414 relations: A Thousand Days, ABC News, Abd al-Karim Qasim, Abraham Lincoln, Abraham Ribicoff, Act of Free Choice, Adlai Stevenson II, Adolf Schärf, Adolfo López Mateos, African Americans, Al Gore, Alabama National Guard, Alan Shepard, Alberto Lleras Camargo, Alcoholism, Allen Dulles, Alliance for Progress, American Civil Liberties Union, American Mafia, American Medical Association, American Political Science Association, American University, American University speech, An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917–1963, Anthony J. Celebrezze, Antonio Segni, Apollo program, Apostolic Palace, Arab Cold War, Arab League, Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region, Arlington National Cemetery, Arthur Goldberg, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., Assassination of John F. Kennedy, Élysée Treaty, Bahrain, Ballistic missile, Bay of Pigs, Beersheba, Berlin, Berlin Wall, Bill Clinton, Birch Grove, Birmingham campaign, Bogotá, Bonn, Brazil, Brigade 2506, British Guiana, ..., Brown v. Board of Education, Buddhist crisis, Byron White, C-SPAN, C. Douglas Dillon, Camelot, Car, Caracas, Carl Albert, Carl Vinson, Carlos Marcello, Catholic Church, Central Intelligence Agency, Central Time Zone, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Evans Whittaker, Cheddi Jagan, Chester Bowles, Chief Justice of the United States, Chile, China, China and weapons of mass destruction, CIA activities in Laos, Civil and political rights, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Civil rights movement, Civilian Conservation Corps, Cold War, Cologne, Community Mental Health Act, Concession (contract), Congo Crisis, Conservative coalition, Containment, Cork (city), Council of Economic Advisers, Cuba, Cuba–Soviet Union relations, Cuban Missile Crisis, Cuban Project, Cuban Revolution, Dallas, David Ben-Gurion, David E. Bell, David Ormsby-Gore, 5th Baron Harlech, Dương Văn Minh, Dean Acheson, Dean Rusk, Decolonization, Deep South, Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party presidential primaries, 1960, Deterrence theory, Dimona, Director of Central Intelligence, Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era, Dominican Republic, Don Yarborough, Dublin, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Earl Warren, East Berlin, East Germany, Egypt, Eleanor Roosevelt, Elections in the United States, Electoral College (United States), English language, Equal Pay Act of 1963, Equal pay for equal work, Equal Rights Amendment, Esther Peterson, Everett Dirksen, EXCOMM, Executive Office of the President of the United States, Executive Order 11063, Fair Deal, Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, Faithless elector, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Felix Frankfurter, Fidel Castro, Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fifty-state strategy, Filibuster in the United States Senate, Flexible response, Food for Peace, Ford Motor Company, France and weapons of mass destruction, Frankfurt, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Frederick Nolting, Freedom Riders, Fulgencio Batista, Furman v. Georgia, Galway, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gary Hart, George Wallace, Georges Vanier, Ghana, Golda Meir, Good Neighbor policy, Government budget balance, Gross domestic product, Guatemala, Hamilton, Bermuda, Harry F. Byrd, Harry S. Truman, Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., Henry D. Irwin, Historical rankings of presidents of the United States, Hmong people, Ho Chi Minh, Hubert Humphrey, Human rights, Hunter Pitts O'Dell, Ich bin ein Berliner, India, Indonesia, Inflation, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Interest rate, Internal Revenue Service, International Agreement on the Neutrality of Laos, International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Iraq, Iraq Petroleum Company, Israel, Israel–United States military relations, Itemized deduction, J. D. Tippit, J. Edgar Hoover, J. Edward Day, Jack Ruby, James E. Webb, James Hood, James Meredith, Jawaharlal Nehru, Jerome Wiesner, Jim Crow laws, Jimmy Hoffa, Joey Aiuppa, John A. Gronouski, John Connally, John Diefenbaker, John F. Kennedy, John F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, John Glenn, John Kenneth Galbraith, John W. McCormack, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Jordan, JSTOR, Juan Bosch, Jury tampering, Kenneth O'Donnell, Keynesian economics, Kinzua Dam, Knesset, Ku Klux Klan, Kuwait, Laos, Laotian Civil War, Larry O'Brien, Latin America, Lee Harvey Oswald, Limerick, List of Presidents of the United States, List of presidents of the United States by age, List of sovereign states by date of formation, List of states with nuclear weapons, Lockheed U-2, London, Luther H. Hodges, Lyndon B. Johnson, Mao Zedong, March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, Mariner program, Marshall Plan, Martin Luther King Jr., Marxism, Massachusetts, Maxwell D. Taylor, McGeorge Bundy, Mexico City, Michael Dukakis, Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, Mike Mansfield, Minimum wage in the United States, Missile gap, Moon landing, Mortgage loan, Moscow–Washington hotline, Motorcade, Multilateral Force, Murder (United States law), Naples, NASA, Nassau Agreement, Nassau, Bahamas, National School Lunch Act, National Security Advisor (United States), National Youth Administration, NATO, Neoliberalism, Netherlands, Netherlands New Guinea, New Deal, New Frontier, New Look (policy), Ngô Đình Nhu, Ngo Dinh Diem, Nicholas Katzenbach, Nikita Khrushchev, Non-Aligned Movement, North Vietnam, Nuclear proliferation, Nuclear warfare, Nuclear weapon, Oath of office of the President of the United States, Office of Management and Budget, Ole Miss riot of 1962, Organization of American States, Organized crime, Orville Freeman, Ottawa, Pakistan, Paris, Parkland Memorial Hospital, Parliament of Ireland, Paul A. Freund, Peace Corps, PGM-19 Jupiter, Pierre Salinger, Poll taxes in the United States, Pope Paul VI, Pre-emptive nuclear strike, Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower, Presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the United States, Presidential Commission on the Status of Women, Price/wage spiral, Protestantism, Racial segregation, Racial segregation in the United States, Racket (crime), Radioactive contamination, Rafael Trujillo, Ralph Yarborough, Ramadan Revolution, Ratification, Rómulo Betancourt, Reconstruction era, Report to the American People on Civil Rights, Republican Party presidential primaries, 1960, Revenue Act of 1964, Richard Nixon, Richard Reeves (American writer), Robert F. Kennedy, Robert Komer, Robert McNamara, Rodger Davies, Roger Blough, Rome, Salamanca (town), New York, Sam Rayburn, San José, Costa Rica, Sargent Shriver, Saudi Arabia, Second Bill of Rights, Second Emancipation Proclamation, Seneca people, South Vietnam, Southeast Asia, Southern Christian Leadership Conference, Southern Democrats, Soviet Union, Soviet Union–United States relations, Space Race, Sputnik 1, Stand in the Schoolhouse Door, Stanley Levison, State of Katanga, Steel, Stewart Udall, Submarine-launched ballistic missile, Suffrage, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Supreme Court of the United States, Tariffs in United States history, Ted Sorensen, Texas, Texas School Book Depository, Thailand, The Bahamas, The Enemy Within (Kennedy book), The Fog of War, The Washington Post, Theodore Roosevelt, Third World, Thurgood Marshall, Treaty of Canandaigua, Trollope ploy, Turkey, Twenty-fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, U.S. Steel, UGM-27 Polaris, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council veto power, United States Ambassador to the United Nations, United States antitrust law, United States Capitol, United States congressional committee, United States embargo against Cuba, United States House Select Committee on Assassinations, United States presidential election in Alabama, 1960, United States presidential election in Mississippi, 1960, United States presidential election, 1956, United States presidential election, 1960, United States presidential elections in Oklahoma, United States presidential inauguration, United States Senate, United States Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in Labor and Management, United States special operations forces, United States Under Secretary of State, United States Women's Bureau, University of Alabama, University of Mississippi, Unpledged elector, Venus, Vice President of the United States, Victor Feguer, Vienna, Vienna summit, Viet Cong, Vietnam War, Vivian Malone Jones, W. Averell Harriman, W. Willard Wirtz, Walter Heller, War on Poverty, Warren Commission, Washington, D.C., West Berlin, West New Guinea dispute, Wexford, White House, White House Chief of Staff, Whiz Kids (Ford), Wiesbaden, William H. Hastie, Yugoslavia, Yuri Gagarin, 14 July Revolution, 16th Street Baptist Church bombing, 1954 Geneva Conference, 1956 Democratic National Convention, 1960 Democratic National Convention, 1960 Republican National Convention, 1960 U-2 incident, 1963 South Vietnamese coup. Expand index (364 more) » « Shrink index
A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House is a nonfiction book by special assistant to the president, American historian Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. about the United States Presidency of John F. Kennedy (1961–1963).
ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Abd Al-Karim Qasim Muhammed Bakr Al-Fadhli Al-Zubaidi (عبد الكريم قاسم) (21 November 1914 – 9 February 1963), was a nationalist Iraqi Army brigadier who seized power in the 14 July Revolution, wherein the Iraqi monarchy was eliminated.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Abraham Alexander Ribicoff (April 9, 1910 – February 22, 1998) was an American Democratic Party politician.
The Act of Free Choice (Penentuan Pendapat Rakyat, PEPERA, Determination of the People's Opinion), often disparagingly referred to as the "Act of No Choice", was a series of eight regional assemblies from July to August 1969 by which Indonesia asserts that the Western New Guinea population decided to relinquish their sovereignty in favor of Indonesian citizenship.
Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat, noted for his intellectual demeanor, eloquent public speaking, and promotion of progressive causes in the Democratic Party.
(20 April 1890 – 28 February 1965) was an Austrian politician of the Socialist Party of Austria (SPÖ).
Adolfo López Mateos (26 May 1909 – 22 September 1969) was a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) who served as President of Mexico from 1958 to 1964.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
The Alabama National Guard is the National Guard of the U.S State of Alabama, and consists of the Alabama Army National Guard and the Alabama Air National Guard.
Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, test pilot, and businessman.
Alberto Lleras Camargo (3 July 1906 – 4 January 1990) was the 20th President of Colombia (1958-1962), and the 1st Secretary General of the Organization of American States (1948-1954).
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an American diplomat and lawyer who became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), and its longest-serving director to date.
The Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso), initiated by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in 1961, aimed to establish economic cooperation between the U.S. and Latin America.
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Officially nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike.
The American Mafia (commonly referred to as the Mafia or the Mob, though "the Mob" can refer to other organized crime groups) or Italian-American Mafia, is the highly organized Italian-American criminal society.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
The American Political Science Association (APSA) is a professional association of political science students and scholars in the United States.
The American University (AU or American) is a private United Methodist-affiliated research university in Washington, D.C., United States.
The American University speech, titled "A Strategy of Peace", was a commencement address delivered by President John F. Kennedy at the American University in Washington, D.C., on Monday, June 10, 1963.
An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917–1963 is a biography of the 35th president of the United States, John F. Kennedy (JFK), who was assassinated in 1963.
Anthony Joseph Celebrezze Sr. (born Antonio Giuseppe Cilibrizzi,; September 4, 1910 – October 29, 1998) was an American politician of the Democratic Party, who served as the 49th Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio, as a cabinet member in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, and as a U.S. appeals court judge.
Antonio Segni (2 February 1891 – 1 December 1972) was an Italian politician who was the 34th Prime Minister of Italy (1955–1957, 1959–1960), and the fourth President of the Italian Republic from 1962 to 1964.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
The Apostolic Palace (Palatium Apostolicum; Palazzo Apostolico) is the official residence of the Roman Catholic Pope and Bishop of Rome, which is located in Vatican City.
The Arab Cold War (الحرب العربية الباردة al-Harb al-`Arabbiyah al-bārdah) was a series of conflicts in the Arab world between the new republics led by Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt and espousing Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, and Pan-Arabism and the more traditionalist kingdoms, led by King Faisal of Saudi Arabia.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في العراق Hizb Al-Baath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki fi Al-'Iraq), officially the Iraqi Regional Branch, is a regional branch of the Arab Ba'athist political party founded in 1951 by Fuad al-Rikabi.
Arlington National Cemetery is a United States military cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., in whose the dead of the nation's conflicts have been buried, beginning with the Civil War, as well as reinterred dead from earlier wars.
Arthur Joseph Goldberg (August 8, 1908January 19, 1990) was an American statesman and jurist who served as the 9th U.S. Secretary of Labor, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, and the 6th United States Ambassador to the United Nations.
Arthur Meier Schlesinger Jr. (born Arthur Bancroft Schlesinger; October 15, 1917 – February 28, 2007) was an American historian, social critic, and public intellectual.
John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza.
The Élysée Treaty was a treaty of friendship between France and West Germany, signed by President Charles de Gaulle and Chancellor Konrad Adenauer on 22 January 1963 at the Élysée Palace in Paris.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
The Bay of Pigs (Spanish: Bahía de Cochinos) is an inlet of the Gulf of Cazones located on the southern coast of Cuba.
Beersheba, also spelled Beer-Sheva (בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע; بئر السبع), is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Birch Grove was the family mansion of former British prime minister Harold Macmillan, Earl of Stockton, who died there in 1986.
The Birmingham campaign, or Birmingham movement, was a movement organized in early 1963 by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to bring attention to the integration efforts of African Americans in Birmingham, Alabama.
Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brigade 2506 (Brigada Asalto 2506) was the name given to a CIA-sponsored group of Cuban exiles formed in 1960 to attempt the military overthrow of the Cuban government headed by Fidel Castro.
British Guiana was the name of the British colony, part of the British West Indies (Caribbean), on the northern coast of South America, now known as the independent nation of Guyana.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
The Buddhist crisis was a period of political and religious tension in South Vietnam between May and November 1963, characterized by a series of repressive acts by the South Vietnamese government and a campaign of civil resistance, led mainly by Buddhist monks.
Byron Raymond "Whizzer" White (June 8, 1917 – April 15, 2002) was an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
Clarence Douglas Dillon (born Clarence Douglass Dillon; August 21, 1909 – January 10, 2003) was an American diplomat and politician, who served as U.S. Ambassador to France (1953–1957) and as the 57th Secretary of the Treasury (1961–1965).
Camelot is a castle and court associated with the legendary King Arthur.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and centre of the Greater Caracas Area, and the largest city of Venezuela.
Carl Bert Albert (May 10, 1908 – February 4, 2000) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 46th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1971 to 1977, representing Oklahoma's 3rd congressional district as a Democrat from 1947 to 1977.
Carl Vinson (November 18, 1883 – June 1, 1981) was a United States Representative from Georgia.
Carlos Marcello, also known as The Godfather and "The Little Man" (February 6, 1910 – March 2, 1993), was a Sicilian-American mafioso who ruled the New Orleans crime family from 1947 until the 1980s.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The North American Central Time Zone (CT) is a time zone in parts of Canada, the United States, Mexico, Central America, some Caribbean Islands, and part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles Evans Whittaker (February 22, 1901 – November 26, 1973) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1957 to 1962.
Cheddi Berret Jagan (22 March 1918 – 6 March 1997) was a Guyanese politician who was first elected Chief Minister in 1953 and later Premier of British Guiana from 1961 to 1964, prior to independence.
Chester Bliss Bowles (April 5, 1901 – May 25, 1986) was an American diplomat and ambassador, Governor of Connecticut, Congressman and co-founder of a major advertising agency, Benton & Bowles, now part of Publicis Groupe.
The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and thus the head of the United States federal court system, which functions as the judicial branch of the nation's federal government.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The People's Republic of China has developed and possesses weapons of mass destruction, including chemical and nuclear weapons.
CIA activities in Laos started in the 1950s.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
The Community Mental Health Act of 1963 (CMHA) (also known as the Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act, Mental Retardation Facilities and Construction Act, Public Law 88-164, or the Mental Retardation and Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act of 1963) was an act to provide federal funding for community mental health centers and research facilities in the United States.
A concession or concession agreement is a grant of rights, land or property by a government, local authority, corporation, individual or other legal entity.
The Congo Crisis (Crise congolaise) was a period of political upheaval and conflict in the Republic of the Congo (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo) between 1960 and 1965.
The conservative coalition was an unofficial Congressional coalition bringing together a conservative majority of the Republican Party and the conservative, mostly Southern, wing of the Democratic Party.
Containment is a geopolitical strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy.
Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.
The Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) is a United States agency within the Executive Office of the President established in 1946, which advises the President of the United States on economic policy.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
After the establishment of diplomatic ties with the Soviet Union after the Cuban Revolution of 1959, Cuba became increasingly dependent on Soviet markets and military aid, becoming an ally of the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
The Cuban Project, also known as Operation Mongoose, was a covert operation of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that was commissioned in March 1960 during the final year of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's administration.
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
Dallas is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.
David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.
David Elliott Bell (January 19, 1919 – September 6, 2000) was a director of the United States' Office of Management and Budget from January 22, 1961 until December 20, 1962 under President John F. Kennedy.
William David Ormsby-Gore, 5th Baron Harlech (20 May 1918 – 26 January 1985), known as David Ormsby-Gore until 1964, was a British diplomat and Conservative politician.
Dương Văn Minh (16 February 1916 – 6 August 2001), popularly known as Big Minh, was a South Vietnamese politician and a senior general in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and a politician during the presidency of Ngô Đình Diệm.
Dean Gooderham Acheson (pronounced; April 11, 1893 – October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer.
David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
The Deep South is a cultural and geographic subregion in the Southern United States.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
The 1960 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1960 U.S. presidential election.
Deterrence theory gained increased prominence as a military strategy during the Cold War with regard to the use of nuclear weapons.
Dimona (דִּימוֹנָה) is an Israeli city in the Negev desert, to the south of Beersheba and west of the Dead Sea above the Arava valley in the Southern District of Israel.
The Office of United States Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was the head of the American Central Intelligence Agency from 1946 to 2005, acting as the principal intelligence advisor to the President of the United States and the United States National Security Council, as well as the coordinator of intelligence activities among and between the various U.S. intelligence agencies (collectively known as the Intelligence Community from 1981 onwards).
The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation is the head of the FBI, the United States' primary federal law enforcement agency, and is responsible for its day-to-day operations.
Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era in the United States of America was based on a series of laws, new constitutions, and practices in the South that were deliberately used to prevent black citizens from registering to vote and voting.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Donald Howard Yarborough, known as Don Yarborough (December 15, 1925 – September 23, 2009,Tolson, Mike, Houston Chronicle, 2009-09-23, retrieved 2009-09-23), was a liberal Democratic politician who was among the first in the U.S. South to endorse the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was an American jurist and politician who served as the 30th Governor of California (1943–1953) and later the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (1953–1969).
East Berlin existed from 1949 to 1990 and consisted of the Soviet sector of Berlin established in 1945.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political figure, diplomat and activist.
Elections in the United States are held for government officials at the federal, state, and local levels.
The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Equal Pay Act of 1963 is a United States labor law amending the Fair Labor Standards Act, aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex (see Gender pay gap).
Equal pay for equal work is the concept of labor rights that individuals in the same workplace be given equal pay.
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal legal rights for all American citizens regardless of sex; it seeks to end the legal distinctions between men and women in terms of divorce, property, employment, and other matters.
Esther Eggertsen Peterson (December 9, 1906 – December 20, 1997) was a lifelong consumer and women's advocate.
Everett McKinley Dirksen (January 4, 1896 – September 7, 1969) was an American politician of the Republican Party.
The Executive Committee of the National Security Council (commonly referred to as simply the Executive Committee or ExComm) was a body of United States government officials that convened to advise President John F. Kennedy during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.
The Executive Office of the President of the United States (acronyms: EOP) is a group of agencies at the center of the executive branch of the United States federal government.
Executive Order 11063 was signed by President John F. Kennedy on November 20, 1962.
The Fair Deal was an ambitious set of proposals put forward by U.S. President Harry S. Truman to Congress in his January 1949 State of the Union address.
The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (abbreviated as FLSA) is a United States labor law that creates the right to a minimum wage, and "time-and-a-half" overtime pay when people work over forty hours a week.
In United States presidential elections, a faithless elector is a member of the United States Electoral College who does not vote for the presidential or vice-presidential candidate for whom they had pledged to vote.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
Felix Frankfurter (November 15, 1882February 22, 1965) was an American lawyer, professor, and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude".
A fifty-state strategy is a political strategy which aims for progress in all states of the United States of America, rather than conceding certain states as "unwinnable." In a presidential campaign, it is usually implemented as an appeal to a broad base of the American public in an attempt to win, even if marginally, every state, since even a marginal victory is effectively total victory for electoral purposes.
A filibuster in the United States Senate is a dilatory or obstructive tactic used in the United States Senate to prevent a measure from being brought to a vote.
Flexible response was a defense strategy implemented by John F. Kennedy in 1961 to address the Kennedy administration's skepticism of Dwight Eisenhower's New Look and its policy of massive retaliation.
In different administrative and organizational forms, the Food for Peace program of the United States has provided food assistance around the world for more than 50 years.
Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.
France is one of the five "Nuclear Weapons States" under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, but is not known to possess or develop any chemical or biological weapons.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Frederick Nolting (August 24, 1911 – December 14, 1989) was a United States diplomat who he served as United States Ambassador to South Vietnam from 1961 to 1963.
Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and subsequent years to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Morgan v. Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional.
Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (born Rubén Zaldívar; January 16, 1901 – August 6, 1973) was the elected President of Cuba from 1940 to 1944, and U.S.-backed dictator from 1952 to 1959, before being overthrown during the Cuban Revolution.
Furman v. Georgia, was a criminal case in which the United States Supreme Court struck down all death penalty schemes in the United States in a 5–4 decision, with each member of the majority writing a separate opinion.
Galway (Gaillimh) is a city in the West of Ireland, in the province of Connacht.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Gary Warren Hart (born Gary Warren Hartpence; November 28, 1936) is an American politician, diplomat, and lawyer.
George Corley Wallace Jr. (August 25, 1919 – September 13, 1998) was an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive terms and two consecutive terms as a Democrat: 1963–1967, 1971–1979 and 1983–1987.
Major-General Georges-Philéas Vanier (23 April 1888 – 5 March 1967) was a Canadian soldier and diplomat who served as Governor General of Canada, the 19th since Canadian Confederation.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
Golda Meir (גּוֹלְדָּה מֵאִיר;, born Golda Mabovitch, May 3, 1898 – December 8, 1978) was an Israeli teacher, kibbutznik, stateswoman, politician and the fourth Prime Minister of Israel.
The Good Neighbor policy was the foreign policy of the administration of United States President Franklin Roosevelt towards Latin America.
A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Hamilton is the capital of the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda.
Harry Flood Byrd Sr. (June 10, 1887 – October 20, 1966) of Berryville in Clarke County, Virginia, was an American newspaper publisher, and for four decades political leader of the Democratic Party in Virginia as head of a political faction that became known as the Byrd Organization.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (July 5, 1902 – February 27, 1985), sometimes referred to as Henry Cabot Lodge II, was a Republican United States Senator from Massachusetts and a United States ambassador.
Henry D. Irwin (October 22, 1917 – September 3, 1988) was a Republican presidential elector (from Oklahoma) for the 1960 U.S. presidential election who became a "faithless elector" when he declined to vote as pledged.
In political studies, surveys have been conducted in order to construct historical rankings of the success of individuals who have served as President of the United States.
The Hmong/Mong (RPA: Hmoob/Moob) are an indigenous people in Asia.
Hồ Chí Minh (Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr. (May 27, 1911January 13, 1978) was an American politician who served as the 38th Vice President of the United States from 1965 to 1969.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Jack O'Dell (a.k.a. Hunter Pitts O'Dell), born August 11, 1923, is a prominent African-American member of the Civil Rights Movement.
"Ich bin ein Berliner" ("I am a Berliner") is a quotation of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, in a speech given on June 26, 1963, in West Berlin.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the revenue service of the United States federal government.
The International Agreement on the Neutrality of Laos is an international agreement signed in Geneva on July 23, 1962 between 14 states including Laos.
The International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT) is a labor union in the United States and Canada.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), known prior to 1929 as the Turkish Petroleum Company (TPC), is an oil company which, between 1925 and 1961, had a virtual monopoly on all oil exploration and production in Iraq.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Military relations between Israel and the United States have been consistently close, reflecting shared security interests in the Middle East.
Under United States tax law, itemized deductions are eligible expenses that individual taxpayers can claim on federal income tax returns and which decrease their taxable income, and is claimable in place of a standard deduction, if available.
John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was an American law enforcement administrator and the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States.
Jack Leon Ruby (born Jacob Leon Rubenstein; March 25, 1911 – January 3, 1967) was the Dallas, Texas, nightclub owner who fatally shot Lee Harvey Oswald on November 24, 1963, while Oswald was in police custody after being charged with assassinating U.S. President John F. Kennedy and the murder of Dallas policeman J. D. Tippit two days earlier.
James Edwin Webb (October 7, 1906 – March 27, 1992) was an American government official who served as the second administrator of NASA from February 14, 1961 to October 7, 1968.
James Alexander Hood (November 10, 1942 – January 17, 2013) was one of the first African Americans to enroll at the University of Alabama in 1963 and was made famous when Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked him from enrolling at the all-white university, an incident which became known as the "Stand in the Schoolhouse Door".
James Howard Meredith (born June 25, 1933) is a Civil Rights Movement figure, writer, political adviser and Air Force veteran.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jerome Bert Wiesner (May 30, 1915 – October 21, 1994) was a professor of electrical engineering, chosen by President John F. Kennedy as chairman of his Science Advisory Committee (PSAC).
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
James Riddle Hoffa (February 14, 1913 – disappeared July 30, 1975) was an American labor union leader who served as the President of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT) union from 1958 until 1971.
Joseph John Aiuppa (December 1, 1907 – February 22, 1997), also known as "Joey O'Brien" and "Joey Doves", was a Chicago mobster who became a leader of the Chicago Outfit from 1971 until his Federal conviction in 1986.
John Austin Gronouski, Jr. (October 26, 1919January 7, 1996) was the Wisconsin state commissioner of taxation and served as the United States Postmaster General from 1963 until 1965 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
John Bowden Connally Jr. (February 27, 1917June 15, 1993) was an American politician.
John George Diefenbaker (September 18, 1895 – August 16, 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada, serving from June 21, 1957 to April 22, 1963.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
The assassination of John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 has spurred numerous conspiracy theories, which include accusations of involvement of the CIA, the Mafia, sitting Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro, the KGB, or even some combination thereof.
The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum is the presidential library and museum of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, (1917-1963), the 35th President of the United States (1961–1963).
Colonel John Herschel Glenn Jr. (July 18, 1921 – December 8, 2016) was a United States Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, and United States Senator from Ohio.
John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908 - April 29, 2006), also known as Ken Galbraith, was a Canadian-born economist, public official, and diplomat, and a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalism.
John William McCormack (December 21, 1891 – November 22, 1980) was an American politician from Boston, Massachusetts.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
Juan Emilio Bosch Gaviño (June 30, 1909 – November 1, 2001) was a Dominican politician, historian, short story writer, essayist, educator, and the first democratically elected president of the Dominican Republic for a brief time in 1963.
Jury tampering is the crime of unduly attempting to influence the composition and/or decisions of a jury during the course of a trial.
Kenneth Patrick O'Donnell (March 4, 1924 – September 9, 1977) was an American political consultant and the special assistant and appointments secretary to President John F. Kennedy from 1961 until Kennedy's assassination in November 1963.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
The Kinzua Dam, on the Allegheny River in Warren County, Pennsylvania, is one of the largest dams in the United States east of the Mississippi River.
The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
The Ku Klux Klan, commonly called the KKK or simply the Klan, refers to three distinct secret movements at different points in time in the history of the United States.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
The Laotian Civil War (1959–75) was fought between the Communist Pathet Lao (including many North Vietnamese of Lao ancestry) and the Royal Lao Government, with both sides receiving heavy external support in a proxy war between the global Cold War superpowers.
Lawrence Francis O'Brien Jr. (July 7, 1917September 28, 1990) was one of the United States Democratic Party's leading electoral strategists for more than two decades.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was a Marxist and ex-Marine who assassinated United States President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963.
Limerick (Luimneach) is a city in County Limerick, Ireland.
The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
This is a list of presidents of the United States by age.
Below is a list of sovereign states with the dates of their formation (date of their independence or of their constitution), sorted by continent.
There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.
The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed "Dragon Lady", is an American single-jet engine, ultra-high altitude reconnaissance aircraft operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Luther Hartwell Hodges (March 9, 1898October 6, 1974) was a businessman and American politician.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, the March on Washington, or The Great March on Washington, was held in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963.
The Mariner program was a 10-mission program conducted by the American space agency NASA in conjunction with Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
General Maxwell Davenport "Max" Taylor (August 26, 1901 – April 19, 1987) was a senior United States Army officer and diplomat of the mid-20th century.
McGeorge "Mac" Bundy (March 30, 1919 – September 16, 1996) was an American expert in foreign and defense policy, serving as United States National Security Advisor to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson from 1961 through 1966.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is a retired American politician who served as the 65th Governor of Massachusetts, from 1975 to 1979 and again from 1983 to 1991.
The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (MBTA), codified at (although §709 is omitted), is a United States federal law, first enacted in 1916 to implement the convention for the protection of migratory birds between the United States and Great Britain (acting on behalf of Canada).
Michael Joseph Mansfield (March 16, 1903 – October 5, 2001) was an American politician and diplomat.
The minimum wage in the United States is set by US labor law and a range of state and local laws.
The missile gap was the Cold War term used in the US for the perceived superiority of the number and power of the USSR's missiles in comparison with its own (a lack of military parity).
A Moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon.
A mortgage loan, or simply mortgage, is used either by purchasers of real property to raise funds to buy real estate, or alternatively by existing property owners to raise funds for any purpose, while putting a lien on the property being mortgaged.
The Moscow–Washington hotline (formally known in the United States as the Washington–Moscow Direct Communications Link; r) is a system that allows direct communication between the leaders of the United States and the Russian Federation.
A motorcade, or autocade, is a procession of vehicles.
The Multilateral Force (MLF) was an American proposal to produce a fleet of ballistic missile submarines and warships, each manned by international NATO crews, and armed with multiple nuclear-armed Polaris ballistic missiles.
In the United States, the law regarding murder varies by jurisdiction.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The Nassau Agreement, concluded on 21 December 1962, was an agreement negotiated between President of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and Harold Macmillan, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, as a result of a series of meetings by the two leaders over three days in the Bahamas following Kennedy's announcement of his intended cancellation of the Skybolt.
Nassau is the capital and commercial centre of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas.
The Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (79 P.L. 396, 60 Stat. 230) is a United States federal law that created the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) to provide low-cost or free school lunch meals to qualified students through subsidies to schools.
The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (NSA) or at times informally termed the NSC Advisor,The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 1.
The National Youth Administration (NYA) was a New Deal agency sponsored by the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States that focused on providing work and education for Americans between the ages of 16 and 25.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Netherlands New Guinea (Nederlands-Nieuw-Guinea) refers to the Papua region of Indonesia while it was an overseas territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1949 to 1962.
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
The term New Frontier was used by liberal Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy in his acceptance speech in the 1960 United States presidential election to the Democratic National Convention at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum as the Democratic slogan to inspire America to support him.
The New Look was the name given to the national security policy of the United States during the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Ngô Đình Nhu (7 October 1910 – 2 November 1963) was a Vietnamese archivist and politician.
Ngô Đình Diệm (3 January 1901 – 2 November 1963) was a South Vietnamese politician.
Nicholas deBelleville "Nick" Katzenbach (January 17, 1922 – May 8, 2012) was an American lawyer who served as United States Attorney General during the Lyndon B. Johnson administration.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The oath of office of the President of the United States is the oath or affirmation that the President of the United States takes after assuming the presidency but before carrying out any duties of the office.
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP).
The Ole Miss riot of 1962, or Battle of Oxford, was fought between Southern segregationists and federal and state forces beginning the night of September 30, 1962; segregationists were protesting the enrollment of James Meredith, a black US military veteran, at the University of Mississippi (known affectionately as Ole Miss) at Oxford, Mississippi.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
Orville Lothrop Freeman (May 9, 1918February 20, 2003) was an American Democratic politician who served as the 29th Governor of Minnesota from January 5, 1955 to January 2, 1961, and as the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture from 1961 to 1969 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Parkland Memorial Hospital is a hospital in Dallas, Texas, United States.
The Parliament of Ireland was the legislature of the Lordship of Ireland, and later the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1297 until 1800.
Paul A. Freund (February 16, 1908—February 5, 1992) was an American jurist and law professor.
The Peace Corps is a volunteer program run by the United States government.
The PGM-19 Jupiter was the first nuclear tipped, medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) of the United States Air Force (USAF).
Pierre Emil George Salinger (June 14, 1925 – October 16, 2004) was an American journalist, author and politician.
A poll tax is a tax levied as a fixed sum on every liable individual.
Pope Paul VI (Paulus VI; Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini; 26 September 1897 – 6 August 1978) reigned from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978.
In nuclear strategy, a first strike is a preemptive surprise attack employing overwhelming force.
The presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower began on January 20, 1953, when he was inaugurated as the 34th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1961.
The presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson began on November 22, 1963, when Johnson became the 36th President of the United States upon the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, and ended on January 20, 1969.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Presidential Commission on the Status of Women (PCSW) was established to advise the President of the United States on issues concerning the status of women.
In macroeconomics, the price/wage spiral (also called the wage/price spiral or wage-price spiral) represents a vicious circle process in which wage increases cause price increases which in turn cause wage increases, possibly with no answer to which came first.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.
Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, includes the segregation or separation of access to facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines.
A racket is a planned or organized criminal act, usually in which the criminal act is a form of business or a way to earn illegal or extorted money regularly or briefly but repeatedly.
Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).
Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina (24 October 1891 – 30 May 1961), nicknamed El Jefe (The Chief or The Boss), was a Dominican politician, soldier and dictator, who ruled the Dominican Republic from February 1930 until his assassination in May 1961.
Ralph Webster Yarborough (June 8, 1903January 27, 1996) was a Texas Democratic politician who served in the United States Senate from 1957 to 1971 and was a leader of the progressive or liberal wing of his party.
The Ramadan Revolution, also referred to as the 8 February Revolution and the February 1963 coup d'état in Iraq, was a military coup by the Ba'ath Party's Iraqi-wing which overthrew the Prime Minister of Iraq, Abd al-Karim Qasim in 1963.
Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent that lacked the authority to bind the principal legally.
Rómulo Ernesto Betancourt Bello (22 February 1908 – 28 September 1981), known as "The Father of Venezuelan Democracy", was the 47th and 54th President of Venezuela, serving from 1945 to 1948 and again from 1959 to 1964, as well as leader of Acción Democrática, Venezuela's dominant political party in the 20th century.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
The Report to the American People on Civil Rights was a speech on civil rights, delivered on radio and television by United States President John F. Kennedy from the Oval Office on June 11, 1963 in which he proposed legislation that would later become the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
The 1960 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1960 U.S. presidential election.
The United States Revenue Act of 1964, also known as the Tax Reduction Act, was a bipartisan tax cut bill signed by President Lyndon Johnson on February 26, 1964.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Richard Reeves (born 28 November 1936) is a writer, syndicated columnist and lecturer at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles.
Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 64th United States Attorney General from January 1961 to September 1964, and as a U.S. Senator for New York from January 1965 until his assassination in June 1968.
Robert William "Blowtorch Bob" Komer (February 23, 1922 – April 9, 2000) was a key figure in the pacification effort to win South Vietnamese "hearts and minds" during the Vietnam War, heading Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support.
Robert Strange McNamara (June 9, 1916 – July 6, 2009) was an American business executive and the eighth Secretary of Defense, serving from 1961 to 1968 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
Rodger Paul Davies (May 7, 1921 – August 19, 1974) was an American diplomat who was killed in the line of duty on August 19, 1974, in Nicosia, Cyprus.
Roger M. Blough (January 19, 1904 – October 8, 1985) was the chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the United States Steel Corporation for 13½ years, from May 1955 through January 1969.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Salamanca is a town in Cattaraugus County, New York, United States.
Samuel Taliaferro Rayburn (January 6, 1882 – November 16, 1961) was an American politician who served as the 43rd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives.
San José (literally meaning "Saint Joseph") is the capital and largest city of Costa Rica.
Robert Sargent Shriver Jr. (November 9, 1915 – January 18, 2011) was an American diplomat, politician and activist.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Second Bill of Rights is a list of rights that was proposed by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt during his State of the Union Address on Tuesday, January 11, 1944.
The Second Emancipation Proclamation is the term applied to an envisioned executive order that Martin Luther King Jr. and other leaders of the Civil Rights Movement enjoined President John F. Kennedy to issue.
The Seneca are a group of indigenous Iroquoian-speaking people native to North America who historically lived south of Lake Ontario.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 and comprised the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is an African-American civil rights organization.
Southern Democrats are members of the U.S. Democratic Party who reside in the South.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The relations between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) succeeded the previous relations from 1776 to 1917 and predate today's relations that began in 1992.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
The Stand in the Schoolhouse Door took place at Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama on June 11, 1963.
Stanley David Levison (May 2, 1912 – September 12, 1979) was an American businessman and lawyer who became a lifelong activist in progressive causes.
The State of Katanga, also sometimes denoted as the Republic of Katanga, was a breakaway state that proclaimed its independence from the Republic of Congo-Léopoldville on 11 July 1960 under Moise Tshombe, leader of the local ''Confédération des associations tribales du Katanga'' (CONAKAT) political party (Federation of Kata).
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stewart Lee Udall (January 31, 1920 – March 20, 2010) was an American politician and later, a federal government official.
A submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) is a ballistic missile capable of being launched from submarines.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly known as the Food Stamp Program, provides food-purchasing assistance for low- and no-income people living in the United States.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
The tariff history of the United States spans from colonial times to present.
Theodore Chaikin "Ted" Sorensen (May 8, 1928 – October 31, 2010) was an American lawyer, writer, and presidential adviser.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Texas School Book Depository, now known as the Dallas County Administration Building, is a seven-floor building facing Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas, United States.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Enemy Within: The McClellan Committee's Crusade Against Jimmy Hoffa and Corrupt Labor Unions is a book by Robert F. Kennedy first published in 1960, and republished in 1994.
The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara is a 2003 American documentary film about the life and times of former U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara illustrating his observations of the nature of modern warfare.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908January 24, 1993) was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991.
The Treaty of Canandaigua (or Konondaigua, as spelled in the treaty itself) is a treaty signed after the American Revolutionary War between the Grand Council of the Six Nations and President George Washington representing the United States of America.
A Trollope ploy is a negotiation technique named after an incident from an Anthony Trollope novel, in which a woman interprets a casual romantic gesture, such as squeezing her hand, as a marriage proposal.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Twenty-fourth Amendment (Amendment XXIV) of the United States Constitution prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.
United States Steel Corporation, more commonly known as U.S. Steel, is an American integrated steel producer headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, with production operations in the United States, Canada, and Central Europe.
The UGM-27 Polaris missile was a two-stage solid-fueled nuclear-armed submarine-launched ballistic missile.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United Nations Security Council "veto power" refers to the power of the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and United States) to veto any "substantive" resolution.
The United States Ambassador to the United Nations is the leader of the U.S. delegation, the U.S. Mission to the United Nations.
United States antitrust law is a collection of federal and state government laws that regulates the conduct and organization of business corporations, generally to promote fair competition for the benefit of consumers.
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
A congressional committee is a legislative sub-organization in the United States Congress that handles a specific duty (rather than the general duties of Congress).
The United States embargo against Cuba (in Cuba called el bloqueo, "the blockade") is a commercial, economic, and financial embargo imposed by the United States on Cuba.
The United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) was established in 1976 to investigate the assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr. The HSCA completed its investigation in 1978 and issued its final report the following year, concluding that Kennedy was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy.
The United States presidential election in Alabama, 1960 was held on November 8, 1960, as part of that year's national presidential election.
The 1960 United States presidential election in Mississippi took place on November 8, 1960, as part of the 1960 United States presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1956 was the 43rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1956.
The United States presidential election of 1960 was the 44th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1960.
Following is a table of United States presidential elections in Oklahoma, ordered by year.
The inauguration of the President of the United States is a ceremony to mark the commencement of a new four-year term of the President of the United States.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The United States Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in Labor and Management (also known as the McClellan Committee) was a select committee created by the United States Senate on January 30, 1957,Hilty, James.
United States special operations forces (SOF) are components of the Department of Defense's United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM).
Under Secretary of State (U/S) is a title used by senior officials of the United States Department of State who rank above the Assistant Secretaries and below the Deputy Secretaries.
The United States Women's Bureau (WB) is an agency of the United States government within the United States Department of Labor.
The University of Alabama (Alabama or UA) is a public research university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States, and the flagship of the University of Alabama System.
The University of Mississippi (colloquially known as Ole Miss) is an American public research university located in Oxford, Mississippi.
In United States presidential elections, an unpledged elector is a person nominated to stand as an elector but who has not pledged to support any particular presidential or vice presidential candidate, and is free to vote for any candidate when elected a member of the Electoral College.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, or Veep) is a constitutional officer in the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States as the President of the Senate under Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, as well as the second highest executive branch officer, after the President of the United States.
Victor Harry Feguer (1935 – March 15, 1963) was a convicted murderer and the last federal inmate executed in the United States before the moratorium on the death penalty following Furman v. Georgia, and the last person put to death in the state of Iowa.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Vienna summit was a summit meeting held on June 4, 1961, in Vienna, Austria, between President John F. Kennedy of the United States and Premier Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union.
The National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam) also known as the Việt Cộng was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF) – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War, eventually emerging on the winning side.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Vivian Juanita Malone Jones (July 15, 1942 – October 13, 2005) was one of the first two black students to enroll at the University of Alabama in 1963, and in 1965 became the university's first black graduate.
William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891July 26, 1986) was an American Democratic politician, businessman, and diplomat.
William Willard Wirtz Jr. (March 14, 1912 – April 24, 2010) was a U.S. administrator, cabinet officer, attorney, and law professor.
Walter Wolfgang Heller (27 August 1915 – 15 June 1987) was a leading American economist of the 1960s, and an influential adviser to President John F. Kennedy as chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, 1961–64.
The War on Poverty is the unofficial name for legislation first introduced by United States President Lyndon B. Johnson during his State of the Union address on Wednesday, January 8, 1964.
The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as the Warren Commission, was established by President Lyndon B. Johnson through on November 29, 1963 to investigate the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy that had taken place on November 22, 1963.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.
The West New Guinea dispute (1950–1962), also known as the West Irian dispute, was a diplomatic and political conflict between the Netherlands and Indonesia over the territory of Netherlands New Guinea.
Wexford (Yola: Weiseforth) is the county town of County Wexford, Ireland.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The White House Chief of Staff has traditionally been the highest-ranking non-elected employee of the White House.
The Whiz Kids were a group of ten United States Army Air Forces veterans of World War II who became Ford Motor Company executives in 1946.
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
William Henry Hastie, Jr. (November 17, 1904 – April 14, 1976) was an American lawyer, judge, educator, public official, and advocate for the civil rights of African Americans.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
The 14 July Revolution, also known as the 1958 Iraqi coup d'état, took place on 14 July 1958 in Iraq, and resulted in the overthrow of the Hashemite monarchy which had been established by King Faisal I in 1921 under the auspices of the British.
The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing was an act of white supremacist terrorism which occurred at the African American 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, on Sunday, September 15, 1963, when four members of the Ku Klux Klan planted at least 15 sticks of dynamite attached to a timing device beneath the steps located on the east side of the church.
The Geneva Conference was a conference among several nations that took place in Geneva, Switzerland from April 26 – July 20, 1954.
The 1956 National Convention of the Democratic Party nominated former Governor Adlai Stevenson of Illinois for President and Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee for Vice President.
The 1960 Democratic National Convention was held in Los Angeles, California, on July 11–July 15, 1960.
The 1960 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held in Chicago, Illinois, from July 25 to July 28, 1960, at the International Amphitheatre.
On 1 May 1960, a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down by the Soviet Air Defence Forces while performing photographic aerial reconnaissance deep into Soviet territory.
In November 1963, President Ngô Đình Diệm of South Vietnam was deposed by a group of Army of the Republic of Vietnam officers who disagreed with his handling of both the Buddhist crisis and the Viet Cong threat to the regime.
Administration of John F. Kennedy, Camelot years, J.F.K. Administration, JFK administration, John F. Kennedy Administration, John F. Kennedy administration, John F. Kennedy presidency, John F. Kennedy's Administration, John F. Kennedy's administration, Kennedy Administration, Kennedy administration, Kennedy cabinet, Kennedy government, Kennedy presidency, List of international presidential trips made by John F. Kennedy, List of international trips made by John F. Kennedy, Presidency of JFK, United States under John F. Kennedy.