Iran

Rock art in Iran includes archaeological petroglyphs, or carving in rock; pictographs, or painting on rock; and rock reliefs.

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Sefīd-Rūd

The Sefīd-Rūd (Sefidrud, pronounced) is a river approximately long, rising in the Alborz mountain range of northwestern Iran and flowing generally northeast to enter the Caspian Sea at Rasht.

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Sumer

SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Susa

Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.

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Tepe Sialk

Tepe Sialk (تپه سیلک) is a large ancient archeological site (a tepe, "hill" or "mound") in a suburb of the city of Kashan, Isfahan Province, in central Iran, close to Fin Garden.

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Terracotta

Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.

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University of Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.

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Upper Paleolithic

The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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Urartu

Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.

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Uruk period

The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period and succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period.

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Walter de Gruyter

Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.

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Warwasi

Warwasi is a Paleolithic rockshelter site located at north of Kermanshah in western Iran.

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Wine

Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.

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Yafteh

Yafteh is an Upper Paleolithic cave located at the foot of Yafteh Mountain in the Zagros Mountains range, located northwest of Khoramabad in western Zagros, Lorestan Province of western Iran.

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Zagros Mountains

The Zagros Mountains (کوه‌های زاگرس; چیاکانی زاگرۆس) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey.

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Zayandeh River Culture

Zayandeh River Culture (تمدن زاینده رود, literally "Zāyandé-Rūd Civilization") is a hypothetical pre-historic culture that is theorized to have flourished around the Zayandeh River in Iran in the 6th millennium BC.

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Redirects here:

7000 BCE in Iran, Prehistoric Iran, Prehistoric Persia.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistory_of_Iran

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