607 relations: Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse, Accounting scandals, Afghanistan, Africa, Aircraft hijacking, Airport security, Al Gore, Al-Qaeda, Alan Greenspan, Albania, Alberto Gonzales, Alphonso Jackson, American Airlines Flight 77, American International Group, American Political Science Association, Andrew Card, Andrew von Eschenbach, Ann Veneman, Anthony Principi, Anthony S. Fauci, Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, Antonin Scalia, Aqaba, Arab Americans, Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region, Arabs, Argentina, Ari Fleischer, Ariel Sharon, Asia, Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Advisor for Iraq and Afghanistan, Associated Press, Australia, Australia (continent), Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement, Austria, Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists, Automotive industry crisis of 2008–10, Axis of evil, Ayad Allawi, Baghdad, Bahrain, Bahrain–United States Free Trade Agreement, Bailout, Bank failure, Barack Obama, Barry Steven Jackson, Battle of Baghdad (2003), Bear Stearns, Belgium, ..., Benin, Bernie Sanders, Bill Clinton, Bill Frist, Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, Black site, Blake Gottesman, Bob Dole, Bob Woodward, Border control, Botswana, Boumediene v. Bush, Brazil, Bulgaria, Bush Doctrine, Bush tax cuts, Bush v. Gore, C-SPAN, Campaign finance reform in the United States, Canada, Capital gains tax in the United States, Carbon dioxide, Carlos Gutierrez, Central Asia, Central Intelligence Agency, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Chief of Naval Operations, Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, Chief of Staff of the United States Army, Chief of Staff to the Vice President of the United States, Chile, Chile–United States Free Trade Agreement, China, Chris Shays, Christine Todd Whitman, Chuck Hagel, Citizens United v. FEC, Class action, Class Action Fairness Act of 2005, Clean Air Act (United States), Clinton–Lewinsky scandal, CNN, Coal pollution mitigation, Coalition Provisional Authority, Coalition Provisional Authority Order 2, Cold War, Colin Powell, Colombia, Commandant of the Marine Corps, Commissioner of Food and Drugs, Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006, Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, Condoleezza Rice, Conservatorship, Continent, Council of Representatives of Iraq, Counselor to the President, Covert agent, Credit default swap, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Dan Bartlett, Dana Perino, David Addington, David Petraeus, David Vitter, De-Ba'athification, Decision Points, Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2004, Democratic Party vice presidential candidate selection, 2004, Denmark, Dennis Hastert, Derivative (finance), Detainee Treatment Act, Dick Cheney, Director of National Intelligence, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Dirk Kempthorne, Discharge petition, Dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy, Dividend tax, Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement, Donald Evans, Donald Rumsfeld, Donald Trump, Douglas Lute, Dow Jones Industrial Average, East Room, Eastern Time Zone, EBSCO Industries, Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Economic Stimulus Act of 2008, Ed Gillespie, Ed Schafer, Efforts to impeach George W. 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Conway, Japan, Jim Jeffords, Jim Nicholson (Secretary of Veterans Affairs), Jim Nussle, Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003, Joe Hagin, Joe Lieberman, Joel Kaplan, John Abizaid, John Ashcroft, John Boehner, John Danforth, John E. McLaughlin, John Edwards, John Kerry, John McCain, John McCain presidential campaign, 2000, John Michael McConnell, John Murtha, John Negroponte, John P. Jumper, John P. Walters, John R. Bolton, John Roberts, John Roberts Supreme Court nomination, John W. Snow, Jordan, Joshua Bolten, JPMorgan Chase, Kabul, Karen Hughes, Karl Rove, Kathleen Blanco, Kevin Martin (FCC), Kofi Annan, Kosovo, Kurds in Iraq, Kuwait, Kyoto, Kyoto Protocol, Latvia, Lawrence B. Lindsey, Legitimacy of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Lehman Brothers, Lester Crawford, Liberia, Life support, List of Administrators and Deputy Administrators of NASA, List of federal judges appointed by George W. 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Pickard, Tom Ridge, Tommy Franks, Tommy Thompson, Tony Blair, Tony Snow, Tort reform, Torture and the United States, Toxic asset, Transportation Security Administration, Troubled Asset Relief Program, Turkey, Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution, Two-state solution, U.S.–Iraq Status of Forces Agreement, Uganda, Ukraine, United Airlines Flight 93, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Charter, United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1695, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1718, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1737, United Nations Security Council veto power, United States Ambassador to the United Nations, United States Attorney, United States Central Command, United States Constitution, United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, United States Court of International Trade, United States courts of appeals, United States Department of Homeland Security, United States Deputy Secretary of Defense, United States district court, United States elections, 1994, United States elections, 2000, United States House of Representatives, United States housing bubble, United States Intelligence Community, United States invasion of Afghanistan, United States presidential approval rating, United States presidential election, 1988, United States presidential election, 1996, United States presidential election, 2000, United States presidential election, 2004, United States presidential election, 2008, United States presidential inauguration, United States Senate, United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, United States Senate elections, 2002, Uruguay, USA Today, USS Cole bombing, Valerie Plame, Vatican City, Veto, Vietnam, Vietnam War, Vladimir Putin, War hawk, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), War on Terror, Washington, D.C., Waterboarding, West Bank, White House, White House Chief of Staff, White House Counsel, White House Deputy Chief of Staff, White House Office of Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships, White House Office of the Staff Secretary, White House Press Secretary, William J. Fallon, William Rehnquist, WMD conjecture in the aftermath of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, World Trade Center (1973–2001), World War II, Zalmay Khalilzad, 100-Hour Plan, 107th United States Congress, 108th United States Congress, 109th United States Congress, 110th United States Congress, 2000 Camp David Summit, 2000 Republican National Convention, 2000 United States presidential election recount in Florida, 2003 invasion of Iraq, 2004 Republican National Convention, 2005 levee failures in Greater New Orleans, 2006 al-Askari mosque bombing, 2006 North Korean missile test, 2006 North Korean nuclear test, 2008 Republican National Convention. Expand index (557 more) » « Shrink index
During the war in Iraq that began in March 2003, personnel of the United States Army and the Central Intelligence Agency committed a series of human rights violations against detainees in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq.
Accounting scandals are business scandals which arise from intentional manipulation of financial statements with the disclosure of financial misdeeds by trusted executives of corporations or governments.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Aircraft hijacking (also air piracy or aircraft piracy, especially within the special aircraft jurisdiction of the United States and in the US state of Mississippi, and as skyjacking in some nations) is the unlawful seizure of an aircraft by an individual or a group.
Airport security refers to the techniques and methods used in an attempt to protect passengers, staff and planes which use the airports from accidental/malicious harm, crime and other threats.
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist who served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alberto R. Gonzales (born August 4, 1955) is an American lawyer who served as the 80th United States Attorney General, appointed in February 2005 by President George W. Bush, becoming the highest-ranking Hispanic American in executive government to date.
Alphonso R. Jackson (born September 9, 1945) served as the 13th United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).
American Airlines Flight 77 was a scheduled American Airlines domestic transcontinental passenger flight from Washington Dulles International Airport in Dulles, Virginia, to Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles, California.
American International Group, Inc., also known as AIG, is an American multinational finance and insurance corporation with operations in more than 80 countries and jurisdictions.
The American Political Science Association (APSA) is a professional association of political science students and scholars in the United States.
Andrew Hill "Andy" Card Jr. (born May 10, 1947) is an American politician who was White House Chief of Staff under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006, as well as head of Bush's White House Iraq Group.
Andrew C. von Eschenbach (born October 30, 1941 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was the Commissioner of the United States Food and Drug Administration from 2006–2009.
Ann Margaret Veneman (born June 29, 1949) was the Executive Director of UNICEF from 2005 to 2010.
Anthony Joseph Principi (born April 16, 1944) was the fourth United States Secretary of Veterans Affairs.
Anthony Stephen "Tony" Fauci (born December 24, 1940) is an American immunologist who has made substantial contributions to HIV/AIDS research and other immunodeficiencies, both as a scientist and as the head of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).
The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty or ABMT) (1972—2002) was an arms control treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against ballistic missile-delivered nuclear weapons.
Antonin Gregory Scalia (March 11, 1936 – February 13, 2016) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016.
Aqaba (العقبة) is the only coastal city in Jordan and the largest and most populous city on the Gulf of Aqaba.
Arab Americans (عَرَبٌ أَمْرِيكِيُّونَ or أمريكيون من أصل عربي) are Americans of Arab ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage or identity, who identify themselves as Arab.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في العراق Hizb Al-Baath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki fi Al-'Iraq), officially the Iraqi Regional Branch, is a regional branch of the Arab Ba'athist political party founded in 1951 by Fuad al-Rikabi.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Lawrence Ari Fleischer (born October 13, 1960) served as White House press secretary for President George W. Bush, from January 2001 to July 2003.
Ariel Sharon (אריאל שרון;,, also known by his diminutive Arik, אַריק, born Ariel Scheinermann, אריאל שיינרמן‎; February 26, 1928 – January 11, 2014) was an Israeli general and politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Israel from March 2001 until April 2006.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Advisor for Iraq and Afghanistan, also known by the informal expression War Czar, is a position the George W. Bush administration created to oversee the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan with authority to issue directions to the Pentagon, the State Department, and other agencies.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The continent of Australia, sometimes known in technical contexts by the names Sahul, Australinea or Meganesia to distinguish it from the country of Australia, consists of the land masses which sit on Australia's continental shelf.
The Australia – United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) is a preferential trade agreement between Australia and the United States modelled on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF), Pub. L., codified at 115 Stat. 224 and passed as by the United States Congress on September 14, 2001, authorizes the use of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the attacks on September 11, 2001 and any "associated forces".
The automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010 was a part of a global financial downturn.
The phrase axis of evil was first used by U.S. President George W. Bush in his State of the Union address on January 29, 2002, and often repeated throughout his presidency, to describe foreign governments that, during his administration, sponsored terrorism and sought weapons of mass destruction.
Ayad Allawi (إياد علاوي.; born May 31, 1944) is an Iraqi politician.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
The United States–Bahrain Free Trade Agreement (USBFTA) is a free trade agreement (FTA) between the United States and Bahrain, signed on September 14, 2004.
A bailout is a colloquial term for the provision of financial help to a corporation or country which otherwise would be on the brink of failure or bankruptcy.
A bank failure occurs when a bank is unable to meet its obligations to its depositors or other creditors because it has become insolvent or too illiquid to meet its liabilities.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barry Steven Jackson (born October 18, 1960) is the former chief of staff to U.S. House Speaker John Boehner.
The Battle of Baghdad, also known as the Fall of Baghdad, was a military invasion of Baghdad that took place in early April 2003, as part of the invasion of Iraq.
The Bear Stearns Companies, Inc. was a New York-based global investment bank, securities trading and brokerage firm that failed in 2008 as part of the global financial crisis and recession, and was subsequently sold to JPMorgan Chase.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
Bernard Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is an American politician serving as the junior United States Senator from Vermont since 2007.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
William Harrison Frist Sr. (born February 22, 1952) is an American physician, businessman, and politician.
The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA, McCain–Feingold Act) is a United States federal law that amended the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974, which regulates the financing of political campaigns.
In military terminology, a black site is a location at which an unacknowledged black project is conducted.
Blake Lanier Gottesman (born March 6, 1980) served as White House Deputy Chief of Staff to former U.S. President George W. Bush, becoming, at age 28, the youngest member of the Bush senior staff.
Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) is a retired American politician and attorney who represented Kansas in Congress from 1961 to 1996 and served as the Republican Leader of the United States Senate from 1985 until 1996.
Robert Upshur Woodward (born March 26, 1943) is an American investigative journalist and non-fiction author.
Border controls are measures taken by a country to monitor or regulate its borders.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
Boumediene v. Bush,, was a writ of habeas corpus submission made in a civilian court of the United States on behalf of Lakhdar Boumediene, a naturalized citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina, held in military detention by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camps in Cuba.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Bush Doctrine refers to various related foreign policy principles of the 43rd President of the United States, George W. Bush.
The phrase Bush tax cuts refers to changes to the United States tax code passed originally during the presidency of George W. Bush and extended during the presidency of Barack Obama, through.
Bush v. Gore,, was a decision of the United States Supreme Court that settled a recount dispute in Florida's 2000 presidential election.
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
Campaign finance reform is the political effort in the United States to change the involvement of money in politics, primarily in political campaigns.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
In the United States of America, individuals and corporations pay U.S. federal income tax on the net total of all their capital gains.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carlos Miguel Gutierrez (originally Gutiérrez; born November 4, 1953) is an American former CEO and former United States Secretary of Commerce.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is, by U.S. law, the highest-ranking and senior-most military officer in the United States Armed Forces 10 USC 152.
The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the most senior officer in the United States Navy.
The Chief of Staff of the Air Force (acronym: CSAF, or AF/CC) is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Air Force, and is the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Air Force, and as such is the principal military advisor and a deputy to the Secretary of the Air Force; and is in a separate capacity a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and thereby a military adviser to the National Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, and the President.
The Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA) is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Army.
The Chief of Staff to the Vice President of the United States is the Chief of Staff position within the Office of the Vice President, part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement is a free trade agreement between the United States and Chile signed on June 6, 2003.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Christopher Hunter "Chris" Shayshttp://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~battle/reps/shays.htm (born October 18, 1945) is an American politician.
Christine Todd Whitman (born September 26, 1946) is an American Republican politician and author who served as the 50th Governor of New Jersey, from 1994 to 2001, and was the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency in the administration of President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2003.
Charles Timothy Hagel (born October 4, 1946), The Associated Press, published in The News-Times, December 17, 2012.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission,, is a landmark U.S. constitutional law, campaign finance, and corporate law case dealing with regulation of political campaign spending by organizations.
A class action, class suit, or representative action is a type of lawsuit where one of the parties is a group of people who are represented collectively by a member of that group.
The U.S. Class Action Fairness Act of 2005, 28 U.S.C. Sections 1332(d), 1453, and 1711–1715, expanded subject-matter jurisdiction over many large class-action lawsuits and mass actions taken in the United States.
The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C.) is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level.
The Clinton–Lewinsky scandal was an American political sex scandal that involved 49-year-old President Bill Clinton and 22-year-old White House intern Monica Lewinsky.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Coal pollution mitigation, often referred to by the public relations term clean coal, is a series of systems and technologies that seek to mitigate the pollution and other environmental effects normally associated with the burning (though not the mining or processing) of coal, which is widely regarded as the dirtiest of the common fuels for industrial processes and power generation.
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA; سلطة الائتلاف المؤقتة) was a transitional government of Iraq established following the invasion of the country on 19 March 2003 by the U.S.-led Multinational Force (or 'the coalition') and the fall of Ba'athist Iraq.
Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 2: Dissolution of Entities signed by Coalition Provisional Authority on 23 May 2003, disbanded the Iraqi military, security, and intelligence infrastructure of President Saddam Hussein.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colin Luther Powell (born April 5, 1937) is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The Commandant of the Marine Corps (CMC) is normally the highest-ranking officer in the United States Marine Corps and is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The Commissioner of Food and Drugs is the head of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act (CIRA) was a United States Senate bill introduced in the 109th Congress (2005–2006) by Sen.
The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 (full name: Secure Borders, Economic Opportunity and Immigration Reform Act of 2007) was a bill discussed in the 110th United States Congress that would have provided legal status and a path to citizenship for the approximately 12 million undocumented immigrants residing in the United States.
Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat.
Conservatorship is a legal concept in the United States.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
The Council of Representatives (Majlis an-Nuwwāb al-ʿIrāqiyy; ئهنجومهنی نوێنهرانی) is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of Iraq.
Counselor to the President is a title used by high-ranking assistants to the President of the United States and senior members of the Executive Office of the President.
The term covert agent can have many meanings, depending on context.
A credit default swap (CDS) is a financial swap agreement that the seller of the CDS will compensate the buyer in the event of a debt default (by the debtor) or other credit event.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Daniel Joseph Bartlett (born June 1, 1971) was a Counselor to the President in the administration of George W. Bush.
Dana Marie PerinoThe Five, March 10, 2014 https://archive.org/details/FOXNEWSW_20140310_210000_The_Five#start/3540/end/3600 (born May 9, 1972) is an American political commentator and author who served as the 26th White House Press Secretary, serving under President George W. Bush from September 14, 2007, to January 20, 2009.
David Spears Addington (born January 22, 1957) is an American lawyer, who was legal counsel (2001–2005) and Chief of Staff (2005–2009) to Vice President Dick Cheney.
David Howell Petraeus (born November 7, 1952) is a retired United States Army general and public official.
David Bruce Vitter (born May 3, 1961) is an American lobbyist, lawyer and politician who served as United States Senator for Louisiana from 2005 to 2017.
De-Ba'athification (Arabic: اجتثاث حزب البعث&lrm) refers to a policy undertaken in Iraq by the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) and subsequent Iraqi governments to remove the Ba'ath Party's influence in the new Iraqi political system.
Decision Points is a memoir by former U.S. President George W. Bush.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
The 2004 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 2004 U.S. presidential election.
This article discusses John Kerry's presidential campaign's vice-presidential candidate selection process that began after Kerry became the presumptive Democratic Party candidate for president of the United States of America in the 2004 election campaign.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
John Dennis Hastert (born January 2, 1942) is a former American congressman who served as the 51st Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1999 to 2007, representing from 1987 to 2007.
In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity.
The Detainee Treatment Act of 2005 (DTA) is an Act of the United States Congress that was passed on 30 December 2005.
Richard Bruce Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 46th Vice President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government Cabinet-level official—subject to the authority, direction, and control of the President of the United States—required by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 to.
The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) is a statutory office that functions as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency, which in turn is a part of the United States Intelligence Community.
The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation is the head of the FBI, the United States' primary federal law enforcement agency, and is responsible for its day-to-day operations.
Dirk Arthur Kempthorne (born October 29, 1951) is an American politician who was the United States Secretary of the Interior from 2006 to 2009, serving under President George W. Bush.
In United States parliamentary procedure, a discharge petition is a means of bringing a bill out of committee and to the floor for consideration without a report from the committee by "discharging" the committee from further consideration of a bill or resolution.
On December 7, 2006, the George W. Bush administration's Department of Justice ordered the unprecedented midterm dismissal of seven United States Attorneys.
A dividend tax is the tax imposed by a tax authority on dividends received by shareholders (stockholders) of a company.
The Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) is a free trade agreement (legally a treaty under international law, but not under U.S. law).
Donald Louis Evans (born July 27, 1946) is an American businessman.
Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a retired American political figure and businessman.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Douglas Edward Lute (born November 3, 1952) is a U.S. public servant who served as the United States Permanent Representative to NATO from 2013 to 2017.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), or simply the Dow, is a stock market index that shows how 30 large, publicly owned companies based in the United States have traded during a standard trading session in the stock market.
The East Room is an event and reception room in the White House, the home of the President of the United States.
The Eastern Time Zone (ET) is a time zone encompassing 17 U.S. states in the eastern part of the contiguous United States, parts of eastern Canada, the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico, Panama in Central America, and the Caribbean Islands.
EBSCO Industries is an American company headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama.
The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (June 7, 2001) was a sweeping piece of tax legislation in the United States passed by the 107th Congress and signed by President George W. Bush.
The Economic Stimulus Act of 2008 was an Act of Congress providing for several kinds of economic stimuli intended to boost the United States economy in 2008 and to avert a recession, or ameliorate economic conditions.
Edward Walter Gillespie (born August 1, 1961) is an American politician, strategist and lobbyist who served as the 61st Chair of the Republican National Committee from 2003 to 2005 and was Counselor to the President from 2007 to 2009 during the Presidency of George W. Bush.
Edward Thomas Schafer (born August 8, 1946) is an American business leader, who was the 30th Governor of North Dakota from 1992 to 2000.
During the presidency of George W. Bush, several American politicians sought to either investigate Bush for possibly impeachable offenses, or to bring actual impeachment charges on the floor of the United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
Elaine Lan Chao (born March 26, 1953) is the 18th and current United States Secretary of Transportation.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (Division A of), commonly referred to as a bailout of the U.S. financial system, is a law enacted subsequently to the subprime mortgage crisis authorizing the United States Secretary of the Treasury to spend up to $700 billion to purchase distressed assets, especially mortgage-backed securities, and supply cash directly to banks.
An enemy combatant is a person who, either lawfully or unlawfully, directly engages in hostilities for an enemy state or non-state actor in an armed conflict.
"Enhanced interrogation techniques" or "enhanced interrogation" is a euphemism for the U.S. government's program of systematic torture of detainees by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and various components of the U.S. Armed Forces at black sites around the world, including Bagram, Guantanamo Bay, and Abu Ghraib, authorized by officials of the George W. Bush administration.
Enron Corporation was an American energy, commodities, and services company based in Houston, Texas.
The Enron scandal was a financial scandal that eventually led to the bankruptcy of the Enron Corporation, an American energy company based in Houston, Texas, and the de facto dissolution of Arthur Andersen, which was one of the five largest audit and accountancy partnerships in the world.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Euthanasia (from εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering.
The Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007 is a US Act of Congress that amended the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 to gradually raise the federal minimum wage from $5.15 per hour to $7.25 per hour.
The Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA), commonly known as Fannie Mae, is a United States government-sponsored enterprise (GSE) and, since 1968, a publicly traded company.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The Federal Marriage Amendment (FMA) (also referred to by proponents as the Marriage Protection Amendment) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution which would define marriage in the United States as a union of one man and one woman.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The First Battle of Fallujah, also known as Operation Vigilant Resolve, was an operation to root out extremist elements of Fallujah as well as an attempt to apprehend the perpetrators of the killing of four U.S. contractors in March 2004.
The first inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States took place on Tuesday, January 20, 2009.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Fred Fisher Fielding (born March 21, 1939) is an American lawyer.
The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC), known as Freddie Mac, is a public government-sponsored enterprise (GSE), headquartered in Tysons Corner, Virginia.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
Gale Ann Norton (born March 11, 1954) served as the 48th United States Secretary of the Interior from 2001 to 2006 under President George W. Bush.
Gary Roughead ("rough head"; born July 15, 1951) is a former United States Navy officer who served as the 29th Chief of Naval Operations from September 29, 2007 to September 22, 2011.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George John Tenet (born January 5, 1953) is a former Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) for the United States Central Intelligence Agency as well as a Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
The George W. Bush Presidential Center, which opened on April 25, 2013, is a complex that includes the 43rd President George W. Bush's presidential library and museum, the George W. Bush Policy Institute, and the offices of the George W. Bush Foundation.
George William Casey Jr. (born July 22, 1948) is a retired four-star general who served as the 36th Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army from April 10, 2007, to April 10, 2011.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
Gordon Richard England (born September 15, 1937) is an American businessman who served as the U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense and twice as U.S. Secretary of the Navy in the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush.
This article describes the positions of world governments before the actual initiation of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and not their current positions as they may have changed since then.
A grand jury is a legal body empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, and determine whether criminal charges should be brought.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a United States military prison located within Guantanamo Bay Naval Base,, The Independent, 29 April 2006 also referred to as Guantánamo or GTMO, which is on the coast of Guantánamo Bay in Cuba.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
A guest worker program allows foreign workers to temporarily reside and work in a host country until a next round of workers is readily available to switch.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Hamas (Arabic: حماس Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni-Islamist fundamentalist organization.
Hamdan v. Rumsfeld,, is a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that military commissions set up by the Bush administration to try detainees at Guantanamo Bay lack "the power to proceed because its structures and procedures violate both the Uniform Code of Military Justice and the four Geneva Conventions signed in 1949." Specifically, the ruling says that Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions was violated.
Hamid Karzai, (Pashto/حامد کرزی, born 24 December 1957) is an Afghan politician who was the leader of Afghanistan from 22 December 2001 to 29 September 2014, originally as an interim leader and then as President for almost ten years, from 7 December 2004 to 2014.
Hans Martin Blix (born 28 June 1928) is a Swedish diplomat and politician for the Liberal People's Party.
Harriet Ellan Miers (born August 10, 1945) is a Republican lawyer and former White House Counsel to President George W. Bush.
On October 3, 2005, Harriet Miers was nominated for Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court by President George W. Bush to replace retiring Associate Justice Sandra Day O'Connor.
Henry Merritt "Hank" Paulson Jr. (born March 28, 1946) is an American banker who subsequently served as the 74th Secretary of the Treasury.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
In political studies, surveys have been conducted in order to construct historical rankings of the success of individuals who have served as President of the United States.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hurricane Katrina was an extremely destructive and deadly Category 5 hurricane that caused catastrophic damage along the Gulf coast from central Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge and levee failure.
Ibrahim al-Eshaiker al-Jaafari (إبراهيم الأشيقر الجعفري; born 25 March 1947) is an Iraqi politician who was Prime Minister of Iraq in the Iraqi Transitional Government from 2005 to 2006, following the January 2005 election.
The actual size and the origin of the illegal immigrant population in the United States is uncertain and is difficult to ascertain because of difficulty in accurately counting individuals in this population.
Immigration reform is change to the current immigration policy of a country.
The incumbent is the current holder of a political office.
An independent expenditure, in elections in the United States, is a political campaign communication that expressly advocates for the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate that is not made in cooperation, consultation or concert with or at the request or suggestion of a candidate, candidate's authorized committee or political party.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An indictment is a formal accusation that a person has committed a crime.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
A tax paid by a person who inherits money or property or a levy on the estate (money and property) of a person who has died.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
International sanctions are political and economic decisions that are part of diplomatic efforts by countries, multilateral or regional organizations against states or organizations either to protect national security interests, or to protect international law, and defend against threats to international peace and security.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Iraq actively researched and later employed weapons of mass destruction from 1962 to 1991, when it destroyed its chemical weapons stockpile and halted its biological and nuclear weapon programs.
The Iraq Resolution (formally the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002, (pdf)) is a joint resolution passed by the United States Congress in October 2002 as Public Law No: 107-243, authorizing military action against Iraq.
The Iraq Study Group (ISG) also known as the Baker-Hamilton Commission was a ten-person bipartisan panel appointed on March 15, 2006, by the United States Congress, that was charged with assessing the situation in Iraq and the US-led Iraq War and making policy recommendations.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
In the context of the Iraq War, the surge refers to United States President George W. Bush's 2007 increase in the number of American troops in order to provide security to Baghdad and Al Anbar Province.
The electorate of Iraq went to the polls on 15 October 2005 to vote in a referendum on whether or not to ratify the proposed constitution of Iraq.
An insurgency began in Iraq after the 2003 US-led invasion, and lasted throughout the ensuing Iraq War (2003–2011).
The Iraqi Interim Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the drafting of the new constitution following the National Assembly election conducted on January 30, 2005.
Following the ratification of the Constitution of Iraq on 15 October 2005, a general election was held on 15 December to elect a permanent 275-member Iraqi Council of Representatives.
Elections for the National Assembly of Iraq were held on January 30, 2005 in Iraq.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Islam is the third largest religion in the United States after Christianity and Judaism.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini; al-Niza'a al-Filastini-al-Israili) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
John Michael Luttig (born June 13, 1954) is an American lawyer and a former United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit.
The Jack Abramoff Indian lobbying scandal was a United States political scandal exposed in 2005; it related to fraud perpetrated by political lobbyists Jack Abramoff, Ralph E. Reed, Jr., Grover Norquist and Michael Scanlon on Native American tribes who were seeking to develop casino gambling on their reservations.
Jack French Kemp (July 13, 1935 – May 2, 2009) was an American politician and a professional gridiron football player.
James Benjamin Peake (born June 18, 1944) was the sixth United States Secretary of Veterans Affairs, serving from 2007-09.
James Terry Conway (born December 26, 1947) is a retired United States Marine Corps four-star General who was the 34th Commandant of the Marine Corps.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
James Merrill Jeffords (May 11, 1934 – August 18, 2014) was a U.S. Senator from Vermont.
Robert James Nicholson (born February 4, 1938) is an attorney, real estate developer, and a former Republican Party chairman.
James Allen Nussle (born June 27, 1960) is the president and chief executive officer of the Credit Union National Association.
The Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 ("JGTRRA"), was passed by the United States Congress on May 23, 2003 and signed into law by President George W. Bush on May 28, 2003.
Joseph Whitehouse Hagin II (born January 6, 1956) is serving as White House Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations under President Trump, a role he also served in for President George W. Bush from 2001 until July 2008.
Joseph Isadore Lieberman (born February 24, 1942) is an American politician and attorney who was a United States Senator for Connecticut from 1989 to 2013.
Joel David Kaplan (born 1970) is Facebook's vice president of global public policy.
John Philip Abizaid (born April 1, 1951) is a retired United States Army general and former U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) commander, overseeing American military operations in a 27-country region, from the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, to South and Central Asia, covering much of the Middle East.
John David Ashcroft (born May 9, 1942) is an American lawyer and former politician who served as the 79th U.S. Attorney General (2001–2005), in the George W. Bush Administration.
John Andrew Boehner (born, 1949) is an American politician who served as the 53rd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 2011 to 2015.
John Claggett Danforth (born September 5, 1936) is a retired American politician who began his career in 1968 as the Attorney General of Missouri and served three terms as United States Senator from Missouri.
John Edward McLaughlin (born June 15, 1942) is the former Deputy Director of Central Intelligence and former Acting Director of Central Intelligence.
Johnny Reid "John" Edwards (born June 10, 1953) is an American lawyer and former politician who served as a U.S. Senator from North Carolina.
John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.
John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Arizona, a seat he was first elected to in 1986.
The 2000 presidential campaign of John McCain, the United States Senator from Arizona, began in September 1999.
John Michael "Mike" McConnell (born July 26, 1943) is a former vice admiral in the United States Navy.
John Patrick Murtha Jr. (June 17, 1932 – February 8, 2010) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Pennsylvania.
John Dimitri Negroponte (born July 21, 1939) is an American diplomat.
John P. Jumper (born February 4, 1945) is a retired United States Air Force general, who served as 17th Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force from September 6, 2001 to September 2, 2005.
John P. Walters (born February 8, 1952) is a former Director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP).
John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948) is an American attorney, political commentator, Republican consultant and activist, government official and former diplomat who serves as the 27th National Security Advisor of the United States.
John Glover Roberts Jr. (born January 27, 1955) is an American lawyer who serves as the 17th and current Chief Justice of the United States.
The Senate hearings on the nomination of John Roberts to the Supreme Court, began on September 12, 2005, with U.S. Senators posing questions to Roberts, who was nominated by President George W. Bush to fill the vacancy of Chief Justice of the United States.
John William Snow (born August 2, 1939) is the former CEO of CSX Corporation, and served as the 73rd United States Secretary of the Treasury under U.S. President George W. Bush.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Joshua Brewster "Josh" Bolten (born August 16, 1954) served as the White House Chief of Staff to U.S. President George W. Bush.
JPMorgan Chase & Co. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
Karen Parfitt Hughes (born December 27, 1956) is the global vice chair of the public relations firm Burson-Marsteller.
Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is an American Republican political consultant and policy advisor.
Kathleen Babineaux Blanco (born December 15, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 54th Governor of Louisiana from January 2004 to January 2008.
Kevin Jeffrey Martin (born December 14, 1966) is a former member and Chairman of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), an independent agency of the United States government.
Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Kurds in Iraq (کوردانی باشووری کوردستان / کوردانی عێڕاق.) are people born in or residing in Iraq who are of Kurdish origin.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Lawrence B. "Larry" Lindsey (born July 18, 1954) is an American economist.
A dispute exists over the legitimacy of the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. (former NYSE ticker symbol LEH) was a global financial services firm.
Lester Mills Crawford (born March 13, 1938) is an American veterinarian and former Commissioner of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration who was appointed by President George W. Bush.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
Life support refers to the treatments and techniques performed in an emergency in order to support life after the failure of one or more vital organs.
The Administrator and Deputy Administrator of NASA are the highest-ranked officials of NASA, the space agency of the United States Federal Government.
Following is a list of United States federal judges appointed by President George W. Bush during his presidency, including all Judges appointed under Article III and a partial list of Judges appointed under Article I. In total Bush appointed 327 Article III federal judges, including 2 Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States (including one Chief Justice), 62 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, 261 judges to the United States district courts and 2 judges to the United States Court of International Trade.
This is a list of the Governors of Louisiana (Gouverneurs de Louisiane), from acquisition by the United States in 1803 to the present day.
The Governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is the head of the executive branch of Pennsylvania's state government and serves as the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.
The post of Mayor of the City of New Orleans, has been held by the following individuals since New Orleans came under American administration following the Louisiana Purchase — the acquisition by the U.S. of of the French province La Louisiane in 1803.
This is a list of people pardoned by George W. Bush.
The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
The Vice President of the United States is the ex officio President of the Senate, as provided in Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, but may only vote in order to break a tie.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Louis Joseph Freeh (born January 6, 1950) is an American attorney and former judge who served as the fifth Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation from September 1993 to June 2001.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Mahmoud Abbas (مَحْمُود عَبَّاس,; born 15 November 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (أَبُو مَازِن), is the President of the State of Palestine and Palestinian National Authority. He has been the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since 11 November 2004, and Palestinian president since 15 January 2005 (Palestinian National Authority since 15 January 2005, and State of Palestine since 8 May 2005). Abbas is a member of the Fatah party and was elected Chairman of Fatah in 2009. Abbas was elected on 9 January 2005 to serve as President of the Palestinian National Authority until 15 January 2009, but extended his term until the next election in 2010, citing the PLO constitution, and on December 16, 2009 was voted into office indefinitely by the PLO Central Council. As a result, Fatah's main rival, Hamas, initially announced that it would not recognize the extension or view Abbas as the rightful president. The Jerusalem Post (9 January 2009) Yet, Abbas is internationally recognized and Hamas and Fatah conducted numerous negotiations in the following years, leading to an agreement in April 2014 over a Unity Government, which lasted until October 2016, and therefore to the recognition of his office by Hamas. Abbas was also chosen as the President of the State of Palestine by the Palestine Liberation Organization's Central Council on 23 November 2008, a position he had held unofficially since 8 May 2005. Abbas served as the first Prime Minister of the Palestinian Authority from March to September 2003. Before being named prime minister, Abbas led the PLO Negotiations Affairs Department.
Margaret M. LaMontagne Spellings (née Dudar; born November 30, 1957) is an education administrator and American politician.
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part of the world's oceans.
Marion Clifton Blakey (born March 26, 1948) is president and chief executive officer of Rolls-Royce North America.
The Mark Foley scandal, which broke in late September 2006, centers on soliciting e-mails and sexually suggestive instant messages sent by Mark Foley, a Republican Congressman from Florida, to teenaged boys who had formerly served as congressional pages.
Mark Barr McClellan (born June 26, 1963) is the Director of the Robert J Margolis Center for Health Policy and the Margolis Professor of Business, Medicine and Health Policy at Duke University.
Martin Thomas "Marty" Meehan (born December 30, 1956) is an educator, a politician, and a lawyer.
Mary E. Peters (born December 4, 1948) served as the United States Secretary of Transportation under President George W. Bush from 2006 to 2009.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Matthew John Dowd (born May 29, 1961) is an American political consultant.
In the United States, Medicare is a national health insurance program, now administered by the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services of the U.S. federal government but begun in 1966 under the Social Security Administration.
Medicare Part D, also called the Medicare prescription drug benefit, is an optional United States federal-government program to help Medicare beneficiaries pay for self-administered prescription drugs through prescription drug insurance premiums (the cost of almost all professionally administered prescriptions is covered under optional Part B of United States Medicare).
The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act, also called the Medicare Modernization Act or MMA, is a federal law of the United States, enacted in 2003.
Meghan L. O'Sullivan (born September 13, 1969) is a former deputy national security adviser on Iraq and Afghanistan.
Melquíades Rafael Martínez Ruiz, usually known as Mel Martínez (born October 23, 1946), is an American lobbyist and former politician who served as a United States Senator from Florida from 2005 to 2009 and as general chairman of the Republican Party from November 2006 until October 19, 2007.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michael Chertoff (born November 28, 1953) is an American attorney who was the second United States Secretary of Homeland Security, serving under President George W. Bush.
Michael Douglas Griffin (born November 1, 1949) is an American physicist and aerospace engineer who is the current Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering.
General Michael William Hagee (born December 1, 1944) was the 33rd Commandant of the United States Marine Corps (2003–2006), succeeding James L. Jones on January 13, 2003.
Michael Vincent Hayden (born March 17, 1945) is a retired United States Air Force four-star general and former Director of the National Security Agency, Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence, and Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.
Michael Bernard Mukasey (born July 28, 1941) is a lawyer and former federal judge who served as the 81st Attorney General of the United States.
Michael Glenn Mullen, AO, MSC (born October 4, 1946) is a retired United States Navy admiral, who served as the 17th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from October 1, 2007, to September 30, 2011.
Michael Kevin Powell (born March 23, 1963) is an American former Republican chairman of the Federal Communications Commission and current president of the trade association the National Cable & Telecommunications Association (NCTA).
Michael Owen Johanns (born June 18, 1950) is an American attorney and politician who served as a United States Senator from Nebraska, from 2009 to 2015.
Michael Okerlund Leavitt (born February 11, 1951) is an American politician who served as the 14th Governor of Utah from 1993 to 2003 in the Republican Party, as Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency from 2003 to 2005 and as Secretary of Health and Human Services from 2005 to 2009.
The United States Military Commissions Act of 2006, also known as HR-6166, was an Act of Congress signed by President George W. Bush on October 17, 2006.
Military justice (or military law) is the body of laws and procedures governing members of the armed forces.
A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.
The Mission Accomplished speech (named from a banner displayed above the speaker) was a televised address by United States President George W. Bush on the aircraft carrier USS ''Abraham Lincoln'' on May 1, 2003.
Mitchell Elias Daniels Jr. (born April 7, 1949) is an American academic administrator, businessman, author, and retired politician who served as the 49th Governor of Indiana, from 2005 to 2013, and a Republican.
Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States.
Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei (محمد مصطفى البرادعى,,; born 17 June 1942) is an Egyptian law scholar and diplomat who was the last Vice-President of Egypt serving on an interim basis from 14 July 2013 until his resignation on 14 August 2013.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The US-Morocco Free Trade Agreement (or Morocco FTA) is a bilateral trade agreement between the United States and Morocco.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
The Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I), often referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America (Operation Iraqi Freedom), United Kingdom (Operation TELIC), Australia, Spain and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations.
In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal.
Muqtada al-Sadr (Muqtadā ṣ-Ṣadr; born 12 August 1973) is an Iraqi Shia cleric, politician and militia leader.
Nancy Patricia D'Alesandro Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is an American politician serving as the Minority Leader of the United States House of Representatives since 2011, representing most of San Francisco, California.
The National Iraqi Alliance (NIA or INA; الائتلاف الوطني العراقي; transliterated: al-Itilaf al-Watani al-Iraqi), also known as the Watani List, is an Iraqi electoral coalition that contested the Iraqi legislative election, 2010.
The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (NSA) or at times informally termed the NSC Advisor,The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 1.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States.
Neil McGill Gorsuch (born August 29, 1967) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
After his nomination on January 31, 2017, Neil Gorsuch was confirmed by the Senate on April 7, 2017.
Neoconservatism (commonly shortened to neocon when labelling its adherents) is a political movement born in the United States during the 1960s among liberal hawks who became disenchanted with the increasingly pacifist foreign policy of the Democratic Party, and the growing New Left and counterculture, in particular the Vietnam protests.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001(NCLB) was a U.S. Act of Congress that reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act; it included Title I provisions applying to disadvantaged students.
Norman Yoshio Mineta (born November 12, 1931) is an American politician.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
North Korea has a military nuclear weapons program and also has a significant quantity of chemical and biological weapons.
The Afghan Northern Alliance, officially known as the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (جبهه متحد اسلامی ملی برای نجات افغانستان Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islāmi-yi Millī barāyi Nijāt-i Afghānistān), was a united military front that came to formation in late 1996 after the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban) took over Kabul.
The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI; Sankattan Siha Na Islas Mariånas; Refaluwasch or Carolinian: Commonwealth Téél Falúw kka Efáng llól Marianas), is an insular area and commonwealth of the United States consisting of 15 islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
Norton Allan Schwartz (born December 14, 1951) is a retired United States Air Force general who served as the 19th Chief of Staff of the Air Force from August 12, 2008 until his retirement in 2012.
Nouri Kamil Mohammed Hasan al-Maliki (نوري كامل محمد حسن المالكي.; born 20 June 1950), also known as Jawad al-Maliki (جواد المالكي) or Abu Esraa (أبو إسراء), is an Iraqi politician who was Prime Minister of Iraq from 2006 to 2014.
Now on PBS was a Public Broadcasting Service newsmagazine that focused on social and political issues.
NSA warrantless surveillance (also commonly referred to as "warrantless-wiretapping" or "-wiretaps") refers to the surveillance of persons within the United States, including United States citizens, during the collection of notionally foreign intelligence by the National Security Agency (NSA) as part of the Terrorist Surveillance Program.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
Obstruction of justice, in United States jurisdictions, is the crime of obstructing prosecutors or other (usually government) officials.
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP).
Offshore drilling is a mechanical process where a wellbore is drilled below the seabed.
The U.S.-Oman Free Trade Agreement is a trade pact between Oman and the United States.
Measure 16 of 1994 established the U.S. state of Oregon's Death with Dignity Act (ORS 127.800-995), which legalizes medical aid in dying (commonly referred to as physician-assisted suicide) with certain restrictions.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
Ownership society is a slogan for a model of society promoted by former United States president George W. Bush.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Elections for the second Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC), the legislature of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA), were held on 25 January 2006.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003 ((HTML); *, from the U.S. Government Printing Office (PDF) PBA Ban) is a United States law prohibiting a form of late termination of pregnancy called "partial-birth abortion," referred to in medical literature by as intact dilation and extraction.
Party divisions of United States Congresses have played a central role in the organization and operations of both chambers of the United States Congress—the Senate and the House of Representatives—since its establishment as the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States in 1789.
In the United States, a path to citizenship is a proposed process whereby illegal immigrants in the United States can become citizens.
The USA PATRIOT Act is an Act of Congress signed into law by US President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001.
Lewis Paul Bremer III (born September 30, 1941) is an American diplomat.
Paul Henry O'Neill (born December 4, 1935) served as the 72nd United States Secretary of the Treasury for part of President George W. Bush's first term.
Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is an American political scientist and diplomat who served as the 10th President of the World Bank, United States Ambassador to Indonesia, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense, and former dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University.
Payroll taxes are taxes imposed on employers or employees, and are usually calculated as a percentage of the salaries that employers pay their staff.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Perjury is the intentional act of swearing a false oath or falsifying an affirmation to tell the truth, whether spoken or in writing, concerning matters a generation material to an official proceeding.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The United States–Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (Acuerdo de Promoción Comercial Perú – Estados Unidos o Tratado de Libre Comercio Perú – Estados Unidos) is a bilateral free trade agreement, whose objectives are eliminating obstacles to trade, consolidating access to goods and services and fostering private investment in and between the United States and Peru.
Peter Pace (born November 5, 1945) is a United States Marine Corps general who served as the 16th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Peter Jan Schoomaker (born February 12, 1946) is a retired four-star General of the United States Army and served as the 35th Chief of Staff of the United States Army from August 1, 2003 to April 10, 2007.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Plame affair (also known as the CIA leak scandal and Plamegate) was a political scandal that revolved around journalist Robert Novak's public identification of Valerie Plame as a covert Central Intelligence Agency officer in 2003.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Porter Johnston Goss (born November 26, 1938) is an American politician and government official who served as a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1989 until 2004, when he became the last Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) and the first Director of the Central Intelligence Agency following the passage of the 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act, which abolished the DCI position and replaced it with the Director of National Intelligence on April 21, 2005.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
A preemptive war is a war that is commenced in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war shortly before that attack materializes.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
The presidency of Barack Obama began at noon EST on January 20, 2009, when Barack Obama was inaugurated as 44th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2017.
The presidency of Bill Clinton began at noon EST on January 20, 1993, when Bill Clinton was inaugurated as 42nd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2001.
The presidency of George H. W. Bush began at noon EST on January 20, 1989, when George H. W. Bush was inaugurated as 41st President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1993.
The presidency of Gerald Ford began on August 9, 1974, when Gerald Ford became President of the United States upon the resignation of Richard Nixon from office, and ended on January 20, 1977, a period of days.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR/Emergency Plan) is a United States governmental initiative to address the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and help save the lives of those suffering from the disease, primarily in Africa.
The Presidential transition of Barack Obama began when Barack Obama won the United States presidential election on November 4, 2008, and became the President-elect.
The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) was a neoconservative First Impressions, Second Thoughts: Reflections on the Changing Role of Think Tanks in U.S. Foreign Policy, Abelson, Critical Issues of Our Time, v.8, Center for American Studies, University of Western Ontario, 2011 think tank based in Washington, D.C. that focused on United States foreign policy.
Protests against George W. Bush occurred throughout the United States and the world during his presidency.
Beginning in 2002, and continuing after the 2003 invasion of Iraq, large-scale protests against the Iraq War were held in many cities worldwide, often coordinated to occur simultaneously around the world.
George W. Bush, the 43rd President of the United States, has elicited a variety of public perceptions regarding his policies, personality, and performance as a head of state.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Clarence Ray Nagin Jr., also known as C. Ray Nagin (born June 11, 1956), is an American former politician, businessman and convicted felon who served as the 60th mayor of New Orleans, Louisiana, from 2002 to 2010.
Reconciliation is a legislative process of the United States Congress that allows expedited passage of certain budgetary legislation on spending, revenues, and the federal debt limit with a simple majority vote in both the House (218 votes) and Senate (51 votes).
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
The 2000 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 2000 U.S. presidential election.
The 2008 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 2008 U.S. presidential election.
This article lists those who were potential candidates for the Republican nomination for Vice President of the United States in the 2000 election.
Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) is an American former naval officer who served three combat tours of duty in the Vietnam War as an advisor in contexts of riverine warfare.
Richard Bowman Myers (born March 1, 1942) is the 14th president of Kansas State University and a retired four-star general in the United States Air Force and served as the 15th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
The Roadmap for peace or road map for peace (מפת הדרכים Mapa had'rakhim, Khāriṭa ṭarīq as-salāmu) was a plan to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict proposed by the Quartet on the Middle East: the United States, the European Union, Russia and the United Nations.
Robert Jones Portman (born December 19, 1955) is an American attorney, serving as the junior United States Senator for Ohio, and a member of the Republican Party.
Robert Allan Sturgell (born August 1, 1959) is a former Acting Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), having served from September 14, 2007, to January 15, 2009.
Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) is an American statesman, scholar, intelligence analyst, and university president who served as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense from 2006 to 2011.
Robert Swan Mueller III (born August 7, 1944) is an American attorney who served as the sixth Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation from 2001 to 2013.
Robert Bruce Zoellick (born July 25, 1953) is an American public official and lawyer who was the eleventh president of the World Bank, a position he held from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2012.
Roderick Raynor "Rod" Paige (born June 17, 1933) served as the 7th United States Secretary of Education from 2001 to 2005.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Rose Atoll, sometimes called Rose Island or Motu O Manu by people of the nearby Manu'a Islands, is an oceanic atoll within the U.S. territory of American Samoa.
Russell Dana Feingold (born March 2, 1953) is an American lawyer and politician from the U.S. state of Wisconsin.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda link allegations were made by the U.S. government officials who claimed that a highly secretive relationship existed between Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and the radical Islamist militant organization Al-Qaeda between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS).
Same-sex marriage in the United States was initially established on a state-by-state basis, expanding from 1 state in 2004 to 36 states in 2015, when, on June 26, 2015, same-sex marriage was established in all 50 states as a result of the ruling of the Supreme Court of the United States in the landmark civil rights case of Obergefell v. Hodges, in which it was held that the right of same-sex couples to marry on the same terms and conditions as opposite-sex couples, with all the accompanying rights and responsibilities, is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Samuel Anthony Alito Jr. (born April 1, 1950) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
On October 31, 2005, Samuel Alito was nominated by President George W. Bush for Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States to replace the retiring Sandra Day O'Connor.
Samuel Wright Bodman III (born November 26, 1938) is the former 11th United States Secretary of Energy.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, having served from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan until 2006.
The Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002, also known as the "Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act" (in the Senate) and "Corporate and Auditing Accountability, Responsibility, and Transparency Act" (in the House) and more commonly called Sarbanes–Oxley, Sarbox or SOX, is a United States federal law that set new or expanded requirements for all U.S. public company boards, management and public accounting firms.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
A school voucher, also called an education voucher, in a voucher system, is a certificate of government funding for a student at a school chosen by the student or the student's parents.
Scott McClellan (born February 14, 1968) was White House Press Secretary (2003–06) for President George W. Bush, and author of a controversial No.
Sean Charles O'Keefe (born January 27, 1956) is the university professor at Syracuse University Maxwell School, former chairman of Airbus Group, Inc.,, politico.com, October 22, 2009; accessed September 18, 2014.
The Second Intifada, also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada (انتفاضة الأقصى; אינתיפאדת אל-אקצה Intifādat El-Aqtzah), was the second Palestinian uprising against Israel – a period of intensified Israeli–Palestinian violence.
Between 2006 and 2008, Iraq experienced a high level of sectarian violence.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Senior Advisor to the President is a title used by high-ranking assistants to the President of the United States.
"Separation of church and state" is paraphrased from Thomas Jefferson and used by others in expressing an understanding of the intent and function of the Establishment Clause and Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States which reads: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof..." The phrase "separation between church & state" is generally traced to a January 1, 1802, letter by Thomas Jefferson, addressed to the Danbury Baptist Association in Connecticut, and published in a Massachusetts newspaper.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
In aftermath of the September 11 attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C. by the al-Qaeda terrorist group, a number of investigations with resulting articles and reports were conducted to determine what intelligence may have existed prior to the attack and if this information was ignored by authorities.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shock and awe (technically known as rapid dominance) is a tactic based on the use of overwhelming power and spectacular displays of force to paralyze the enemy's perception of the battlefield and destroy its will to fight.
A signing statement is a written pronouncement issued by the President of the United States upon the signing of a bill into law.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement was signed 6 May 2003 and ratified by the US House of Representatives on 24 July 2003 by a vote of 272-155.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Social conservatism is the belief that society is built upon a fragile network of relationships which need to be upheld through duty, traditional values and established institutions.
In the United States, Social Security is the commonly used term for the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program and is administered by the Social Security Administration.
The Sons of Iraq (أبناء العراق. Abnāʼ al-ʻIrāq) were coalitions between tribal Sheikhs in the Al Anbar province in Iraq as well as former Saddam Hussein's Iraqi military officers that united to maintain stability in their communities.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Edward Spencer Abraham (born June 12, 1952) is an American attorney, author and politician who was a United States Senator from Michigan from 1995 to 2001 and the tenth United States Secretary of Energy, serving under President George W. Bush, from 2001 to 2005.
The State of the Union Address is an annual message presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, except in the first year of a new president's term.
"State Sponsors of Terrorism" is a designation applied by the United States Department of State to countries which the Department alleges to have "repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism".
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act was the name of two similar bills that both passed through the United States House of Representatives and Senate, but were both vetoed by President George W. Bush and were not enacted into law.
Stephen John Hadley (born February 13, 1947) was the 21st U.S. Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (commonly referred as National Security Advisor), serving under President George W. Bush during the second term of his administration.
Stephen Lee Johnson (born March 21, 1951) was the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under President George W. Bush during the second term of his administration.
Steven C. Preston (born August 4, 1960) served as the 14th Secretary of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development from 2008 to 2009 and the 22nd Administrator of the U.S. Small Business Administration from 2006 until his appointment as HUD Secretary.
The Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Strategic Offensive Reductions (SORT), also known as the Treaty of Moscow, was a strategic arms reduction treaty between the United States and Russia that was in force from June 2003 until February 2011 when it was superseded by the New START treaty.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
In finance, subprime lending (also referred to as near-prime, subpar, non-prime, and second-chance lending) means making loans to people who may have difficulty maintaining the repayment schedule, sometimes reflecting setbacks, such as unemployment, divorce, medical emergencies, etc.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
Supply-side economics is a macroeconomic theory arguing that economic growth can be most effectively created by lowering taxes and decreasing regulation.
The Supreme Court of Florida is the highest court in the U.S. state of Florida.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Susan Carol Schwab (born March 23, 1955) is an American politician, who served as United States Trade Representative from June, 2006 to January, 2009.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
A swing vote is a vote that is seen as potentially going to any of a number of candidates in an election, or, in a two-party system, may go to either of the two dominant political parties.
General Teed Michael "Buzz" Moseley, USAF (born September 3, 1949) is a retired United States Air Force General who served as the 18th Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
A tax credit is a tax incentive which allows certain taxpayers to subtract the amount of the credit they have accrued from the total they owe the state.
Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (February 22, 1932 – August 25, 2009) was an American politician who served in the United States Senate from Massachusetts for almost 47 years, from 1962 until his death in 2009.
The Terri Schiavo case was a right-to-die legal case in the United States from 1990 to 2005, involving Theresa Marie "Terri" Schiavo (December 3, 1963 – March 31, 2005), a woman in an irreversible persistent vegetative state.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The 1994 Texas gubernatorial election was held on November 8, 1994 to elect the Governor of Texas.
The 1998 Texas gubernatorial election was held on November 3, 1998 to elect the Governor of Texas.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is a public holiday celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November in the United States.
The First Post was a British daily online news magazine based in London.
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (or simply the Global Fund) is an international financing organization that aims to "ttract and disburse additional resources to prevent and treat HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria." A public-private partnership, the organization maintains its secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Seattle Times is a daily newspaper serving Seattle, Washington, United States.
The Vulcans is a nickname used to refer to Republican Presidential candidate George W. Bush's foreign policy advisory team assembled to brief him prior to the 2000 US presidential election.
Thomas Joseph Pickard (born January 6, 1950) was an acting Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation for 71 days in the summer of 2001 following the resignation of Director Louis Freeh.
Thomas Joseph Ridge (born August 26, 1945) is an American politician and author who served as the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security from 2001 to 2003, and the first United States Secretary of Homeland Security from 2003 to 2005.
Tommy Ray Franks (born June 17, 1945) is a retired general in the United States Army.
Tommy George Thompson (born November 19, 1941) is an American Republican politician who was a state legislator in Wisconsin, and 42nd Governor of Wisconsin from 1987 to 2001, and is the longest serving governor in the state's history.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
Robert Anthony Snow (June 1, 1955 – July 12, 2008) was an American journalist, political commentator, television news anchor, syndicated columnist, radio host, musician, and the third White House Press Secretary under President George W. Bush, from May 2006 until his resignation in September 2007.
Tort reform refers to proposed changes in the civil justice system that aim to reduce the ability of victims to bring tort litigation or to reduce damages they can receive.
Torture and the United States includes documented and alleged cases of torture both inside and outside the United States by members of the U.S. government, the U.S. military, U.S. law enforcement agencies, U.S. intelligence agencies, U.S. health care services, and other U.S. public organizations.
Toxic asset is a popular term for certain financial assets whose value has fallen significantly and for which there is no longer a functioning market, so that such assets cannot be sold at a price satisfactory to the holder.
The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security that has authority over the security of the traveling public in the United States.
The Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) is a program of the United States government to purchase toxic assets and equity from financial institutions to strengthen its financial sector that was signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 3, 2008.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Twenty-second Amendment (Amendment XXII) to the United States Constitution sets a limit on the number of times a person is eligible for election to the office of President of the United States, and also sets additional eligibility conditions for presidents who succeed to the unexpired terms of their predecessors.
The two-state solution refers to a solution of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict which calls for "two states for two groups of people." The two-state solution envisages an independent State of Palestine alongside the State of Israel, west of the Jordan River.
The U.S.–Iraq Status of Forces Agreement (official name: Agreement Between the United States of America and the Republic of Iraq On the Withdrawal of United States Forces from Iraq and the Organization of Their Activities during Their Temporary Presence in Iraq) was a status of forces agreement (SOFA) between Iraq and the United States, signed by President George W. Bush in 2008.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
United Airlines Flight 93 was a domestic scheduled passenger flight that was hijacked by four Al-Qaeda terrorists on board, as part of the September 11 attacks.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) was created through the adoption of United Nations Security Council resolution 1284 of 17 December 1999 and its mission lasted until June 2007.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 is a United Nations Security Council resolution adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on 8 November 2002, offering Iraq under Saddam Hussein "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" that had been set out in several previous resolutions (Resolutions 660, 661, 678, 686, 687, 688, 707, 715, 986, and 1284).
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1695, adopted unanimously on July 15, 2006, after recalling resolutions 825 (1993) and 1540 (2004) concerning North Korea and the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction respectively, the Council banned the selling of material that would further the ability of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (the DPRK, or North Korea) to bolster its ballistic missiles programme.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1718 was adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on October 14, 2006.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1737 was unanimously passed by the United Nations Security Council on 23 December 2006.
The United Nations Security Council "veto power" refers to the power of the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and United States) to veto any "substantive" resolution.
The United States Ambassador to the United Nations is the leader of the U.S. delegation, the U.S. Mission to the United Nations.
United States Attorneys (also known as chief federal prosecutors and, historically, as United States District Attorneys) represent the United States federal government in United States district courts and United States courts of appeals.
The United States Central Command (USCENTCOM or CENTCOM) is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command of the U.S. Department of Defense.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (in case citations, D.C. Cir.) known informally as the D.C. Circuit, is the federal appellate court for the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit (in case citations, 10th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States Court of International Trade (in case citations, Int'l Trade or Intl. Trade), formerly the United States Customs Court, and before that the Board of General Appraisers, is an Article III court, with full powers in law and equity.
The United States courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system.
The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries.
The Deputy Secretary of Defense (acronym: DEPSECDEF) is a statutory office and the second-highest-ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America.
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.
The 1994 United States elections were held on November 8, 1994.
The 2000 United States elections were held on November 7, 2000.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States housing bubble was a real estate bubble affecting over half of the U.S. states.
The United States Intelligence Community (IC) is a federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities to support the foreign policy and national security of the United States.
The United States invasion of Afghanistan occurred after the September 11 attacks in late 2001, supported by close allies.
In the United States, presidential job approval ratings were introduced by George Gallup in the late 1930s (probably 1937) to gauge public support for the President of the United States during his term.
The United States presidential election of 1988 was the 51st quadrennial United States presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1996 was the 53rd quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2000 was the 54th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2004, the 55th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004.
The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election.
The inauguration of the President of the United States is a ceremony to mark the commencement of a new four-year term of the President of the United States.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) generally considers matters relating to these issues.
The United States Senate elections, 2002 featured a series of fiercely contested elections that resulted in a victory for the Republican Party, which gained two seats and thus a narrow majority from the Democratic Party in the United States Senate.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
The USS Cole bombing was an attack against the United States Navy guided-missile destroyer on 12 October 2000, while it was being refueled in Yemen's Aden harbor.
Valerie Elise Plame Wilson (née Plame; born August 13, 1963), known as Valerie Plame, Valerie E. Wilson, and Valerie Plame Wilson, is a former operations officer who worked at the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), a writer, and a spy novelist.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
A War Hawk, or simply hawk, is a term used in politics for someone favouring war in a debate over whether to go to war, or whether to continue or escalate an existing war.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Waterboarding is a form of water torture in which water is poured over a cloth covering the face and breathing passages of an immobilized captive, causing the individual to experience the sensation of drowning.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The White House Chief of Staff has traditionally been the highest-ranking non-elected employee of the White House.
The White House Counsel is a staff appointee of the President of the United States whose role is to advise the President on all legal issues concerning the President and his Administration.
The White House Deputy Chief of Staff is officially the top aide to the White House Chief of Staff, who is the senior aide to the President of the United States.
The White House Office of Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships, formerly the White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives (OFBCI) is an office within the White House Office that is part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States.
The Staff Secretary ("Staff Sec") is a position in the White House Office responsible for managing paper flow to the President and circulating documents among senior staff for comment.
The White House Press Secretary is a senior White House official whose primary responsibility is to act as spokesperson for the executive branch of the United States government administration, especially with regard to the President, senior executives, and policies.
William Joseph Fallon (born December 30, 1944) is a retired United States Navy four-star admiral who retired after serving for over 41 years.
William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States for 33 years, first as an Associate Justice from 1972 to 1986, and then as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2005.
WMD conjecture in the aftermath of the 2003 invasion of Iraq concerns the immediate reactions and consequences to the failure by the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) and the U.S.-led Iraq Survey Group (ISG) to find the alleged stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction during and after 2003 invasion of Iraq.
The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad (Pashto: زلمی خلیلزاد Zalmay Khalīlzād; born March 22, 1951) is a former US diplomat and a counselor at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) and the president of Gryphon Partners and Khalilzad Associates, an international business consulting firm, based in Washington, DC He was the US Ambassador to the United Nations, under President George W. Bush.
The 100-Hour Plan was a United States Democratic Party political strategy detailing the actions the party pursued upon assuming leadership of the 110th Congress on January 4, 2007.
The One Hundred Seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives.
The One Hundred Eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives from January 3, 2003 to January 3, 2005, during the third and fourth years of George W. Bush's presidency.
The One Hundred Ninth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives, from January 3, 2005 to January 3, 2007, during the fifth and sixth years of George W. Bush's presidency.
The One Hundred Tenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, between January 3, 2007, and January 3, 2009, during the last two years of the second term of President George W. Bush.
The 2000 Camp David Summit was a summit meeting at Camp David between United States president Bill Clinton, Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority chairman Yasser Arafat.
The 2000 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States convened at the First Union Center (now the Wells Fargo Center) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from July 31 to August 3, 2000.
The Florida election recount of 2000 was a period of vote recounting in Florida that occurred during the weeks after Election Day in the 2000 United States presidential election between George W. Bush and Al Gore.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
The 2004 Republican National Convention, the presidential nominating convention of the Republican Party of the United States, took place from August 30 to September 2, 2004 at Madison Square Garden in New York City, New York.
On August 29, 2005, there were over 50 failures of the levees and flood walls protecting New Orleans, Louisiana, and its suburbs following passage of Hurricane Katrina and landfall in Mississippi.
The 2006 al-Askari Shrine bombing occurred at the al-Askari Shrine in the Iraqi city of Samarra, on February 22, 2006, at about 6:44 a.m. local time (0344 UTC).
Two rounds of North Korean missile tests were conducted on July 5, 2006.
The 2006 North Korean nuclear test was the detonation of a nuclear device conducted by North Korea on October 9, 2006.
The United States 2008 Republican National Convention took place at the Xcel Energy Center in Saint Paul, Minnesota, from September 1, through September 4, 2008.
Administration of George W Bush, Administration of George W. Bush, Bush White House, Bush administration (2000), Bush era, Cabinet of George W. Bush, Environmental record of George W. Bush, G. W. Bush administration, George W. Bush Administration, George W. Bush Cabinet, George W. Bush II government, George W. Bush administration, George W. Bush cabinet, George W. Bush presidency, George W. Bush's first term as President of the United States, George W. Bush's first term as president of the United States, George W. Bush's second term as President of the United States, George W. Bush's second term as president of the United States, George W. Bush/First term, George w bush presidency, Resignations after the 2004 US presidential elections, Resignations after the 2004 presidential elections, United States under George W. Bush.