251 relations: A cappella, Academic degree, Acts of Union 1707, Affusion, Alb, American Political Science Review, Andrew Melville, Anglicanism, Apostles' Creed, Archbishop of Canterbury, Aspersion, Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, Associated Presbyterian Churches, Aston Tirrold, Baptism, Barmen Declaration, Battle of the Boyne, Bible Presbyterian Church, Book of Common Prayer, Book of Confessions, Book of Discipline (Church of Scotland), Calvinism, Canadian Presbyterian Mission, Canton of Geneva, Cassock, Catholic Church, Celtic Christianity, Celts, Charles I of England, Charles II of England, Charlotte, North Carolina, Chasuble, Cherrapunji, Cheung Chau, Christian denomination, Christian monasticism, Church of England, Church of Ireland, Church of Scotland, Columba, Commonwealth of England, Conciliarity, Confession of 1967, Confessionalism (religion), Congregational church, Congregational Union of Australia, Congregationalist polity, Conscience, Covenant Presbyterian Church, Covenanter, ..., Crown Court Church, Culdees, Cumberland Presbyterian Church, Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America, Cumberland Presbyterian Church Yao Dao Secondary School, Cursillo, Directory for Public Worship, Disruption of 1843, Doctrine, Ecclesiastical polity, ECO: A Covenant Order of Evangelical Presbyterians, Ecumenism, Emerging church, English Civil War, English Dissenters, English Presbyterian Mission, English Presbyterianism, Episcopal Church (United States), Episcopal polity, Eucharist, Evangelical Presbyterian Church (Ireland), Evangelical Presbyterian Church (United States), Evangelical Presbyterian Church in England and Wales, Evangelicalism, Exclusive psalmody, Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church, First Secession, Fourth Presbyterian Church (Chicago), Francis Schaeffer, Free Church of Scotland (1843–1900), Free Church of Scotland (Continuing), Free Church of Scotland (since 1900), Free Presbyterian Church of North America, Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland, Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster, French language, Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy, Gallican Rite, Geneva gown, George Leslie Mackay, Ghost Ranch, Glorious Revolution, Grace in Christianity, Grace Presbyterian Church of New Zealand, Great Britain, Heidelberg Catechism, Helvetic Confessions, Hiberno-Scottish mission, History of Christianity, Holy See, Infant baptism, Interior design, International Presbyterian Church, Ireland, James Laidlaw Maxwell, James VI and I, Jay E. Adams, John Calvin, John Dunmore Lang, John Knox, John the Apostle, John Whitgift, Khasi Hills, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kirk, Korea, Korean American Presbyterian Church, Korean Christians in Hong Kong, Kuomintang, L'Abri, Lee Teng-hui, List of Presbyterian churches, Long Parliament, Lord's Day, Lords of the Congregation, Lutheranism, Malampa Province, Meghalaya, Methodism, Methodist Church of Australasia, Missionary, Mizoram, National Presbyterian Church in Mexico, New Territories, New Zealand, Nicene Creed, Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland, Nontrinitarianism, Northern Ireland, Orthodox Presbyterian Church, Oxford University Press, Paleo-orthodoxy, Parliament of Scotland, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Patronage, Penal Laws (Ireland), Penama Province, Pietism, Pittsburgh, Plan of Union of 1801, Plantation of Ulster, Port Vila, Presbyter, Presbyterian Church (USA), Presbyterian Church in America, Presbyterian Church in Canada, Presbyterian Church in Ireland, Presbyterian Church in Taiwan, Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand, Presbyterian Church of Australia, Presbyterian Church of Brazil, Presbyterian Church of East Africa, Presbyterian Church of Eastern Australia, Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu, Presbyterian Church of Wales, Presbyterian polity, Presbyterian Reformed Church (North America), Princeton Theology, Protestantism, Puritan's Pit, Puritans, Reformation, Reformed Church of France, Reformed confessions of faith, Reformed Presbyterian Church – Hanover Presbytery, Reformed Presbyterian Church General Assembly, Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States, Reformed Presbyterian Church of Australia, Reformed Presbyterian Church of Ireland, Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America, Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland, Reformed Presbyterian churches, Reformed worship, Regulative principle of worship, Relief Church, Religion in Scotland, Roundhead, Sabbatarianism, Sacrament, Sanma Province, Scotch-Irish Americans, Scotland, Scots Confession, Scottish people, Scottish Reformation, Scottish Reformation Parliament, Session (Presbyterianism), Shefa Province, Shillong, Siege of Leith, Sohra, Sola scriptura, Solemn League and Covenant, St Columba's Church, London, St Giles' Cathedral, St Michael and All Angels Church, Blantyre, Subordinate standard, Surplice, Swallow Street, Synod, Synod of Otago and Southland, Synod of Whitby, Tafea Province, Tainan, Taiwan, Taiwan independence movement, Taiwanese Hokkien, Taiwanese indigenous peoples, Tamsui District, The Scots Kirk, Paris, Thomas Bradbury, Thomas Cartwright (theologian), Tonsure, Torba Province, Ulster, Ulster Scots people, Unitarianism, United and uniting churches, United Church of Canada, United Free Church of Scotland, United Reformed Church, Uniting Church in Australia, University of Cambridge, Vestment, Waitaki River, Wales, Westminster Assembly, Westminster Confession of Faith, Westminster Larger Catechism, Westminster Presbyterian Church in the United States, Westminster Shorter Catechism, Westminster Standards, William Laud, William Robertson Smith, World Communion of Reformed Churches, World Council of Churches, Worship, Yale University Press, Yankee, Yuen Long. 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A cappella (Italian for "in the manner of the chapel") music is specifically group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
Affusion (la. affusio) is a method of baptism where water is poured on the head of the person being baptized.
The alb (from the Latin Albus, meaning white), one of the liturgical vestments of the Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, and Methodist churches, is an ample white garment coming down to the ankles and is usually girdled with a cincture (a type of belt, sometimes of rope similar to the type used with monk garments).
The American Political Science Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all areas of political science.
Andrew Melville (1 August 1545 – 1622) was a Scottish scholar, theologian and religious reformer.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
The Apostles' Creed (Latin: Symbolum Apostolorum or Symbolum Apostolicum), sometimes entitled Symbol of the Apostles, is an early statement of Christian belief—a creed or "symbol".
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
Aspersion (la. aspergere/aspersio), in a religious context, is the act of sprinkling with water, especially holy water.
The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARPC), as it exists today, is the remnant of a small denomination, which was formed from the Synod of the South, a division of the Associate Reformed Church.
The Associated Presbyterian Churches (APC) is a Scottish Christian denomination (with a congregation in Canada), formed in 1989 from part of the community of the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland.
Aston Tirrold is a village and civil parish at the foot of the Berkshire Downs about southeast of Didcot.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
The Barmen Declaration or the Theological Declaration of Barmen 1934 (Die Barmer Theologische Erklärung) was a document adopted by Christians in Nazi Germany who opposed the Deutsche Christen (German Christian) movement.
The Battle of the Boyne (Cath na Bóinne) was a battle in 1690 between the forces of the deposed King James II of England, and those of Dutch Prince William of Orange who, with his wife Mary II (his cousin and James's daughter), had acceded to the Crowns of England and Scotland in 1688.
The Bible Presbyterian Church is an American Protestant denomination in the Reformed tradition.
The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, Anglican realignment and other Anglican Christian churches.
The Book of Confessions contains the creeds and confessions of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). The contents are the Nicene Creed, the Apostles' Creed, the Scots Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, the Second Helvetic Confession, the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Shorter Catechism, the Larger Catechism, the Theological Declaration of Barmen, the Confession of 1967, the Confession of Belhar, and the Brief Statement of Faith.
The Book of Discipline refers to two works regulative of ecclesiastical order in the Church of Scotland, known as The First Book of Discipline (1560) and The Second Book of Discipline (1578), drawn up and printed in the Scottish Reformation.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Canadian Presbyterian Mission was a Presbyterian Church in Canada missionary society that was involved in sending workers to countries such as China during the late Qing Dynasty, the most famous of which were Jonathan Goforth and his wife, Rosalind.
The Republic and Canton of Geneva (République et canton de Genève; Rèpublica et canton de Geneva; Republik und Kanton Genf; Repubblica e Canton di Ginevra; Republica e chantun Genevra) is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on almost all sides by France.
The white or black cassock, or soutane, is an item of Christian clerical clothing used by the clergy of Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, Lutheran, and Reformed churches, among others.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charlotte is the most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina.
The chasuble is the outermost liturgical vestment worn by clergy for the celebration of the Eucharist in Western-tradition Christian churches that use full vestments, primarily in Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches.
Cherrapunji (with the historic name Sohra being more commonly used, and can also be spelled Cherrapunjee or Cherrapunji) is a subdivisional town in the East Khasi Hills district in the Indian state of Meghalaya.
Cheung Chau (lit. "Long state") is an island southwest of Hong Kong Island.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
Christian monasticism is the devotional practice of individuals who live ascetic and typically cloistered lives that are dedicated to Christian worship.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
Saint Columba (Colm Cille, 'church dove'; Columbkille; 7 December 521 – 9 June 597) was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission.
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
Conciliarity is the adherence of various Christian communities to the authority of ecumenical councils and to synodal church government.
The Confession of 1967 is a confession of faith of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), abbreviated PC(USA).
Confessionalism, in a religious (and particularly Christian) sense, is a belief in the importance of full and unambiguous assent to the whole of a religious teaching.
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
The Congregational Union of Australia was a Congregational denomination in Australia that stemmed from the Congregational Church in England as settlers migrated from there to Australia.
Congregationalist polity, or congregational polity, often known as congregationalism, is a system of ecclesiastical polity in which every local church congregation is independent, ecclesiastically sovereign, or "autonomous".
Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong.
The Covenant Presbyterian Church (CPC) is a Presbyterian denomination with 13 member churches in the US.
The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century.
A Scottish Presbyterian congregation was first established in London during the reign of King James I of England and VI of Scots, following the Union of the Crowns in 1603.
The Culdees (Céilí Dé, "Companions of God") were members of ascetic Christian monastic and eremitical communities of Ireland, Scotland, and England in the Middle Ages.
The Cumberland Presbyterian Church is a Presbyterian Christian denomination spawned by the Second Great Awakening.
The Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America is a Historically African-American denomination which developed from the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in 1874.
Cumberland Presbyterian Church Yao Dao Secondary School is an aided secondary school in Hong Kong.
Cursillos in Christianity (Cursillos de Cristiandad, "Short courses of Christianity") is an apostolic movement of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Directory for Public Worship (known in Scotland as the Westminster Directory having been approved by the Scottish Parliament in 1645) was a manual of directions for worship approved by an ordinance of Parliament early in 1645 to replace the Book of Common Prayer (and which was denounced by a counter-proclamation from Charles I).
The Disruption of 1843 was a schism or division within the established Church of Scotland, in which 450 evangelical ministers of the Church broke away, over the issue of the Church's relationship with the State, to form the Free Church of Scotland.
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
Ecclesiastical polity is the operational and governance structure of a church or of a Christian denomination.
ECO: A Covenant Order of Evangelical Presbyterians is an evangelical Presbyterian denomination in the United States.
Ecumenism refers to efforts by Christians of different Church traditions to develop closer relationships and better understandings.
The emerging church is a Christian movement of the late 20th and early 21st centuries that crosses a number of theological boundaries: participants are variously described as Protestant, post-Protestant, evangelical, post-evangelical, liberal, post-liberal, conservative, post-conservative, anabaptist, reformed, charismatic, neocharismatic, and post-charismatic.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
English Dissenters or English Separatists were Protestant Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
English Presbyterian Mission was a British Presbyterian missionary society that was involved in sending workers to countries such as China during the late Qing Dynasty.
Presbyterianism in England is practiced by followers of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism who practise the Presbyterian form of church government in England.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which the chief local authorities are called bishops.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
The Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC) is an American church body holding to presbyterian governance.
The Evangelical Presbyterian Church in England and Wales (EPCEW) is a reformed and conservative evangelical denomination in both England and Wales with churches in Germany and Sweden.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Exclusive psalmody is the practice of singing only the biblical Psalms in congregational singing as worship.
Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church (FAPC) is a Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) church in New York City.
The First Secession was an exodus of ministers and members from the Church of Scotland in 1733.
The Fourth Presbyterian Church of Chicago is a congregation of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) located in the Magnificent Mile neighborhood of Chicago, directly across Michigan Avenue from the John Hancock Center.
Francis August Schaeffer (January 30, 1912 – May 15, 1984) was an American Evangelical Christian theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor.
The Free Church of Scotland was a Scottish denomination which was formed in 1843 by a large withdrawal from the established Church of Scotland in a schism or division known as the Disruption of 1843.
The Free Church of Scotland (Continuing) (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Shaor Leantainneach) is a Scottish Presbyterian denomination which was formed in January 2000.
The Free Church of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Shaor) is an Evangelical and Reformed Presbyterian denomination in Scotland.
The Free Presbyterian Church of North America (FPCNA) is a Presbyterian denomination in the United States and Canada with mission works in Liberia, Jamaica, and Kenya.
The Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Shaor Chlèireach) was formed in 1893 and claims to be the spiritual descendant of the Scottish Reformation: its web-site states that it is 'the constitutional heir of the historic Church of Scotland'.
The Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster is a Christian denomination founded by Ian Paisley in 1951.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy was a major schism that originated in the 1920s and '30s within the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America.
The Gallican Rite is a historical version of Christian liturgy and other ritual practices in Western Christianity.
The Geneva gown, also called a pulpit gown, pulpit robe, or preaching robe, is an ecclesiastical garment customarily worn by ordained ministers in the Christian churches that arose out of the historic Protestant Reformation.
George Leslie Mackay (or Má-kai; 21 March 1844 – 2 June 1901, aged 57) was the first Presbyterian missionary to northern Formosa (Qing-era Taiwan).
Ghost Ranch is a retreat and education center located close to the village of Abiquiú in Rio Arriba County in north central New Mexico, United States.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
In Western Christian theology, grace has been defined, not as a created substance of any kind, but as "the love and mercy given to us by God because God desires us to have it, not necessarily because of anything we have done to earn it", "Grace is favour, the free and undeserved help that God gives us to respond to his call to become children of God, adoptive sons, partakers of the divine nature and of eternal life." It is understood by Christians to be a spontaneous gift from God to people "generous, free and totally unexpected and undeserved" – that takes the form of divine favor, love, clemency, and a share in the divine life of God.
Grace Presbyterian Church of New Zealand (GPCNZ) is a Presbyterian denomination in New Zealand which was formed in 2002.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Heidelberg Catechism (1563), one of the Three Forms of Unity, is a Protestant confessional document taking the form of a series of questions and answers, for use in teaching Reformed Christian doctrine.
The Helvetic Confessions are two documents expressing the common belief of the Reformed churches of Switzerland.
The Hiberno-Scottish mission was a series of missions and expeditions initiated by various Irish clerics and cleric-scholars who, for the most part, are not known to have acted in concert.
The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young children.
Interior design is the art and science of enhancing the interior of a building to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space.
The International Presbyterian Church is a Reformed church in Europe, that holds to the Presbyterian confession of faith, with common commitments, purpose and accountability and government.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
James Laidlaw Maxwell Senior (Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Má Ngá-kok;; born 18 March 1836 in Scotland – March 1921) was the first Presbyterian missionary to Formosa (Qing-era Taiwan).
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jay Edward Adams (born January 30, 1929) is an American, Reformed Christian author who has written more than 100 books.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
John Dunmore Lang (25 August 1799 – 8 August 1878) was a Scottish-born Australian Presbyterian minister, writer, politician and activist.
John Knox (– 24 November 1572) was a Scottish minister, theologian, and writer who was a leader of the country's Reformation.
John the Apostle (ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ; יוחנן בן זבדי; Koine Greek: Ιωάννης; ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ; Latin: Ioannes) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament, which refers to him as Ἰωάννης.
John Whitgift (c. 1530 – 29 February 1604) was the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1583 to his death.
The Khasi Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi range in the Indian state of Meghalaya (before 1970 part of Assam), and is part of the Patkai range and of the Meghalaya subtropical forests ecoregion.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
Kirk is a Scottish and Northern English word meaning "church", or more specifically, the Church of Scotland.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Korean American Presbyterian Church is a conservative Presbyterian denomination in the United States and Canada.
According to the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong, there were approximately 5 thousand Koreans in 2006, of which 94.4% were usual residents while mobile residents occupied 5.6%.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
L'Abri (French for "the Shelter") is an evangelical Christian organization founded by Francis Schaeffer and his wife Edith in Huémoz-sur-Ollon, Switzerland, on June 5, 1955.
Lee Teng-hui (born 15 January 1923) is a Taiwanese politician.
This is a list of local Presbyterian churches that are notable either as congregations or as buildings.
The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660.
The Lord's Day in Christianity is generally Sunday, the principal day of communal worship.
The Lords of the Congregation, originally styling themselves "the Faithful Congregation of Christ Jesus in Scotland", were a group of Protestant Scottish nobles who in the mid-16th century favoured a reformation of the church according to Protestant principles and a Scottish-English alliance.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Malampa is one of the six provinces of Vanuatu, located in the center of the country and consisting of three main islands.
Meghalaya is a state in Northeast India.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
The Methodist Church of Australasia was a Methodist denomination based in Australia.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
Mizoram is a state in Northeast India, with Aizawl as its capital city.
The National Presbyterian Church in Mexico (La Iglesia Nacional Presbiteriana de México A.R.) is the second-largest Protestant church, and the largest Reformed denomination in Mexico.
The New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The Nicene Creed (Greek: or,, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy.
The Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland has its origins with those early 18th-century Presbyterian ministers who refused to subscribe at their ordination to the Westminster Confession, a standard Reformed (Calvinist) statement of faith; and who were placed, in 1725, the Presbytery of Antrim.
Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity that rejects the mainstream Christian doctrine of the Trinity—the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases or persons who are coeternal, coequal, and indivisibly united in one being, or essence (from the Greek ousia).
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC) is a confessional Presbyterian denomination located primarily in the northern United States.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paleo-orthodoxy (from Ancient Greek παλαιός "ancient" and Koine Greek ὀρθοδοξία "correct belief") is a Protestant Christian theological movement of the late 20th and early 21st centuries which focuses on the consensual understanding of the faith among the Ecumenical councils and Church Fathers.
The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
In the island of Ireland, Penal Laws (Na Péindlíthe) were a series of laws imposed in an attempt to force Irish Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters (such as local Presbyterians) to accept the reformed denomination as defined by the English state established Anglican Church and practised by members of the Irish state established Church of Ireland.
Penama is one of the six provinces of Vanuatu, located in the northeast of the country and consisting of three major islands.
Pietism (from the word piety) was an influential movement in Lutheranism that combined its emphasis on Biblical doctrine with the Reformed emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous Christian life.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
The Plan of Union of 1801 was an agreement between the Congregational churches of New England and the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America for mutual support and joint effort in evangelizing the American frontier.
The Plantation of Ulster (Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-Scots: Plantin o Ulstèr) was the organised colonisation (plantation) of Ulstera province of Irelandby people from Great Britain during the reign of James VI and I. Most of the colonists came from Scotland and England, although there was a small number of Welsh settlers.
Port Vila is the capital and largest city of Vanuatu and is on the island of Efate.
In the New Testament, a presbyter (Greek πρεσβύτερος: "elder") is a leader of a local Christian congregation.
The Presbyterian Church (USA), or PC (USA), is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States.
The Presbyterian Church in America (PCA) is the second largest Presbyterian church body (second to Presbyterian Church (USA)) and the largest conservative Reformed denomination in the United States.
The Presbyterian Church in Canada is a Presbyterian denomination, serving in Canada under this name since 1875.
The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (PCI; Eaglais Phreispitéireach in Éirinn, Ulster-Scots: Prisbytairin Kirk in Airlann) is the largest Presbyterian denomination in Ireland, and the largest Protestant denomination in Northern Ireland.
The Presbyterian Church in Taiwan (PCT) is the largest Protestant Christian denomination based in Taiwan.
The Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (PCUSA) was the first national Presbyterian denomination in the United States, existing from 1789 to 1958.
The Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand (PCANZ) is the main Presbyterian church in New Zealand.
The Presbyterian Church of Australia (PCA) is the largest Presbyterian denomination in Australia.
The Presbyterian Church of Brazil (Portuguese: Igreja Presbiteriana do Brasil, or IPB) is an Evangelical Protestant Christian denomination in Brazil.
Presbyterian Church of East Africa (PCEA) is a Presbyterian denomination headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya.
The Presbyterian Church of Eastern Australia (PCEA) is a small Presbyterian denomination which was formed in Sydney on 10 October 1846 by three ministers and a ruling elder.
The Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu or the Presbitirin Jyos Blong Vanuatu is the largest Christian denomination in Vanuatu.
The Presbyterian Church of Wales (Eglwys Bresbyteraidd Cymru), also known as Calvinistic Methodist Church (Yr Eglwys Fethodistaidd Galfinaidd), is a denomination of Protestant Christianity in Wales.
Presbyterian (or presbyteral) polity is a method of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders.
The Presbyterian Reformed Church is a Christian denomination that was founded in Ontario, Canada on November 17, 1965, whose churches continue the historic Scottish Presbyterian orthodoxy in doctrine, worship, government and discipline, on the basis of a conviction that these principles and practices are founded in and are agreeable to the Word of God.
The Princeton Theology was a tradition of conservative, Christian, Reformed and Presbyterian theology at Princeton Theological Seminary lasting from the founding of that institution in 1812 until the 1920s, after which, due to the increasing influence of theological liberalism at the school, the last Princeton theologians left to found Westminster Theological Seminary.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Puritan's Pit (also known as Preacher's Pit, The Devil's Pit or Gruti's Pit) is a large steep-sided pit in the south side of the valley of the River Lemon in Bradley Woods, just west of the town of Newton Abbot in Devon, England.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Reformed Church of France (Église Réformée de France, ERF) was the main Protestant denomination in France with a Reformed orientation that could be traced back directly to John Calvin.
Reformed confessions of faith are the confessions of faith of various Reformed churches.
The Reformed Presbyterian Church – Hanover Presbytery is a very conservative Reformed Denomination, with congregations in the United States and also in Brazil.
The Reformed Presbyterian Church General Assembly is a conservative Presbyterian denomination in the United States.
The Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States is a small Presbyterian denomination based in the United States.
The Reformed Presbyterian Church of Australia is a Calvinist denomination in Australia.
The Reformed Presbyterian Church of Ireland is a Presbyterian denomination in Ireland.
The Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America (RPCNA), a Christian church, is a Presbyterian denomination with churches throughout the United States, in Canada, and in Japan.
The Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland is a Christian denomination.
The Reformed Presbyterian Church is a group of denominations following a Presbyterian form of Protestant Christianity.
Reformed worship is religious devotion to God as conducted by Reformed or Calvinistic Christians, including Presbyterians.
The regulative principle of worship is a Christian doctrine, held by some Calvinists and Anabaptists, that God commands churches to conduct public services of worship using certain distinct elements affirmatively found in Scripture, and conversely, that God prohibits any and all other practices in public worship.
The Relief Church (or Presbytery of Relief) was a Scottish Presbyterian denomination founded in 1761.
Religion in Scotland includes all forms of religious organisation and practice.
Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War.
Sabbatarianism is a view within Christianity that advocates the observation of the Sabbath, in keeping with the Ten Commandments.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
Sanma is a province located in the Northern part of the nation of Vanuatu, occupying the nation's largest island, Espiritu Santo, which is located approximately 2,500 km northeast of Sydney, Australia.
Scotch-Irish (or Scots-Irish) Americans are American descendants of Presbyterian and other Ulster Protestant Dissenters from various parts of Ireland, but usually from the province of Ulster, who migrated during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Scots Confession (also called the Scots Confession of 1560) is a Confession of Faith written in 1560 by six leaders of the Protestant Reformation in Scotland.
The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.
The Scottish Reformation was the process by which Scotland broke with the Papacy and developed a predominantly Calvinist national Kirk (church), which was strongly Presbyterian in outlook.
The Scottish Reformation Parliament is the name given to the assembly commencing in 1560 that claimed to pass major pieces of legislation establishing the Scottish Reformation, most importantly the Confession of Faith Ratification Act 1560; and Papal Jurisdiction Act 1560.
A session (from the Latin word sessio, which means "to sit", as in sitting to deliberate or talk about something; sometimes called consistory or church board) is a body of elected elders governing each local church within presbyterian polity.
Shefa is one of the six provinces of Vanuatu, located in the center of the country and including the islands of Epi and Efate and the Shepherd Islands.
Shillong (Khasi: Shillong) is a hill station in the northeastern part of India and the capital of Meghalaya, which means "The Abode of Clouds" and is one of the smallest states in India.
The Siege of Leith ended a twelve-year encampment of French troops at Leith, the port near Edinburgh, Scotland.
Sohra, also known as Chur(r)ra (a British Raj corruption), is one of the hima (Khasi tribal chieftainships constituting petty Khasi Hills States) in the present East Khasi Hills district of the (formerly Assamese) Indian state of Meghalaya.
Sola Scriptura (Latin: by scripture alone) is a theological doctrine held by some Christian denominations that the Christian scriptures are the sole infallible rule of faith and practice.
The Solemn League and Covenant was an agreement between the Scottish Covenanters and the leaders of the English Parliamentarians in 1643 during the First English Civil War.
St Columba's Church is one of the two London congregations of the Church of Scotland.
St Giles' Cathedral, also known as the High Kirk of Edinburgh, is the principal place of worship of the Church of Scotland in Edinburgh.
A subordinate standard is a Reformed confession of faith, catechism or other doctrinal or regulatory statement subscribed to by a Protestant church, setting out key elements of religious belief and church governance.
A surplice (Late Latin superpelliceum, from super, "over" and pellicia, "fur garment") is a liturgical vestment of the Western Christian Church.
Swallow Street is a small street in the West End of London, running north from Piccadilly.
A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.
The Synod of Otago and Southland is a synod of the Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand (PCANZ).
The Synod of Whitby (664 A.D.) was a Northumbrian synod where King Oswiu of Northumbria ruled that his kingdom would calculate Easter and observe the monastic tonsure according to the customs of Rome, rather than the customs practised by Irish monks at Iona and its satellite institutions.
Tafea is the southernmost of the six provinces of Vanuatu.
Tainan (Hokkien POJ: Tâi-lâm), officially Tainan City, is a special municipality of Taiwan, facing the Formosan Strait or Taiwan Strait in the west and south.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Taiwan independence movement is a political movement to pursue formal independence of Taiwan, Goals for independence have arisen from international law in relation to the 1952 Treaty of San Francisco.
Taiwanese Hokkien (translated as Taiwanese Min Nan), also known as Taiwanese/Taiwanese language in Taiwan (/), is a branched-off variant of Hokkien spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan.
Taiwanese indigenous peoples or formerly Taiwanese aborigines, Formosan people, Austronesian Taiwanese or Gaoshan people are the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number nearly 530,000 or 2.3% of the island's population, or more than 800,000 people, considering the potential recognition of Taiwanese Plain Indigenous Peoples officially in the future.
Tamsui also Danshui is a sea-side district in New Taipei, Taiwan.
The Scots Kirk (L'Église écossaise) is the only English-speaking Presbyterian church in France and the only congregation of the Church of Scotland in France.
Thomas Bradbury (1677–1759), was an English congregational minister.
Thomas Cartwright (c. 1535 – 27 December 1603) was an English Puritan churchman.
Tonsure is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair on the scalp, as a sign of religious devotion or humility.
Torba (or TorBa) is the northernmost province of Vanuatu, consisting of the Banks Islands and the Torres Islands.
Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.
The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots: Ulstèr-Scotch), also called Ulster-Scots people (Ulstèr-Scotch fowk) or, outside the British Isles, Scots-Irish (Scotch-Airisch), are an ethnic group in Ireland, found mostly in the Ulster region and to a lesser extent in the rest of Ireland.
Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
A united church, also called a uniting church, is a church formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations.
The United Church of Canada (Église unie du Canada) is a mainline Reformed denomination and the largest Protestant Christian denomination in Canada, and the largest Canadian Christian denomination after the Catholic Church.
The United Free Church of Scotland (UF Church; An Eaglais Shaor Aonaichte, The Unitit Free Kirk o Scotland) is a Scottish Presbyterian denomination formed in 1900 by the union of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland (or UP) and the majority of the 19th century Free Church of Scotland.
The United Reformed Church (URC) is a Christian church in the United Kingdom.
The Uniting Church in Australia (UCA) was established on 22 June 1977 when most congregations of the Methodist Church of Australasia, about two thirds of the Presbyterian Church of Australia and almost all the churches of the Congregational Union of Australia came together under the Basis of Union.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religion, especially among the Eastern Orthodox, Catholics (Latin Church and others), Anglicans, and Lutherans.
The Waitaki River is a large braided river that drains the Mackenzie Basin and runs some south-east to enter the Pacific Ocean between Timaru and Oamaru on the east coast of the South Island of New Zealand.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
The Westminster Assembly of Divines was a council of theologians (or "divines") and members of the English Parliament appointed to restructure the Church of England which met from 1643 to 1653.
The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith.
The Westminster Larger Catechism, along with the Westminster Shorter Catechism, is a central catechism of Calvinists in the English tradition throughout the world.
The Westminster Presbyterian Church in the United States (WPCUS) is a small Presbyterian denomination which was constituted in January 2006 in Lansdowne, Pennsylvania.
The Westminster Shorter Catechism is a catechism written in 1646 and 1647 by the Westminster Assembly, a synod of English and Scottish theologians and laymen intended to bring the Church of England into greater conformity with the Church of Scotland.
The Westminster Standards is a collective name for the documents drawn up by the Westminster Assembly (1643–49).
William Laud (7 October 1573 – 10 January 1645) was an English archbishop and academic.
William Robertson Smith (8 November 1846 – 31 March 1894) was a Scottish orientalist, Old Testament scholar, professor of divinity, and minister of the Free Church of Scotland.
The World Communion of Reformed Churches (WCRC) is the largest association of Reformed churches in the world.
The World Council of Churches (WCC) is a worldwide inter-church organization founded in 1948.
Worship is an act of religious devotion usually directed towards a deity.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
The term "Yankee" and its contracted form "Yank" have several interrelated meanings, all referring to people from the United States; its various senses depend on the context.
Yuen Long, formerly romanised as Un Long, is an area and town on the Yuen Long Plain located in the western New Territories, Hong Kong.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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