133 relations: Accusative case, Adjective, Adjective phrase, Adjunct (grammar), Adpositional phrase, Adverb, Adverbial, American English, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek grammar, Article (grammar), Branching (linguistics), British English, Chinese grammar, Chinese language, Clause, Common English usage misconceptions, Complement (linguistics), Conjunction (grammar), Coordination (linguistics), Copula (linguistics), Coverb, Dative case, Dependent clause, Determiner phrase, Duden, Dutch grammar, Dutch language, Ellipsis (linguistics), English grammar, English language, English possessive, Finnish grammar, Finnish language, French grammar, French language, Genitive case, German grammar, German language, German orthography, Gerund, Grammar, Grammatical case, Grammatical modifier, Grammatical number, Grammatical particle, Grammaticalization, Head (linguistics), Head-directionality parameter, Hindi, ..., Inessive case, Infinitive, Inflected preposition, Instrumental case, Interrogative word, Italian grammar, Japanese language, Japanese particles, Khmer grammar, Koine Greek, Korean language, Kurdish languages, Language acquisition, Latin, Latin grammar, Latin honors, Linguistic typology, List of English prepositions, Metaphor, Morpheme, Morphology (linguistics), Niger–Congo languages, Nominalization, Nonfinite verb, North Germanic languages, Northern Kurdish, Noun, Noun phrase, Object (grammar), Oblique case, Old English grammar, Otto Jespersen, Part of speech, Pashto, Passive voice, Phrasal verb, Phrase, Polish grammar, Polysemy, Possession (linguistics), Possessive, Possessive determiner, Predicative expression, Prefix, Preposition stranding, Prepositional adverb, Prepositional case, Prepositional pronoun, Pronoun, Relational noun, Russian grammar, Russian language, Semantics, Separable verb, Serial verb construction, Sindhi language, Small clause, Spanish language, Spanish prepositions, Specifier (linguistics), Standard Chinese, Subject–object–verb, Subject–verb–object, Swedish language, Syntactic category, Syntax, Telicity, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, Thematic relation, Tigrinya grammar, Tigrinya language, Timbisha language, Transitive verb, Turkish grammar, Turkish language, Uninflected word, Urdu, Varieties of Chinese, Vedic Sanskrit, Verb, Vowel harmony, Wh-movement, World Atlas of Language Structures. Expand index (83 more) » « Shrink index
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An adjective phrase (or adjectival phrase) is a phrase whose head word is an adjective, e.g. fond of steak, very happy, quite upset about it, etc.
In linguistics, an adjunct is an optional, or structurally dispensable, part of a sentence, clause, or phrase that, if removed or discarded, will not otherwise affect the remainder of the sentence.
An adpositional phrase, in linguistics, is a syntactic category that includes prepositional phrases, postpositional phrases, and circumpositional phrases.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
In grammar, an adverbial (abbreviated) is a word (an adverb) or a group of words (an adverbial phrase or an adverbial clause) that modifies or more closely defines the sentence or the verb.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Greek grammar is morphologically complex and preserves several features of Proto-Indo-European morphology.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
In linguistics, branching refers to the shape of the parse trees that represent the structure of sentences.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
The grammar of Standard Chinese shares many features with other varieties of Chinese.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
In grammar, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.
This list comprises widespread modern beliefs about English language usage that are documented by a reliable source to be misconceptions.
In grammar, a complement is a word, phrase or clause that is necessary to complete the meaning of a given expression.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.
In linguistics, coordination is a frequently occurring complex syntactic structure that links together two or more elements, known as conjuncts or conjoins.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
Coverb is a grammatical term that can have several different meanings but generally denotes a word or prefix that resembles a verb or co-operates with a verb.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.
In linguistics, a determiner phrase (DP) is a type of phrase posited by some theories of syntax.
The Duden is a dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in 1880.
This article outlines the grammar of the Dutch language, which shares strong similarities with German grammar and also, to a lesser degree, with English grammar.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
In linguistics, ellipsis (from the ἔλλειψις, élleipsis, "omission") or an elliptical construction is the omission from a clause of one or more words that are nevertheless understood in the context of the remaining elements.
English grammar is the way in which meanings are encoded into wordings in the English language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
In English, possessive words or phrases exist for nouns and most pronouns, as well as some noun phrases.
This article deals with the grammar of the Finnish language (the article Finnish language discusses the language in general and contains a quick overview of the grammar).
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
French grammar is the set of rules by which the French language creates statements, questions and commands.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
German grammar is the set of structural rules of the German language, which in many respects is quite similar to that of the other Germanic languages.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
A gerund (abbreviated) is any of various nonfinite verb forms in various languages, most often, but not exclusively, one that functions as a noun.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In grammar, a modifier is an optional element in phrase structure or clause structure.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.
In historical linguistics and language change, grammaticalization (also known as grammatization or grammaticization) is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions (i.e. nouns and verbs) become grammatical markers (affixes, prepositions, etc.). Thus it creates new function words by a process other than deriving them from existing bound, inflectional constructions, instead deriving them from content words.
In linguistics, the head or nucleus of a phrase is the word that determines the syntactic category of that phrase.
In linguistics, the head directionality is a proposed parameter that classifies languages according to whether they are head-initial (the head of a phrase precedes its complements) or head-final (the head follows its complements).
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Inessive case (abbreviated; from Latin inesse "to be in or at") is a locative grammatical case.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
In linguistics, an inflected preposition is a type of word that occurs in some languages, that corresponds to the combination of a preposition and a personal pronoun.
The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, whom, why, and how.
Italian grammar is the body of rules describing the properties of the Italian language.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Japanese particles, or, are suffixes or short words in Japanese grammar that immediately follow the modified noun, verb, adjective, or sentence.
This article describes the grammar of the Khmer (Cambodian) language, focusing on the standard dialect.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin is a heavily inflected language with largely free word order.
Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of distinction with which an academic degree has been earned.
Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.
This is a list of English prepositions.
A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
In linguistics, nominalization or nominalisation is the use of a word which is not a noun (e.g., a verb, an adjective or an adverb) as a noun, or as the head of a noun phrase, with or without morphological transformation.
A nonfinite verb is of any of several verb forms that are not finite verbs; they cannot perform action as the root of an independent clause.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
Northern Kurdish (Kurdiya jorîn, rtl), also called Kurmanji (Kurmancî, rtl), is a Kurdish language spoken in southeast Turkey, northwest and northeast Iran, northern Iraq and northern Syria.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
In grammar, an oblique (abbreviated; from casus obliquus) or objective case (abbr.) is a nominal case that is used when a noun phrase is the object of either a verb or a preposition.
The grammar of Old English is quite different from that of Modern English, predominantly by being much more inflected.
Jens Otto Harry Jespersen or Otto Jespersen (16 July 1860 – 30 April 1943) was a Danish linguist who specialized in the grammar of the English language.
In traditional grammar, a part of speech (abbreviated form: PoS or POS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
In English, a phrasal verb is a phrase such as turn down or ran into which combines two or three words from different grammatical categories: a verb and a particle and/or a preposition together form a single semantic unit.
In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression.
The grammar of the Polish language is characterized by a high degree of inflection, and has relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO).
Polysemy (or; from πολυ-, poly-, "many" and σῆμα, sêma, "sign") is the capacity for a sign (such as a word, phrase, or symbol) to have multiple meanings (that is, multiple semes or sememes and thus multiple senses), usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field.
Possession, in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, the referent of one of which (the possessor) in some sense possesses (owns, has as a part, rules over, etc.) the referent of the other (the possessed).
A possessive form (abbreviated) is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense.
Possessive determiners constitute a sub-class of determiners which modify a noun by attributing possession (or other sense of belonging) to someone or something.
A predicative expression (or just predicative) is part of a clause predicate, and is an expression that typically follows a copula (or linking verb), e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appears as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
Preposition stranding, sometimes called P-stranding, is the syntactic construction in which a preposition with an object occurs somewhere other than immediately adjacent to its object; for example, at the end of a sentence.
A prepositional adverb is a word - mainly a particle - which is very similar in its form to a preposition but functions as an adverb.
Prepositional case (abbreviated) and postpositional case (abbreviated) are grammatical cases that respectively mark the object of a preposition and a postposition.
A prepositional pronoun is a special form of a personal pronoun that is used as the object of a preposition.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
Relational nouns or relator nouns are a class of words used in many languages.
Russian grammar employs an Indo-European inflexional structure, with considerable adaptation.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
A separable verb is a verb that is composed of a lexical core and a separable particle.
The serial verb construction, also known as (verb) serialization or verb stacking, is a syntactic phenomenon in which two or more verbs or verb phrases are strung together in a single clause.
Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
In linguistics, a small clause is a frequently occurring construction that has the semantic subject-predicate characteristics of a clause, but that lacks the tense of a finite clause and appears to lack the status of a constituent.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The prepositions of the Spanish language—like prepositions in other languages—are a set of connecting words (such as con, de or para) that serve to indicate a relationship between a content word (noun, verb, or adjective) and a following noun phrase (or noun, or pronoun), called the object of the preposition.
In X-bar theory in linguistics, specifiers, head words, complements and adjuncts together form phrases.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
A syntactic category is a type of syntactic unit that theories of syntax assume.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
In linguistics, telicity (from the Greek, meaning "end" or "goal") is the property of a verb or verb phrase that presents an action or event as being complete in some sense.
The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, often abbreviated CGEL by its adherents, is a comprehensive reference book on English language grammar.
In linguistics, thematic relations, within certain theories, are the various roles that a noun phrase may play with respect to the action or state described by a governing verb, commonly the sentence's main verb.
This article describes the Grammar of Tigrinya, a South Semitic language which is spoken primarily in Eritrea and Ethiopia, and is written in Ge'ez script.
Tigrinya (often written as Tigrigna) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch.
Timbisha (Tümpisa; also called Panamint or Koso) is the language of the Native American people who have inhabited the region in and around Death Valley, California and the southern Owens Valley since late prehistoric times.
A transitive verb is a verb that requires one or more objects.
Turkish grammar, as described in this article, is the grammar of standard Turkish as spoken and written by educated people in the Republic of Turkey.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
In linguistic morphology, an uninflected word is a word that has no morphological markers (inflection) such as affixes, ablaut, consonant gradation, etc., indicating declension or conjugation.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.
In linguistics, wh-movement (also known as wh-fronting or wh-extraction or long-distance dependency) concerns special rules of syntax, observed in many languages around the world, involving the placement of interrogative words.
The World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS) is a database of structural (phonological, grammatical, lexical) properties of languages gathered from descriptive materials.
Adposition, Adpositions, Ambiposition, Circumposition, Complex preposition, Improper preposition, Inposition, Interposition (grammar), Post-position, Postposition, Postpositions, Preposition, Preposition & postposition, Preposition (grammar), Prepositional, Prepositions, Prepositions and postpositions, Proper preposition, Simple preposition, Through.