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Presbyterianism

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Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland. [1]

251 relations: A cappella, Academic degree, Acts of Union 1707, Affusion, Alb, American Political Science Review, Andrew Melville, Anglicanism, Apostles' Creed, Archbishop of Canterbury, Aspersion, Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, Associated Presbyterian Churches, Aston Tirrold, Baptism, Barmen Declaration, Battle of the Boyne, Bible Presbyterian Church, Book of Common Prayer, Book of Confessions, Book of Discipline (Church of Scotland), Calvinism, Canadian Presbyterian Mission, Canton of Geneva, Cassock, Catholic Church, Celtic Christianity, Celts, Charles I of England, Charles II of England, Charlotte, North Carolina, Chasuble, Cherrapunji, Cheung Chau, Christian denomination, Christian monasticism, Church of England, Church of Ireland, Church of Scotland, Columba, Commonwealth of England, Conciliarity, Confession of 1967, Confessionalism (religion), Congregational church, Congregational Union of Australia, Congregationalist polity, Conscience, Covenant Presbyterian Church, Covenanter, ..., Crown Court Church, Culdees, Cumberland Presbyterian Church, Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America, Cumberland Presbyterian Church Yao Dao Secondary School, Cursillo, Directory for Public Worship, Disruption of 1843, Doctrine, Ecclesiastical polity, ECO: A Covenant Order of Evangelical Presbyterians, Ecumenism, Emerging church, English Civil War, English Dissenters, English Presbyterian Mission, English Presbyterianism, Episcopal Church (United States), Episcopal polity, Eucharist, Evangelical Presbyterian Church (Ireland), Evangelical Presbyterian Church (United States), Evangelical Presbyterian Church in England and Wales, Evangelicalism, Exclusive psalmody, Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church, First Secession, Fourth Presbyterian Church (Chicago), Francis Schaeffer, Free Church of Scotland (1843–1900), Free Church of Scotland (Continuing), Free Church of Scotland (since 1900), Free Presbyterian Church of North America, Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland, Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster, French language, Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy, Gallican Rite, Geneva gown, George Leslie Mackay, Ghost Ranch, Glorious Revolution, Grace in Christianity, Grace Presbyterian Church of New Zealand, Great Britain, Heidelberg Catechism, Helvetic Confessions, Hiberno-Scottish mission, History of Christianity, Holy See, Infant baptism, Interior design, International Presbyterian Church, Ireland, James Laidlaw Maxwell, James VI and I, Jay E. 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A cappella

A cappella (Italian for "in the manner of the chapel") music is specifically group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way.

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Academic degree

An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.

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Acts of Union 1707

The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.

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Affusion

Affusion (la. affusio) is a method of baptism where water is poured on the head of the person being baptized.

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Alb

The alb (from the Latin Albus, meaning white), one of the liturgical vestments of the Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, and Methodist churches, is an ample white garment coming down to the ankles and is usually girdled with a cincture (a type of belt, sometimes of rope similar to the type used with monk garments).

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American Political Science Review

The American Political Science Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all areas of political science.

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Andrew Melville

Andrew Melville (1 August 1545 – 1622) was a Scottish scholar, theologian and religious reformer.

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Anglicanism

Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.

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Apostles' Creed

The Apostles' Creed (Latin: Symbolum Apostolorum or Symbolum Apostolicum), sometimes entitled Symbol of the Apostles, is an early statement of Christian belief—a creed or "symbol".

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Archbishop of Canterbury

The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.

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Aspersion

Aspersion (la. aspergere/aspersio), in a religious context, is the act of sprinkling with water, especially holy water.

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Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church

The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARPC), as it exists today, is the remnant of a small denomination, which was formed from the Synod of the South, a division of the Associate Reformed Church.

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Associated Presbyterian Churches

The Associated Presbyterian Churches (APC) is a Scottish Christian denomination (with a congregation in Canada), formed in 1989 from part of the community of the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland.

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Aston Tirrold

Aston Tirrold is a village and civil parish at the foot of the Berkshire Downs about southeast of Didcot.

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Baptism

Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.

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Barmen Declaration

The Barmen Declaration or the Theological Declaration of Barmen 1934 (Die Barmer Theologische Erklärung) was a document adopted by Christians in Nazi Germany who opposed the Deutsche Christen (German Christian) movement.

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Battle of the Boyne

The Battle of the Boyne (Cath na Bóinne) was a battle in 1690 between the forces of the deposed King James II of England, and those of Dutch Prince William of Orange who, with his wife Mary II (his cousin and James's daughter), had acceded to the Crowns of England and Scotland in 1688.

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Bible Presbyterian Church

The Bible Presbyterian Church is an American Protestant denomination in the Reformed tradition.

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Book of Common Prayer

The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, Anglican realignment and other Anglican Christian churches.

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Book of Confessions

The Book of Confessions contains the creeds and confessions of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). The contents are the Nicene Creed, the Apostles' Creed, the Scots Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, the Second Helvetic Confession, the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Shorter Catechism, the Larger Catechism, the Theological Declaration of Barmen, the Confession of 1967, the Confession of Belhar, and the Brief Statement of Faith.

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Book of Discipline (Church of Scotland)

The Book of Discipline refers to two works regulative of ecclesiastical order in the Church of Scotland, known as The First Book of Discipline (1560) and The Second Book of Discipline (1578), drawn up and printed in the Scottish Reformation.

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Calvinism

Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

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Canadian Presbyterian Mission

Canadian Presbyterian Mission was a Presbyterian Church in Canada missionary society that was involved in sending workers to countries such as China during the late Qing Dynasty, the most famous of which were Jonathan Goforth and his wife, Rosalind.

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Canton of Geneva

The Republic and Canton of Geneva (République et canton de Genève; Rèpublica et canton de Geneva; Republik und Kanton Genf; Repubblica e Canton di Ginevra; Republica e chantun Genevra) is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on almost all sides by France.

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Cassock

The white or black cassock, or soutane, is an item of Christian clerical clothing used by the clergy of Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, Lutheran, and Reformed churches, among others.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Celtic Christianity

Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.

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Celts

The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Charles I of England

Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

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Charles II of England

Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.

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Charlotte, North Carolina

Charlotte is the most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina.

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Chasuble

The chasuble is the outermost liturgical vestment worn by clergy for the celebration of the Eucharist in Western-tradition Christian churches that use full vestments, primarily in Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches.

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Cherrapunji

Cherrapunji (with the historic name Sohra being more commonly used, and can also be spelled Cherrapunjee or Cherrapunji) is a subdivisional town in the East Khasi Hills district in the Indian state of Meghalaya.

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Cheung Chau

Cheung Chau (lit. "Long state") is an island southwest of Hong Kong Island.

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Christian denomination

A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.

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Christian monasticism

Christian monasticism is the devotional practice of individuals who live ascetic and typically cloistered lives that are dedicated to Christian worship.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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Church of Ireland

The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.

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Church of Scotland

The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.

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Columba

Saint Columba (Colm Cille, 'church dove'; Columbkille; 7 December 521 – 9 June 597) was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission.

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Commonwealth of England

The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.

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Conciliarity

Conciliarity is the adherence of various Christian communities to the authority of ecumenical councils and to synodal church government.

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Confession of 1967

The Confession of 1967 is a confession of faith of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), abbreviated PC(USA).

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Confessionalism (religion)

Confessionalism, in a religious (and particularly Christian) sense, is a belief in the importance of full and unambiguous assent to the whole of a religious teaching.

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Congregational church

Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.

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Congregational Union of Australia

The Congregational Union of Australia was a Congregational denomination in Australia that stemmed from the Congregational Church in England as settlers migrated from there to Australia.

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Congregationalist polity

Congregationalist polity, or congregational polity, often known as congregationalism, is a system of ecclesiastical polity in which every local church congregation is independent, ecclesiastically sovereign, or "autonomous".

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Conscience

Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong.

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Covenant Presbyterian Church

The Covenant Presbyterian Church (CPC) is a Presbyterian denomination with 13 member churches in the US.

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Covenanter

The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century.

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Crown Court Church

A Scottish Presbyterian congregation was first established in London during the reign of King James I of England and VI of Scots, following the Union of the Crowns in 1603.

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Culdees

The Culdees (Céilí Dé, "Companions of God") were members of ascetic Christian monastic and eremitical communities of Ireland, Scotland, and England in the Middle Ages.

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Cumberland Presbyterian Church

The Cumberland Presbyterian Church is a Presbyterian Christian denomination spawned by the Second Great Awakening.

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Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America

The Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America is a Historically African-American denomination which developed from the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in 1874.

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Cumberland Presbyterian Church Yao Dao Secondary School

Cumberland Presbyterian Church Yao Dao Secondary School is an aided secondary school in Hong Kong.

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Cursillo

Cursillos in Christianity (Cursillos de Cristiandad, "Short courses of Christianity") is an apostolic movement of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Directory for Public Worship

The Directory for Public Worship (known in Scotland as the Westminster Directory having been approved by the Scottish Parliament in 1645) was a manual of directions for worship approved by an ordinance of Parliament early in 1645 to replace the Book of Common Prayer (and which was denounced by a counter-proclamation from Charles I).

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Disruption of 1843

The Disruption of 1843 was a schism or division within the established Church of Scotland, in which 450 evangelical ministers of the Church broke away, over the issue of the Church's relationship with the State, to form the Free Church of Scotland.

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Doctrine

Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.

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Ecclesiastical polity

Ecclesiastical polity is the operational and governance structure of a church or of a Christian denomination.

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ECO: A Covenant Order of Evangelical Presbyterians

ECO: A Covenant Order of Evangelical Presbyterians is an evangelical Presbyterian denomination in the United States.

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Ecumenism

Ecumenism refers to efforts by Christians of different Church traditions to develop closer relationships and better understandings.

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Emerging church

The emerging church is a Christian movement of the late 20th and early 21st centuries that crosses a number of theological boundaries: participants are variously described as Protestant, post-Protestant, evangelical, post-evangelical, liberal, post-liberal, conservative, post-conservative, anabaptist, reformed, charismatic, neocharismatic, and post-charismatic.

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English Civil War

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.

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English Dissenters

English Dissenters or English Separatists were Protestant Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.

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English Presbyterian Mission

English Presbyterian Mission was a British Presbyterian missionary society that was involved in sending workers to countries such as China during the late Qing Dynasty.

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English Presbyterianism

Presbyterianism in England is practiced by followers of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism who practise the Presbyterian form of church government in England.

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Episcopal Church (United States)

The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

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Episcopal polity

An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which the chief local authorities are called bishops.

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Eucharist

The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.

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Evangelical Presbyterian Church (Ireland)

No description.

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Evangelical Presbyterian Church (United States)

The Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC) is an American church body holding to presbyterian governance.

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Evangelical Presbyterian Church in England and Wales

The Evangelical Presbyterian Church in England and Wales (EPCEW) is a reformed and conservative evangelical denomination in both England and Wales with churches in Germany and Sweden.

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Evangelicalism

Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.

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Exclusive psalmody

Exclusive psalmody is the practice of singing only the biblical Psalms in congregational singing as worship.

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Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church

Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church (FAPC) is a Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) church in New York City.

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First Secession

The First Secession was an exodus of ministers and members from the Church of Scotland in 1733.

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Fourth Presbyterian Church (Chicago)

The Fourth Presbyterian Church of Chicago is a congregation of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) located in the Magnificent Mile neighborhood of Chicago, directly across Michigan Avenue from the John Hancock Center.

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Francis Schaeffer

Francis August Schaeffer (January 30, 1912 – May 15, 1984) was an American Evangelical Christian theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor.

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Free Church of Scotland (1843–1900)

The Free Church of Scotland was a Scottish denomination which was formed in 1843 by a large withdrawal from the established Church of Scotland in a schism or division known as the Disruption of 1843.

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Free Church of Scotland (Continuing)

The Free Church of Scotland (Continuing) (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Shaor Leantainneach) is a Scottish Presbyterian denomination which was formed in January 2000.

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Free Church of Scotland (since 1900)

The Free Church of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Shaor) is an Evangelical and Reformed Presbyterian denomination in Scotland.

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Free Presbyterian Church of North America

The Free Presbyterian Church of North America (FPCNA) is a Presbyterian denomination in the United States and Canada with mission works in Liberia, Jamaica, and Kenya.

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Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland

The Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Shaor Chlèireach) was formed in 1893 and claims to be the spiritual descendant of the Scottish Reformation: its web-site states that it is 'the constitutional heir of the historic Church of Scotland'.

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Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster

The Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster is a Christian denomination founded by Ian Paisley in 1951.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy

The Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy was a major schism that originated in the 1920s and '30s within the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America.

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Gallican Rite

The Gallican Rite is a historical version of Christian liturgy and other ritual practices in Western Christianity.

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Geneva gown

The Geneva gown, also called a pulpit gown, pulpit robe, or preaching robe, is an ecclesiastical garment customarily worn by ordained ministers in the Christian churches that arose out of the historic Protestant Reformation.

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George Leslie Mackay

George Leslie Mackay (or Má-kai; 21 March 1844 – 2 June 1901, aged 57) was the first Presbyterian missionary to northern Formosa (Qing-era Taiwan).

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Ghost Ranch

Ghost Ranch is a retreat and education center located close to the village of Abiquiú in Rio Arriba County in north central New Mexico, United States.

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Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.

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Grace in Christianity

In Western Christian theology, grace has been defined, not as a created substance of any kind, but as "the love and mercy given to us by God because God desires us to have it, not necessarily because of anything we have done to earn it", "Grace is favour, the free and undeserved help that God gives us to respond to his call to become children of God, adoptive sons, partakers of the divine nature and of eternal life." It is understood by Christians to be a spontaneous gift from God to people "generous, free and totally unexpected and undeserved" – that takes the form of divine favor, love, clemency, and a share in the divine life of God.

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Grace Presbyterian Church of New Zealand

Grace Presbyterian Church of New Zealand (GPCNZ) is a Presbyterian denomination in New Zealand which was formed in 2002.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Heidelberg Catechism

The Heidelberg Catechism (1563), one of the Three Forms of Unity, is a Protestant confessional document taking the form of a series of questions and answers, for use in teaching Reformed Christian doctrine.

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Helvetic Confessions

The Helvetic Confessions are two documents expressing the common belief of the Reformed churches of Switzerland.

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Hiberno-Scottish mission

The Hiberno-Scottish mission was a series of missions and expeditions initiated by various Irish clerics and cleric-scholars who, for the most part, are not known to have acted in concert.

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History of Christianity

The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.

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Holy See

The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.

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Infant baptism

Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young children.

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Interior design

Interior design is the art and science of enhancing the interior of a building to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space.

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International Presbyterian Church

The International Presbyterian Church is a Reformed church in Europe, that holds to the Presbyterian confession of faith, with common commitments, purpose and accountability and government.

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Ireland

Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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James Laidlaw Maxwell

James Laidlaw Maxwell Senior (Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Má Ngá-kok;; born 18 March 1836 in Scotland – March 1921) was the first Presbyterian missionary to Formosa (Qing-era Taiwan).

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James VI and I

James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.

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Jay E. Adams

Jay Edward Adams (born January 30, 1929) is an American, Reformed Christian author who has written more than 100 books.

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John Calvin

John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

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John Dunmore Lang

John Dunmore Lang (25 August 1799 – 8 August 1878) was a Scottish-born Australian Presbyterian minister, writer, politician and activist.

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John Knox

John Knox (– 24 November 1572) was a Scottish minister, theologian, and writer who was a leader of the country's Reformation.

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John the Apostle

John the Apostle (ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ; יוחנן בן זבדי; Koine Greek: Ιωάννης; ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ; Latin: Ioannes) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament, which refers to him as Ἰωάννης.

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John Whitgift

John Whitgift (c. 1530 – 29 February 1604) was the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1583 to his death.

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Khasi Hills

The Khasi Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi range in the Indian state of Meghalaya (before 1970 part of Assam), and is part of the Patkai range and of the Meghalaya subtropical forests ecoregion.

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Kingdom of Great Britain

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.

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Kirk

Kirk is a Scottish and Northern English word meaning "church", or more specifically, the Church of Scotland.

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Korea

Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Korean American Presbyterian Church

Korean American Presbyterian Church is a conservative Presbyterian denomination in the United States and Canada.

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Korean Christians in Hong Kong

According to the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong, there were approximately 5 thousand Koreans in 2006, of which 94.4% were usual residents while mobile residents occupied 5.6%.

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Kuomintang

The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.

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L'Abri

L'Abri (French for "the Shelter") is an evangelical Christian organization founded by Francis Schaeffer and his wife Edith in Huémoz-sur-Ollon, Switzerland, on June 5, 1955.

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Lee Teng-hui

Lee Teng-hui (born 15 January 1923) is a Taiwanese politician.

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List of Presbyterian churches

This is a list of local Presbyterian churches that are notable either as congregations or as buildings.

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Long Parliament

The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660.

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Lord's Day

The Lord's Day in Christianity is generally Sunday, the principal day of communal worship.

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Lords of the Congregation

The Lords of the Congregation, originally styling themselves "the Faithful Congregation of Christ Jesus in Scotland", were a group of Protestant Scottish nobles who in the mid-16th century favoured a reformation of the church according to Protestant principles and a Scottish-English alliance.

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Lutheranism

Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.

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Malampa Province

Malampa is one of the six provinces of Vanuatu, located in the center of the country and consisting of three main islands.

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Meghalaya

Meghalaya is a state in Northeast India.

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Methodism

Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.

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Methodist Church of Australasia

The Methodist Church of Australasia was a Methodist denomination based in Australia.

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Missionary

A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.

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Mizoram

Mizoram is a state in Northeast India, with Aizawl as its capital city.

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National Presbyterian Church in Mexico

The National Presbyterian Church in Mexico (La Iglesia Nacional Presbiteriana de México A.R.) is the second-largest Protestant church, and the largest Reformed denomination in Mexico.

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New Territories

The New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nicene Creed

The Nicene Creed (Greek: or,, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy.

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Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland

The Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland has its origins with those early 18th-century Presbyterian ministers who refused to subscribe at their ordination to the Westminster Confession, a standard Reformed (Calvinist) statement of faith; and who were placed, in 1725, the Presbytery of Antrim.

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Nontrinitarianism

Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity that rejects the mainstream Christian doctrine of the Trinity—the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases or persons who are coeternal, coequal, and indivisibly united in one being, or essence (from the Greek ousia).

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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Orthodox Presbyterian Church

The Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC) is a confessional Presbyterian denomination located primarily in the northern United States.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Paleo-orthodoxy

Paleo-orthodoxy (from Ancient Greek παλαιός "ancient" and Koine Greek ὀρθοδοξία "correct belief") is a Protestant Christian theological movement of the late 20th and early 21st centuries which focuses on the consensual understanding of the faith among the Ecumenical councils and Church Fathers.

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Parliament of Scotland

The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland.

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.

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Patronage

Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.

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Penal Laws (Ireland)

In the island of Ireland, Penal Laws (Na Péindlíthe) were a series of laws imposed in an attempt to force Irish Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters (such as local Presbyterians) to accept the reformed denomination as defined by the English state established Anglican Church and practised by members of the Irish state established Church of Ireland.

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Penama Province

Penama is one of the six provinces of Vanuatu, located in the northeast of the country and consisting of three major islands.

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Pietism

Pietism (from the word piety) was an influential movement in Lutheranism that combined its emphasis on Biblical doctrine with the Reformed emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous Christian life.

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Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.

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Plan of Union of 1801

The Plan of Union of 1801 was an agreement between the Congregational churches of New England and the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America for mutual support and joint effort in evangelizing the American frontier.

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Plantation of Ulster

The Plantation of Ulster (Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-Scots: Plantin o Ulstèr) was the organised colonisation (plantation) of Ulstera province of Irelandby people from Great Britain during the reign of James VI and I. Most of the colonists came from Scotland and England, although there was a small number of Welsh settlers.

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Port Vila

Port Vila is the capital and largest city of Vanuatu and is on the island of Efate.

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Presbyter

In the New Testament, a presbyter (Greek πρεσβύτερος: "elder") is a leader of a local Christian congregation.

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Presbyterian Church (USA)

The Presbyterian Church (USA), or PC (USA), is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States.

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Presbyterian Church in America

The Presbyterian Church in America (PCA) is the second largest Presbyterian church body (second to Presbyterian Church (USA)) and the largest conservative Reformed denomination in the United States.

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Presbyterian Church in Canada

The Presbyterian Church in Canada is a Presbyterian denomination, serving in Canada under this name since 1875.

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Presbyterian Church in Ireland

The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (PCI; Eaglais Phreispitéireach in Éirinn, Ulster-Scots: Prisbytairin Kirk in Airlann) is the largest Presbyterian denomination in Ireland, and the largest Protestant denomination in Northern Ireland.

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Presbyterian Church in Taiwan

The Presbyterian Church in Taiwan (PCT) is the largest Protestant Christian denomination based in Taiwan.

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Presbyterian Church in the United States of America

The Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (PCUSA) was the first national Presbyterian denomination in the United States, existing from 1789 to 1958.

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Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand

The Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand (PCANZ) is the main Presbyterian church in New Zealand.

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Presbyterian Church of Australia

The Presbyterian Church of Australia (PCA) is the largest Presbyterian denomination in Australia.

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Presbyterian Church of Brazil

The Presbyterian Church of Brazil (Portuguese: Igreja Presbiteriana do Brasil, or IPB) is an Evangelical Protestant Christian denomination in Brazil.

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Presbyterian Church of East Africa

Presbyterian Church of East Africa (PCEA) is a Presbyterian denomination headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya.

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Presbyterian Church of Eastern Australia

The Presbyterian Church of Eastern Australia (PCEA) is a small Presbyterian denomination which was formed in Sydney on 10 October 1846 by three ministers and a ruling elder.

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Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu

The Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu or the Presbitirin Jyos Blong Vanuatu is the largest Christian denomination in Vanuatu.

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Presbyterian Church of Wales

The Presbyterian Church of Wales (Eglwys Bresbyteraidd Cymru), also known as Calvinistic Methodist Church (Yr Eglwys Fethodistaidd Galfinaidd), is a denomination of Protestant Christianity in Wales.

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Presbyterian polity

Presbyterian (or presbyteral) polity is a method of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders.

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Presbyterian Reformed Church (North America)

The Presbyterian Reformed Church is a Christian denomination that was founded in Ontario, Canada on November 17, 1965, whose churches continue the historic Scottish Presbyterian orthodoxy in doctrine, worship, government and discipline, on the basis of a conviction that these principles and practices are founded in and are agreeable to the Word of God.

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Princeton Theology

The Princeton Theology was a tradition of conservative, Christian, Reformed and Presbyterian theology at Princeton Theological Seminary lasting from the founding of that institution in 1812 until the 1920s, after which, due to the increasing influence of theological liberalism at the school, the last Princeton theologians left to found Westminster Theological Seminary.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Puritan's Pit

Puritan's Pit (also known as Preacher's Pit, The Devil's Pit or Gruti's Pit) is a large steep-sided pit in the south side of the valley of the River Lemon in Bradley Woods, just west of the town of Newton Abbot in Devon, England.

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Puritans

The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.

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Reformation

The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Reformed Church of France

The Reformed Church of France (Église Réformée de France, ERF) was the main Protestant denomination in France with a Reformed orientation that could be traced back directly to John Calvin.

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Reformed confessions of faith

Reformed confessions of faith are the confessions of faith of various Reformed churches.

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Reformed Presbyterian Church – Hanover Presbytery

The Reformed Presbyterian Church – Hanover Presbytery is a very conservative Reformed Denomination, with congregations in the United States and also in Brazil.

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Reformed Presbyterian Church General Assembly

The Reformed Presbyterian Church General Assembly is a conservative Presbyterian denomination in the United States.

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Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States

The Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States is a small Presbyterian denomination based in the United States.

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Reformed Presbyterian Church of Australia

The Reformed Presbyterian Church of Australia is a Calvinist denomination in Australia.

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Reformed Presbyterian Church of Ireland

The Reformed Presbyterian Church of Ireland is a Presbyterian denomination in Ireland.

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Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America

The Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America (RPCNA), a Christian church, is a Presbyterian denomination with churches throughout the United States, in Canada, and in Japan.

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Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland

The Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland is a Christian denomination.

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Reformed Presbyterian churches

The Reformed Presbyterian Church is a group of denominations following a Presbyterian form of Protestant Christianity.

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Reformed worship

Reformed worship is religious devotion to God as conducted by Reformed or Calvinistic Christians, including Presbyterians.

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Regulative principle of worship

The regulative principle of worship is a Christian doctrine, held by some Calvinists and Anabaptists, that God commands churches to conduct public services of worship using certain distinct elements affirmatively found in Scripture, and conversely, that God prohibits any and all other practices in public worship.

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Relief Church

The Relief Church (or Presbytery of Relief) was a Scottish Presbyterian denomination founded in 1761.

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Religion in Scotland

Religion in Scotland includes all forms of religious organisation and practice.

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Roundhead

Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War.

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Sabbatarianism

Sabbatarianism is a view within Christianity that advocates the observation of the Sabbath, in keeping with the Ten Commandments.

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Sacrament

A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.

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Sanma Province

Sanma is a province located in the Northern part of the nation of Vanuatu, occupying the nation's largest island, Espiritu Santo, which is located approximately 2,500 km northeast of Sydney, Australia.

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Scotch-Irish Americans

Scotch-Irish (or Scots-Irish) Americans are American descendants of Presbyterian and other Ulster Protestant Dissenters from various parts of Ireland, but usually from the province of Ulster, who migrated during the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scots Confession

The Scots Confession (also called the Scots Confession of 1560) is a Confession of Faith written in 1560 by six leaders of the Protestant Reformation in Scotland.

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Scottish people

The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.

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Scottish Reformation

The Scottish Reformation was the process by which Scotland broke with the Papacy and developed a predominantly Calvinist national Kirk (church), which was strongly Presbyterian in outlook.

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Scottish Reformation Parliament

The Scottish Reformation Parliament is the name given to the assembly commencing in 1560 that claimed to pass major pieces of legislation establishing the Scottish Reformation, most importantly the Confession of Faith Ratification Act 1560; and Papal Jurisdiction Act 1560.

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Session (Presbyterianism)

A session (from the Latin word sessio, which means "to sit", as in sitting to deliberate or talk about something; sometimes called consistory or church board) is a body of elected elders governing each local church within presbyterian polity.

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Shefa Province

Shefa is one of the six provinces of Vanuatu, located in the center of the country and including the islands of Epi and Efate and the Shepherd Islands.

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Shillong

Shillong (Khasi: Shillong) is a hill station in the northeastern part of India and the capital of Meghalaya, which means "The Abode of Clouds" and is one of the smallest states in India.

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Siege of Leith

The Siege of Leith ended a twelve-year encampment of French troops at Leith, the port near Edinburgh, Scotland.

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Sohra

Sohra, also known as Chur(r)ra (a British Raj corruption), is one of the hima (Khasi tribal chieftainships constituting petty Khasi Hills States) in the present East Khasi Hills district of the (formerly Assamese) Indian state of Meghalaya.

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Sola scriptura

Sola Scriptura (Latin: by scripture alone) is a theological doctrine held by some Christian denominations that the Christian scriptures are the sole infallible rule of faith and practice.

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Solemn League and Covenant

The Solemn League and Covenant was an agreement between the Scottish Covenanters and the leaders of the English Parliamentarians in 1643 during the First English Civil War.

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St Columba's Church, London

St Columba's Church is one of the two London congregations of the Church of Scotland.

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St Giles' Cathedral

St Giles' Cathedral, also known as the High Kirk of Edinburgh, is the principal place of worship of the Church of Scotland in Edinburgh.

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St Michael and All Angels Church, Blantyre

St.

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Subordinate standard

A subordinate standard is a Reformed confession of faith, catechism or other doctrinal or regulatory statement subscribed to by a Protestant church, setting out key elements of religious belief and church governance.

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Surplice

A surplice (Late Latin superpelliceum, from super, "over" and pellicia, "fur garment") is a liturgical vestment of the Western Christian Church.

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Swallow Street

Swallow Street is a small street in the West End of London, running north from Piccadilly.

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Synod

A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.

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Synod of Otago and Southland

The Synod of Otago and Southland is a synod of the Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand (PCANZ).

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Synod of Whitby

The Synod of Whitby (664 A.D.) was a Northumbrian synod where King Oswiu of Northumbria ruled that his kingdom would calculate Easter and observe the monastic tonsure according to the customs of Rome, rather than the customs practised by Irish monks at Iona and its satellite institutions.

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Tafea Province

Tafea is the southernmost of the six provinces of Vanuatu.

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Tainan

Tainan (Hokkien POJ: Tâi-lâm), officially Tainan City, is a special municipality of Taiwan, facing the Formosan Strait or Taiwan Strait in the west and south.

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Taiwan

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Taiwan independence movement

The Taiwan independence movement is a political movement to pursue formal independence of Taiwan, Goals for independence have arisen from international law in relation to the 1952 Treaty of San Francisco.

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Taiwanese Hokkien

Taiwanese Hokkien (translated as Taiwanese Min Nan), also known as Taiwanese/Taiwanese language in Taiwan (/), is a branched-off variant of Hokkien spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan.

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Taiwanese indigenous peoples

Taiwanese indigenous peoples or formerly Taiwanese aborigines, Formosan people, Austronesian Taiwanese or Gaoshan people are the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number nearly 530,000 or 2.3% of the island's population, or more than 800,000 people, considering the potential recognition of Taiwanese Plain Indigenous Peoples officially in the future.

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Tamsui District

Tamsui also Danshui is a sea-side district in New Taipei, Taiwan.

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The Scots Kirk, Paris

The Scots Kirk (L'Église écossaise) is the only English-speaking Presbyterian church in France and the only congregation of the Church of Scotland in France.

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Thomas Bradbury

Thomas Bradbury (1677–1759), was an English congregational minister.

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Thomas Cartwright (theologian)

Thomas Cartwright (c. 1535 – 27 December 1603) was an English Puritan churchman.

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Tonsure

Tonsure is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair on the scalp, as a sign of religious devotion or humility.

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Torba Province

Torba (or TorBa) is the northernmost province of Vanuatu, consisting of the Banks Islands and the Torres Islands.

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Ulster

Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.

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Ulster Scots people

The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots: Ulstèr-Scotch), also called Ulster-Scots people (Ulstèr-Scotch fowk) or, outside the British Isles, Scots-Irish (Scotch-Airisch), are an ethnic group in Ireland, found mostly in the Ulster region and to a lesser extent in the rest of Ireland.

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Unitarianism

Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

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United and uniting churches

A united church, also called a uniting church, is a church formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations.

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United Church of Canada

The United Church of Canada (Église unie du Canada) is a mainline Reformed denomination and the largest Protestant Christian denomination in Canada, and the largest Canadian Christian denomination after the Catholic Church.

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United Free Church of Scotland

The United Free Church of Scotland (UF Church; An Eaglais Shaor Aonaichte, The Unitit Free Kirk o Scotland) is a Scottish Presbyterian denomination formed in 1900 by the union of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland (or UP) and the majority of the 19th century Free Church of Scotland.

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United Reformed Church

The United Reformed Church (URC) is a Christian church in the United Kingdom.

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Uniting Church in Australia

The Uniting Church in Australia (UCA) was established on 22 June 1977 when most congregations of the Methodist Church of Australasia, about two thirds of the Presbyterian Church of Australia and almost all the churches of the Congregational Union of Australia came together under the Basis of Union.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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Vestment

Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religion, especially among the Eastern Orthodox, Catholics (Latin Church and others), Anglicans, and Lutherans.

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Waitaki River

The Waitaki River is a large braided river that drains the Mackenzie Basin and runs some south-east to enter the Pacific Ocean between Timaru and Oamaru on the east coast of the South Island of New Zealand.

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Wales

Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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Westminster Assembly

The Westminster Assembly of Divines was a council of theologians (or "divines") and members of the English Parliament appointed to restructure the Church of England which met from 1643 to 1653.

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Westminster Confession of Faith

The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith.

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Westminster Larger Catechism

The Westminster Larger Catechism, along with the Westminster Shorter Catechism, is a central catechism of Calvinists in the English tradition throughout the world.

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Westminster Presbyterian Church in the United States

The Westminster Presbyterian Church in the United States (WPCUS) is a small Presbyterian denomination which was constituted in January 2006 in Lansdowne, Pennsylvania.

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Westminster Shorter Catechism

The Westminster Shorter Catechism is a catechism written in 1646 and 1647 by the Westminster Assembly, a synod of English and Scottish theologians and laymen intended to bring the Church of England into greater conformity with the Church of Scotland.

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Westminster Standards

The Westminster Standards is a collective name for the documents drawn up by the Westminster Assembly (1643–49).

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William Laud

William Laud (7 October 1573 – 10 January 1645) was an English archbishop and academic.

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William Robertson Smith

William Robertson Smith (8 November 1846 – 31 March 1894) was a Scottish orientalist, Old Testament scholar, professor of divinity, and minister of the Free Church of Scotland.

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World Communion of Reformed Churches

The World Communion of Reformed Churches (WCRC) is the largest association of Reformed churches in the world.

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World Council of Churches

The World Council of Churches (WCC) is a worldwide inter-church organization founded in 1948.

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Worship

Worship is an act of religious devotion usually directed towards a deity.

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Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

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Yankee

The term "Yankee" and its contracted form "Yank" have several interrelated meanings, all referring to people from the United States; its various senses depend on the context.

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Yuen Long

Yuen Long, formerly romanised as Un Long, is an area and town on the Yuen Long Plain located in the western New Territories, Hong Kong.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Christian - Presbyterian, Cumberland Presbyterian Church of Hong Kong, Irish presbyterianism, Prebysterian, Prebysterianism, Presbertyrian, Presby, Presbytarian, Presbyterian, Presbyterian Christian, Presbyterian Church, Presbyterian Churches, Presbyterian church, Presbyterian ministers, Presbyterianism in Ireland, Presbyterianism in Scotland, Presbyterians, Presbyterism, Scottish Presbyterian, Scottish orthodoxy, Scottish presbyterianism.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presbyterianism

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