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Presidency of Richard Nixon

Index Presidency of Richard Nixon

The presidency of Richard Nixon began at noon EST on January 20, 1969, when Richard Nixon was inaugurated as 37th President of the United States, and ended on August 9, 1974, when he resigned in the face of almost certain impeachment and removal from office, the first U.S. president ever to do so. [1]

527 relations: A&E Networks, Abe Fortas, Abortion-rights movements, Affirmative action, AFL–CIO, African Americans, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Air Force One, Alain Poher, Albert Brewer, Alexander Butterfield, Alexander Haig, Alexei Kosygin, Alternative minimum tax, American Experience, American Independent Party, Amman, Anatoly Dobrynin, Ancient Rome, Anna Chennault, António de Spínola, Anti-ballistic missile, Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, Anwar Sadat, Apollo 11, Apollo program, Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, Archibald Cox, Army of the Republic of Vietnam, Arthur F. Burns, Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy, Augusto Pinochet, Ólafur Jóhannesson, Balance of trade, Ballistic missile submarine, Baltimore County, Maryland, Barry Goldwater, Baudouin of Belgium, Bay of Pigs Invasion, Beijing, Belgrade, Black propaganda, Bob Woodward, Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, Bonn, Bretton Woods system, Bribery, Bring Us Together, Brokered convention, Bruno Kreisky, ..., Brussels, Bucharest, Bundestag, Buzz Aldrin, C-SPAN, Caligula, Cambodia, Cambodian Campaign, Cambodian Civil War, Camp David, Carl Albert, Carl Bernstein, Carl J. Gilbert, Caspar Weinberger, CBS, Chairman of the Communist Party of China, Chappaquiddick incident, Charles Colson, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Rebozo, Chicago, Chicago Seven, Chief Justice of the United States, Chilean presidential election, 1970, China, Chinese Civil War, Cienfuegos, Citizenship in a Republic, Claude Brinegar, Clean Air Act (United States), Clean Water Act, Clement Haynsworth, Clifford M. Hardin, CNN, Cold War, Coming into force, Committee for the Re-Election of the President, Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974, Conrad Black, Conscription in the United States, Consent of the governed, Conservatism in the United States, Consul, Consumer Product Safety Act, Cost sharing, Counterculture of the 1960s, County executive, Cuban Missile Crisis, Damascus, Daniel Ellsberg, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, David M. Kennedy, Détente, Dĩ An, Democratic Caucus of the United States Senate, Democratic National Committee, Democratic Party presidential primaries, 1968, Desegregation, Desegregation busing, Devolution, Draft evasion, Draft lottery (1969), Drug Enforcement Administration, E. Howard Hunt, Earl Butz, Earl Warren, East Room, Easter Offensive, Eastern Time Zone, Economic sanctions, Edmund Muskie, Edward Gierek, Edward Heath, Egypt, El Mercurio, Electoral College (United States), Electroconvulsive therapy, Elliot Richardson, End Stage Renal Disease Program, Endangered Species Act of 1973, Environmental movement in the United States, Ephraim Katzir, Equal Rights Amendment, Eugene McCarthy, Executive Office of the President of the United States, Executive privilege, Faisal of Saudi Arabia, Faithless elector, False flag, Federal Election Campaign Act, Federal government of the United States, Ferdinand Marcos, Fidel Castro, Fighter aircraft, Fixed exchange-rate system, Forbidden City, Foreign policy of the United States, Four Power Agreement on Berlin, Francisco Franco, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Frederick B. Dent, Front-runner, G. Gordon Liddy, G. Harrold Carswell, Gamal Abdel Nasser, George McGovern, George P. Shultz, George Romney presidential campaign, 1968, George W. Romney, George Wallace, Georges Pompidou, Gerald Ford, Giovanni Leone, Giuseppe Saragat, Gold standard, Government contractor, Governor of Maryland, Grand juries in the United States, Great Lakes Areas of Concern, Great Society, Great Wall of China, Gross domestic product, Guaranteed minimum income, H. R. Haldeman, Hafez al-Assad, Hangzhou, Harold Wilson, Harry Blackmun, Health maintenance organization, Health Maintenance Organization Act of 1973, Health Resources and Services Administration, Helmut Schmidt, Helsinki Accords, Henry Kissinger, Henry M. Jackson, Historical rankings of presidents of the United States, Ho Chi Minh City, Hubert Humphrey, Hugo Black, Hussein of Jordan, Impeachment in the United States, Impeachment process against Richard Nixon, Impoundment of appropriated funds, Incumbent, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Inflation, Iran, Israel, Ivy League, J. Edgar Hoover, Jack Lynch, Jackson–Vanik amendment, Jakarta, James C. Corman, James Day Hodgson, James R. Schlesinger, James Thomas Lynn, Jedda, Jerusalem, Job Corps, John C. Calhoun, John Connally, John Dean, John Ehrlichman, John F. Kennedy, John Foster Dulles, John M. Ashbrook, John Marshall Harlan II, John N. Mitchell, John Sirica, John Volpe, Jonathan Aitken, Josip Broz Tito, Kakuei Tanaka, Kennedy family, Kent State shootings, Kent State University, Khmer Rouge, Kiev, Kristján Eldjárn, Lahore, Lajes Field, Landslide victory, Laos, Latin America, Leo Tindemans, Leon Jaworski, Leonid Brezhnev, Lewis F. Powell Jr., Libya, Lin Biao, List of Presidents of the United States, List of United States presidential elections by popular vote margin, Lists of protests against the Vietnam War, Lon Nol, London, Louis Wolfson, Lyndon B. Johnson, Madman theory, Mao Zedong, Marcelo Caetano, Mariano Rumor, Martha Griffiths, Martin Luther King Jr., Maryland, Maurice Stans, McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, Medicaid, Medical research, Medicare (United States), Melvin Laird, Melvin Small, Mental health, Miami Beach, Florida, Mike Mansfield, Miller Center of Public Affairs, Milliken v. Bradley, Ming tombs, Minority Business Development Agency, Minsk, Model Cities Program, Mohammad Hidayatullah, Moon, Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam, Moscow, Moscow Summit (1972), Most favoured nation, Muammar Gaddafi, Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle, NASA, National Cancer Institute, National Environmental Policy Act, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, National Institutes of Health, National Security Advisor (United States), NATO, Negative income tax, Neil Armstrong, Nelson Rockefeller, New Federalism, New York Times Co. v. United States, News leak, Nguyễn Văn Thiệu, Nicolae Ceaușescu, Nikolai Podgorny, Nixon Doctrine, Nixonland, No-knock warrant, Noise Control Act, Noise pollution, Nolo contendere, Norodom Sihanouk, North Vietnam, Nuclear weapons and Israel, Obstruction of justice, Occupational Safety and Health Act (United States), Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Office of Economic Opportunity, Office of Management and Budget, Ogg, Ohio Army National Guard, OPEC, Operation Freedom Deal, Operation Lam Son 719, Operation Linebacker, Operation Linebacker II, Operation Menu, Oreanda, Oregon v. Mitchell, Ostpolitik, Pakistan, Pardon of Richard Nixon, Paris, Paris Peace Accords, Party switching in the United States, PBS, Peace with Honor, Pentagon Papers, People's Army of Vietnam, Pete McCloskey, Peter George Peterson, Peter J. Brennan, Philadelphia, Pierre Trudeau, Ping-pong diplomacy, Poland, Political Research Quarterly, Political status of Taiwan, Politico, Pope Paul VI, Postal Reorganization Act, Postal worker, Poul Hartling, Poverty in the United States, Premier of the People's Republic of China, Presidency of Gerald Ford, Presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the United States, Presidential Succession Act, Price controls, Prime time, Private healthcare, Promise, Puerto Vallarta, Queen Fabiola of Belgium, Racial integration, Racial segregation in the United States, Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, RAF Mildenhall, Ratification, Republican National Committee, Republican Party (United States), Republican Party presidential primaries, 1968, Republican Party presidential primaries, 1972, Revised Philadelphia Plan, Reykjavík, Richard Kleindienst, Richard Nixon, Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China, Richard Nixon's resignation speech, Robert Bork, Robert F. Kennedy, Robert Finch (American politician), Robert Mayo, Rockefeller Republican, Roger Mudd, Rogers Morton, Rogers Plan, Role of the United States in the Vietnam War, Romania, Rome, Ronald Reagan, Rose Mary Woods, Routledge, Roy Ash, Russell B. Long, Russell E. Train, Saint Petersburg, Salvador Allende, Salzburg, Sam Ervin, Sargent Shriver, Saturday Night Massacre, Saudi Arabia, Second World, Selective Service System, Shanghai, Shortage, Sickle cell disease, Silent majority, Silent Spring, Single-payer healthcare, Sino-Soviet border conflict, Sino-Soviet split, Sirhan Sirhan, Six-Day War, Social conservatism, Social programs in the United States, Social Security (United States), South Vietnam, Soviet space program, Soviet Union, Soyuz programme, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Special prosecutor, Spiro Agnew, Stagflation, Stephen E. Ambrose, Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, Suharto, Supersonic transport, Supplemental Security Income, Supreme Court of the United States, Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, Syria, Table tennis, Taiwan, Tax evasion, Tax Reform Act of 1969, Ted Kennedy, Tel Aviv, Terceira Island, The New York Times, The Washington Post, Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Eagleton, Thomas O. Paine, Threshold Test Ban Treaty, Timahoe, Time (magazine), Tip O'Neill, Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, U.S. state, Unindicted co-conspirator, United Automobile Workers, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758, United Press International, United States courts of appeals, United States Department of Defense, United States Department of Justice, United States Department of State, United States Department of the Treasury, United States district court, United States Domestic Policy Council, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States House Committee on the Judiciary, United States House Committee on Ways and Means, United States House of Representatives, United States National Security Council, United States non-interventionism, United States Post Office Department, United States Postal Service, United States presidential election, 1960, United States presidential election, 1968, United States presidential election, 1972, United States presidential inauguration, United States presidential line of succession, United States presidential transition, United States Senate, United States Senate Committee on Finance, United States Senate Watergate Committee, United States v. Nixon, Universal health care, University of Virginia Center for Politics, Veto, Vice President of the United States, Vietnam War, Voting Rights Act of 1965, Wage, Wally Hickel, War on Cancer, War Powers Resolution, Warren Court, Warren E. Burger, Warsaw, Washington, D.C., Watergate complex, Watergate scandal, Watergate Seven, Welfare queen, Welfare trap, West Berlin, West Germany, White ethnic, White House, White House Counsel, Whitney Young, Wilbur Mills, William B. Saxbe, William Denman Eberle, William E. Simon, William P. Rogers, William Rehnquist, William Ruckelshaus, Willy Brandt, Winton M. Blount, World Bank, Yahya Khan, Yalta, Yitzhak Rabin, Yom Kippur War, Yugoslavia, Zagreb, Zhou Enlai, 1968 Democratic National Convention, 1968 Democratic National Convention protest activity, 1968 Republican National Convention, 1971 World Table Tennis Championships, 1972 Democratic National Convention, 1972 Republican National Convention, 1973 Chilean coup d'état, 1973 oil crisis, 1973–74 stock market crash, 1974 Brussels summit. Expand index (477 more) »

A&E Networks

A&E Networks (branded as A+E Networks) is a US media company that owns a group of television channels available via cable & satellite in the U.S. and abroad.

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Abe Fortas

Abraham "Abe" Fortas (June 19, 1910 – April 5, 1982) was a U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice from 1965 to 1969.

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Abortion-rights movements

Abortion-rights movements, also referred to as pro-choice movements, advocate for legal access to induced abortion services.

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Affirmative action

Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.

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AFL–CIO

The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) is the largest federation of unions in the United States.

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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.

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Aid to Families with Dependent Children

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was a federal assistance program in effect from 1935 to 1996 created by the Social Security Act (SSA) and administered by the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provided financial assistance to children whose families had low or no income.

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Air Force One

Air Force One is the official air traffic control call sign for a United States Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States.

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Alain Poher

Alain Émile Louis Marie Poher (17 April 1909 – 9 December 1996) was a French centrist politician, affiliated first with the Popular Republican Movement and later with the Democratic Centre.

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Albert Brewer

Albert Preston Brewer (October 26, 1928 – January 2, 2017) was an American politician who was the 47th Governor of Alabama from May 7, 1968 until January 18, 1971.

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Alexander Butterfield

Alexander Porter Butterfield (born April 6, 1926) is a retired U.S. military officer, public servant, and businessman.

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Alexander Haig

Alexander Meigs "Al" Haig Jr. (December 2, 1924February 20, 2010) was the United States secretary of state under President Ronald Reagan and the White House chief of staff under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.

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Alexei Kosygin

Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (p; – 18 December 1980) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.

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Alternative minimum tax

The alternative minimum tax (AMT) is a supplemental income tax imposed by the United States federal government required in addition to baseline income tax for certain individuals, corporations, estates, and trusts that have exemptions or special circumstances allowing for lower payments of standard income tax.

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American Experience

American Experience is a television program airing on Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television stations in the United States.

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American Independent Party

The American Independent Party (AIP) is a far-right political party in the United States that was established in 1967.

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Amman

Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.

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Anatoly Dobrynin

Anatoly Fyodorovich Dobrynin (Анатолий Фёдорович Добрынин, 16 November 1919 – 6 April 2010) was a Russian statesman and a Soviet diplomat and politician.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Anna Chennault

Anna Chennault, born Chan Sheng Mai later spelt Chen Xiangmei (陳香梅, actual birth year 1923 but reported as June 23, 1925 – March 30, 2018), also known as Anna Chan Chennault or Anna Chen Chennault, was a war correspondent and prominent Republican member of the US China Lobby.

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António de Spínola

António Sebastião Ribeiro de Spínola (generally referred to as António de Spínola,;This surname, however, was not accompanied by the grammatical nobiliary particle "de". 11 April 1910 – 13 August 1996) was a Portuguese military officer, author and conservative politician who played an important role in Portugal's transition to democracy following the Carnation Revolution.

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Anti-ballistic missile

An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a surface-to-air missile designed to counter ballistic missiles (see missile defense).

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Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty or ABMT) (1972—2002) was an arms control treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against ballistic missile-delivered nuclear weapons.

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Anwar Sadat

Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات, Egyptian muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.

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Apollo 11

Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.

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Apollo program

The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.

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Apollo–Soyuz Test Project

The Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) (Экспериментальный полёт «Аполлон» - «Союз» (ЭПАС), Eksperimentalniy polyot Apollon-Soyuz, lit. "Experimental flight Apollo-Soyuz", commonly referred to by the Soviets as "Soyuz-Apollo"), conducted in July 1975, was the first joint U.S.–Soviet space flight, as a symbol of the policy of détente that the two superpowers were pursuing at the time.

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Archibald Cox

Archibald "Archie" Cox Jr. (May 17, 1912 – May 29, 2004) was an American lawyer and law professor who served as U.S. Solicitor General under President John F. Kennedy and later as a special prosecutor during the Watergate scandal.

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Army of the Republic of Vietnam

The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), also known as the South Vietnamese army (SVA), were the ground forces of the South Vietnamese military from its inception in 1955 until the Fall of Saigon in 1975.

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Arthur F. Burns

Arthur Frank Burns (August 27, 1904June 26, 1987) was an American economist.

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Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy

On June 5, 1968, presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy was mortally wounded shortly after midnight PDT at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles.

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Augusto Pinochet

Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean general, politician and the dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.

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Ólafur Jóhannesson

Ólafur Jóhannesson (1 March 1913 – 20 May 1984) was the fifteenth Prime Minister of Iceland for the Progressive Party on two occasions.

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Balance of trade

The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period.

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Ballistic missile submarine

A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.

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Baltimore County, Maryland

Baltimore County is located in the U.S. state of Maryland.

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Barry Goldwater

Barry Morris Goldwater (January 2, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was an American politician, businessman, and author who was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–65, 1969–87) and the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 1964.

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Baudouin of Belgium

Baudouin (Boudewijn, Balduin; 7 September 1930 – 31 July 1993) reigned as the fifth King of the Belgians, following his father's abdication, from 1951 until his death in 1993.

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Bay of Pigs Invasion

The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.

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Beijing

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Belgrade

Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.

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Black propaganda

Black propaganda is false information and material that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side.

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Bob Woodward

Robert Upshur Woodward (born March 26, 1943) is an American investigative journalist and non-fiction author.

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Boeing B-52 Stratofortress

The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber.

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Bonn

The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.

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Bretton Woods system

The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.

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Bribery

Bribery is the act of giving or receiving something of value in exchange for some kind of influence or action in return, that the recipient would otherwise not alter.

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Bring Us Together

"Bring Us Together" was a political slogan popularized after the election of Republican candidate Richard Nixon as United States President in 1968.

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Brokered convention

In United States politics, a brokered convention (sometimes referred to as an open convention and closely related to a contested convention) can occur during a presidential election when a political party fails to choose a nominee on the first round of delegate voting at the party's nominating convention.

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Bruno Kreisky

Bruno Kreisky (22 January 1911 – 29 July 1990) was an Austrian politician who served as Foreign Minister from 1959 to 1966 and as Chancellor from 1970 to 1983.

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Brussels

Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.

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Bucharest

Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.

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Bundestag

The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.

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Buzz Aldrin

Buzz Aldrin (born Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr.; January 20, 1930) is an American engineer, former astronaut, and Command Pilot in the United States Air Force.

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C-SPAN

C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.

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Caligula

Caligula (Latin: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD) was Roman emperor from AD 37 to AD 41.

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Cambodia

Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Cambodian Campaign

The Cambodian Campaign (also known as the Cambodian Incursion and the Cambodian Invasion) was a series of military operations conducted in eastern Cambodia during 1970 by the United States and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) as an extension of the Vietnam War and the Cambodian Civil War.

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Cambodian Civil War

The Cambodian Civil War (សង្គ្រាមស៊ីវិលកម្ពុជា) was a military conflict that pitted the forces of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (known as the Khmer Rouge) and their allies the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the Viet Cong against the government forces of the Kingdom of Cambodia and, after October 1970, the Khmer Republic, which were supported by the United States (U.S.) and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam).

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Camp David

Camp David is the country retreat for the President of the United States.

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Carl Albert

Carl Bert Albert (May 10, 1908 – February 4, 2000) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 46th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1971 to 1977, representing Oklahoma's 3rd congressional district as a Democrat from 1947 to 1977.

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Carl Bernstein

Carl Bernstein (born February 14, 1944) is an American investigative journalist and author.

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Carl J. Gilbert

Carl Joyce Gilbert (born 1906, Bloomfield, New Jersey, died November 13, 1983, Boston, Massachusetts) was the United States Trade Representative from 1969-71.

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Caspar Weinberger

Caspar Willard "Cap" Weinberger (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006) was an American politician and businessman.

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CBS

CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation.

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Chairman of the Communist Party of China

The Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was the head of the Communist Party of China (CPC).

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Chappaquiddick incident

The Chappaquiddick incident was a single-vehicle car accident that occurred on Chappaquiddick Island, Massachusetts, on Friday, The late night accident was caused by Senator Ted Kennedy's negligence, and resulted in the death of his 28-year-old passenger, Mary Jo Kopechne, who was trapped inside According to his testimony, Kennedy accidentally drove his car off the one-lane bridge and into the tide-swept Poucha Pond.

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Charles Colson

Charles Wendell "Chuck" Colson (October 16, 1931 – April 21, 2012) served as Special Counsel to President Richard Nixon from 1969 to 1973.

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Charles de Gaulle

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.

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Charles Rebozo

Charles Gregory "Bebe" Rebozo (November 17, 1912 – May 8, 1998) was a Florida banker and businessman who became infamous for being a friend and confidant of President Richard Nixon.

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Chicago

Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.

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Chicago Seven

The Chicago Seven (originally Chicago Eight, also Conspiracy Eight/Conspiracy Seven) were seven defendants—Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, David Dellinger, Tom Hayden, Rennie Davis, John Froines, and Lee Weiner—charged by the federal government with conspiracy, inciting to riot, and other charges related to anti-Vietnam War and countercultural protests that took place in Chicago, Illinois, on the occasion of the 1968 Democratic National Convention.

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Chief Justice of the United States

The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and thus the head of the United States federal court system, which functions as the judicial branch of the nation's federal government.

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Chilean presidential election, 1970

Presidential elections were held in Chile on 4 September 1970.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese Civil War

The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).

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Cienfuegos

Cienfuegos, capital of Cienfuegos Province, is a city on the southern coast of Cuba.

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Citizenship in a Republic

Citizenship in a Republic is the title of a speech given by the former President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt, at the Sorbonne in Paris, France on April 23, 1910.

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Claude Brinegar

Claude Stout Brinegar (December 16, 1926 – March 13, 2009) was the third United States Secretary of Transportation, serving from February 2, 1973, to February 1, 1975.

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Clean Air Act (United States)

The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C.) is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level.

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Clean Water Act

The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution.

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Clement Haynsworth

Clement Furman Haynsworth Jr. (October 30, 1912 – November 22, 1989), was a United States judge and an unsuccessful nominee for the United States Supreme Court.

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Clifford M. Hardin

Clifford Morris Hardin (October 9, 1915April 4, 2010) was an American politician and was the Chancellor of the University of Nebraska.

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CNN

Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Coming into force

Coming into force or entry into force (also called commencement) refers to the process by which legislation, regulations, treaties and other legal instruments come to have legal force and effect.

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Committee for the Re-Election of the President

The Committee for the Re-Election of the President (also known as the Committee to Re-elect the President), officially abbreviated CRP but often mocked by the acronym CREEP, was a fundraising organization of United States President Richard Nixon's administration.

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Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974

The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 is a United States federal law that governs the role of the Congress in the United States budget process.

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Conrad Black

Conrad Moffat Black, Baron Black of Crossharbour, KSG (born 25 August 1944) is a British former newspaper publisher, author.

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Conscription in the United States

Conscription in the United States, commonly known as the draft, has been employed by the federal government of the United States in five conflicts: the American Revolution, the American Civil War, World War I, World War II, and the Cold War (including both the Korean War and the Vietnam War).

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Consent of the governed

In political philosophy, the phrase consent of the governed refers to the idea that a government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and lawful when consented to by the people or society over which that political power is exercised.

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Conservatism in the United States

American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral absolutism, free markets and free trade, anti-communism, individualism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism.

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Consul

Consul (abbrev. cos.; Latin plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire.

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Consumer Product Safety Act

The Consumer Safety Act (CPSA) was enacted on October 27th, 1972 by the United States Congress.

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Cost sharing

In health care, cost sharing occurs when patients pay for a portion of health care costs not covered by health insurance.

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Counterculture of the 1960s

The counterculture of the 1960s refers to an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon that developed first in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) and then spread throughout much of the Western world between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s, with London, New York City, and San Francisco being hotbeds of early countercultural activity.

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County executive

A county executive is the head of the executive branch of government in a United States county.

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Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.

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Damascus

Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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Daniel Ellsberg

Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is an American activist and former United States military analyst who, while employed by the RAND Corporation, precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of U.S. government decision-making in relation to the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.

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Daniel Patrick Moynihan

Daniel Patrick "Pat" Moynihan (March 16, 1927 – March 26, 2003) was an American politician, sociologist, and diplomat.

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David M. Kennedy

David Matthew Kennedy (July 21, 1905May 1, 1996) was an American politician and businessman.

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Détente

Détente (meaning "relaxation") is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation.

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Dĩ An

Dĩ An is a town of Bình Dương Province in the Southeast region of Vietnam, about 20 km north of Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon).

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Democratic Caucus of the United States Senate

The Democratic Caucus of the United States Senate (sometimes referred to as the Democratic Conference) is the formal organization of all senators who are part of the Democratic Party in the United States Senate.

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Democratic National Committee

The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the formal governing body for the United States Democratic Party.

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Democratic Party presidential primaries, 1968

The 1968 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1968 U.S. presidential election.

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Desegregation

Desegregation is the process of ending the separation of two groups usually referring to races.

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Desegregation busing

Desegregation busing in the United States (also known as forced busing or simply busing) is the practice of assigning and transporting students to schools so as to redress prior racial segregation of schools, or to overcome the effects of residential segregation on local school demographics.

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Devolution

Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.

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Draft evasion

Draft evasion is any successful attempt to elude a government-imposed obligation to serve in the military forces of one's nation.

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Draft lottery (1969)

On December 1, 1969, the Selective Service System of the United States conducted two lotteries to determine the order of call to military service in the Vietnam War for men born from 1944 to 1950.

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Drug Enforcement Administration

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.

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E. Howard Hunt

Everette Howard Hunt Jr. (October 9, 1918 – January 23, 2007), better known as E. Howard Hunt, was an American intelligence officer and published author of 73 books.

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Earl Butz

Earl Lauer Butz (July 3, 1909 – February 2, 2008) was a United States government official who served as Secretary of Agriculture under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.

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Earl Warren

Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was an American jurist and politician who served as the 30th Governor of California (1943–1953) and later the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (1953–1969).

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East Room

The East Room is an event and reception room in the White House, the home of the President of the United States.

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Easter Offensive

The Easter Offensive, officially known as The 1972 Spring - Summer Offensive (Chiến dịch Xuân Hè 1972) by North Vietnam and NLF, or Red fiery summer (Mùa hè đỏ lửa) as romanticized in South Vietnamese literature, was a military campaign conducted by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN, the regular army of North Vietnam) against the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN, the regular army of South Vietnam) and the United States military between 30 March and 22 October 1972, during the Vietnam War.

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Eastern Time Zone

The Eastern Time Zone (ET) is a time zone encompassing 17 U.S. states in the eastern part of the contiguous United States, parts of eastern Canada, the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico, Panama in Central America, and the Caribbean Islands.

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Economic sanctions

Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.

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Edmund Muskie

Edmund Sixtus Muskie (March 28, 1914March 26, 1996) was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 58th United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter, a United States Senator from Maine from 1959 to 1980, the 64th Governor of Maine from 1955 to 1959, a member of the Maine House of Representatives from 1946 to 1951, and the Democratic Party's candidate for Vice President of the United States in the 1968 election.

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Edward Gierek

Edward Gierek (6 January 1913 – 29 July 2001) was a Polish communist politician.

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Edward Heath

Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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El Mercurio

El Mercurio is a Chilean newspaper with editions in Valparaíso and Santiago.

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Electoral College (United States)

The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.

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Electroconvulsive therapy

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, and often referred to as shock treatment, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from mental disorders.

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Elliot Richardson

Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.

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End Stage Renal Disease Program

In 1972 the United States Congress passed legislation authorizing the End Stage Renal Disease Program (ESRD) under Medicare.

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Endangered Species Act of 1973

The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is one of the few dozens of US environmental laws passed in the 1970s, and serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

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Environmental movement in the United States

In the United States today, the organized environmental movement is represented by a wide range of organizations sometimes called non-governmental organizations or NGOs.

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Ephraim Katzir

Ephraim Katzir (אפרים קציר Efrayim Katsir; 16 May 1916 – 30 May 2009) was an Israeli biophysicist and Israeli Labor Party politician.

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Equal Rights Amendment

The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal legal rights for all American citizens regardless of sex; it seeks to end the legal distinctions between men and women in terms of divorce, property, employment, and other matters.

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Eugene McCarthy

Eugene Joseph McCarthy (March 29, 1916December 10, 2005) was an American politician, poet, and a long-time Congressman from Minnesota.

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Executive Office of the President of the United States

The Executive Office of the President of the United States (acronyms: EOP) is a group of agencies at the center of the executive branch of the United States federal government.

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Executive privilege

Executive privilege is the power of the President of the United States and other members of the executive branch of the United States Government to resist certain subpoenas and other interventions by the legislative and judicial branches of government in pursuit of information or personnel relating to the executive.

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Faisal of Saudi Arabia

Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود; 14 April 1906 – 25 March 1975) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975.

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Faithless elector

In United States presidential elections, a faithless elector is a member of the United States Electoral College who does not vote for the presidential or vice-presidential candidate for whom they had pledged to vote.

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False flag

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

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Federal Election Campaign Act

The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (FECA,, et seq.) is the primary United States federal law regulating political campaign spending and fundraising.

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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Ferdinand Marcos

Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat who was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.

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Fidel Castro

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.

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Fighter aircraft

A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.

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Fixed exchange-rate system

A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.

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Forbidden City

The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China.

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Foreign policy of the United States

The foreign policy of the United States is its interactions with foreign nations and how it sets standards of interaction for its organizations, corporations and system citizens of the United States.

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Four Power Agreement on Berlin

The Four Power Agreement on Berlin also known as the Berlin Agreement or the Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin was agreed on 3 September 1971 by the four wartime Allied powers, represented by their ambassadors.

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Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, also known as Fred Hutch or The Hutch, is a cancer research institute established in 1972 in Seattle, Washington.

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Frederick B. Dent

Frederick Baily Dent (born August 17, 1922) is a former American businessman who served as the United States Secretary of Commerce from February 2, 1973, to March 26, 1975, during the administrations of U.S. Presidents Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford, Jr. His assistant secretary, Hastings Wyman, a native of Aiken, South Carolina, became a political consultant and in 1978 the publisher of The Southern Political Report.

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Front-runner

In American politics, a front-runner or frontrunner is a leader in an electoral race.

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G. Gordon Liddy

George Gordon Battle Liddy (born November 30, 1930), known as G. Gordon Liddy, is a former FBI agent, lawyer, talk show host, actor, and figure in the Watergate scandal as the chief operative in the White House Plumbers unit during the Nixon Administration.

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G. Harrold Carswell

George Harrold Carswell (December 22, 1919 – July 13, 1992) was a federal judge and an unsuccessful nominee to the United States Supreme Court.

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Gamal Abdel Nasser

Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.

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George McGovern

George Stanley McGovern (July 19, 1922 – October 21, 2012) was an American historian, author, U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator, and the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the 1972 presidential election.

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George P. Shultz

George Pratt Shultz (born December 13, 1920) is an American economist, elder statesman, and businessman.

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George Romney presidential campaign, 1968

George Romney ran for the 1968 Republican Party nomination in the 1968 United States presidential election.

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George W. Romney

George Wilcken Romney (July 8, 1907 – July 26, 1995) was an American businessman and Republican Party politician.

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George Wallace

George Corley Wallace Jr. (August 25, 1919 – September 13, 1998) was an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive terms and two consecutive terms as a Democrat: 1963–1967, 1971–1979 and 1983–1987.

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Georges Pompidou

Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 19112 April 1974) was Prime Minister of France from 1962 to 1968—the longest tenure in the position's history—and later President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974.

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Gerald Ford

Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.

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Giovanni Leone

Giovanni Leone (3 November 1908 – 9 November 2001) was an Italian politician.

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Giuseppe Saragat

Giuseppe Saragat (19 September 1898 – 11 June 1988) was an Italian politician who was the fifth President of the Italian Republic from 1964 to 1971.

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Gold standard

A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.

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Government contractor

A government contractor is a company (privately owned or publicly traded but not a state-owned enterprise)either for profit or non-profitthat produces goods or services under contract for the government.

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Governor of Maryland

The Governor of Maryland heads the executive branch of the government of the State of Maryland, and is the commander-in-chief of the state's National Guard units.

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Grand juries in the United States

The United States is one of only two common law jurisdictions in the world, along with Liberia, that continues to use the grand jury to screen criminal indictments.

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Great Lakes Areas of Concern

Great Lakes Areas of Concern are designated geographic areas within the Great Lakes Basin that show severe environmental degradation.

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Great Society

The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65.

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Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Guaranteed minimum income

Guaranteed minimum income (GMI), also called minimum income, is a system of social welfare provision that guarantees that all citizens or families have an income sufficient to live on, provided they meet certain conditions.

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H. R. Haldeman

Harry Robbins "Bob" Haldeman (October 27, 1926 – November 12, 1993) was an American political aide and businessman, best known for his service as White House Chief of Staff to President Richard Nixon and his consequent involvement in the Watergate Affair.

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Hafez al-Assad

Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.

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Hangzhou

Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.

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Harold Wilson

James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.

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Harry Blackmun

Harry Andrew Blackmun (November 12, 1908March 4, 1999) was an American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1970 until 1994.

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Health maintenance organization

In the United States, a health maintenance organization (HMO) is a medical insurance group that provides health services for a fixed annual fee.

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Health Maintenance Organization Act of 1973

The Health Maintenance Organization Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-222 codified as 42 U.S.C. §300e) is a United States statute enacted on December 29, 1973.

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Health Resources and Services Administration

The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services located in Rockville, Maryland.

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Helmut Schmidt

Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (23 December 1918 – 10 November 2015) was a German politician and member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), who served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1974 to 1982.

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Helsinki Accords

The Helsinki Accords, Helsinki Final Act, or Helsinki Declaration was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Finlandia Hall of Helsinki, Finland, during July and August 1, 1975.

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Henry Kissinger

Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.

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Henry M. Jackson

Henry Martin "Scoop" Jackson (May 31, 1912 – September 1, 1983) was an American politician who served as a U.S. Representative (1941–1953) and U.S. Senator (1953–1983) from the state of Washington.

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Historical rankings of presidents of the United States

In political studies, surveys have been conducted in order to construct historical rankings of the success of individuals who have served as President of the United States.

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Ho Chi Minh City

Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or; formerly Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville), also widely known by its former name of Saigon (Sài Gòn; or), is the largest city in Vietnam by population.

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Hubert Humphrey

Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr. (May 27, 1911January 13, 1978) was an American politician who served as the 38th Vice President of the United States from 1965 to 1969.

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Hugo Black

Hugo Lafayette Black (February 27, 1886 – September 25, 1971) was an American politician and jurist who served in the United States Senate from 1927 to 1937, and as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1937 to 1971.

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Hussein of Jordan

Hussein bin Talal (الحسين بن طلال, Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ṭalāl; 14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999) reigned as King of Jordan from 11 August 1952 until his death.

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Impeachment in the United States

Impeachment in the United States is the process by which the lower house of a legislature brings charges against a civil officer of government for crimes alleged to have been committed, analogous to the bringing of an indictment by a grand jury.

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Impeachment process against Richard Nixon

An impeachment process against Richard Nixon was formally initiated on February 6, 1974, when the United States House of Representatives passed a resolution,, giving its Judiciary Committee authority to investigate whether sufficient grounds existed to impeach Richard Nixon, the 37th President of the United States of high crimes and misdemeanors, primarily related to the Watergate scandal.

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Impoundment of appropriated funds

Impoundment is an act by a President of the United States of not spending money that has been appropriated by the U.S. Congress.

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Incumbent

The incumbent is the current holder of a political office.

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Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971.

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Inflation

In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Ivy League

The Ivy League is a collegiate athletic conference comprising sports teams from eight private universities in the Northeastern United States.

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J. Edgar Hoover

John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was an American law enforcement administrator and the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States.

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Jack Lynch

John Mary Lynch (15 August 1917 – 20 October 1999), known as Jack Lynch, was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as Taoiseach from 1966 to 1973 and 1977 to 1979, Leader of Fianna Fáil from 1966 to 1979, Leader of the Opposition from 1973 to 1977, Minister for Finance from 1965 to 1966, Minister for Industry and Commerce from 1959 to 1965, Minister for Education 1957 to 1959, Minister for Gaeltacht Affairs from March 1957 to June 1957, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Lands and Parliamentary Secretary to the Taoiseach from 1951 to 1954.

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Jackson–Vanik amendment

The Jackson–Vanik amendment to the Trade Act of 1974 is a 1974 provision in United States federal law intended to affect U.S. trade relations with countries with non-market economies (originally, countries of the Communist bloc) that restrict freedom of emigration and other human rights.

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Jakarta

Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.

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James C. Corman

James Charles Corman (October 20, 1920 – December 30, 2000) was a Los Angeles City Council member from 1957 to 1961 and a Democratic Congressman from California between 1961 and 1981.

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James Day Hodgson

James Day Hodgson (December 3, 1915November 28, 2012) was an American politician.

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James R. Schlesinger

James Rodney Schlesinger (February 15, 1929 – March 27, 2014) was an American economist and public servant who was best known for serving as Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1975 under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.

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James Thomas Lynn

James Thomas Lynn (February 27, 1927December 6, 2010) was an American cabinet officer and government official.

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Jedda

Jedda (released in the UK as Jedda the Uncivilized) is a 1955 Australian film written, produced and directed by Charles Chauvel.

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Jerusalem

Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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Job Corps

Job Corps is a program administered by the United States Department of Labor that offers free-of-charge education and vocational training to young men and women ages 16 to 24.

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John C. Calhoun

John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782March 31, 1850) was an American statesman and political theorist from South Carolina, and the seventh Vice President of the United States from 1825 to 1832.

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John Connally

John Bowden Connally Jr. (February 27, 1917June 15, 1993) was an American politician.

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John Dean

John Wesley Dean III (born October 14, 1938) is an investment banker, author, columnist, lecturer, and attorney who served as White House Counsel for United States President Richard Nixon from July 1970 until April 1973.

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John Ehrlichman

John Daniel Ehrlichman (March 20, 1925 – February 14, 1999) was counsel and Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs under President Richard Nixon.

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John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.

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John Foster Dulles

John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat.

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John M. Ashbrook

John Milan Ashbrook (September 21, 1928 – April 24, 1982) was an American politician of the Republican Party who served in the United States House of Representatives from Ohio from 1961 until his death from peptic ulcer in Johnstown, Ohio in 1982.

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John Marshall Harlan II

John Marshall Harlan (May 20, 1899 – December 29, 1971) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from 1955 to 1971.

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John N. Mitchell

John Newton Mitchell (September 15, 1913 – November 9, 1988) was the Attorney General of the United States (1969–72) under President Richard Nixon.

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John Sirica

John Joseph Sirica (March 19, 1904 – August 14, 1992) was the Chief Judge for the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, where he became famous for his role in the trials stemming from the Watergate scandal.

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John Volpe

John Anthony Volpe (December 8, 1908November 11, 1994) was an American diplomat, politician and member of the Republican Party who served as the 61st and 63rd Governor of Massachusetts from 1961 to 1963 and 1965 to 1969, as the United States Secretary of Transportation from 1969 to 1973 and as the United States Ambassador to Italy from 1973 to 1977.

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Jonathan Aitken

Jonathan William Patrick Aitken (born 30 August 1942) is a former Conservative Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom (1974–97), and a former Cabinet minister.

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Josip Broz Tito

Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.

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Kakuei Tanaka

was a Japanese politician who served in the House of Representatives from 26 April 1947 to 24 January 1990, and as the 40th Prime Minister of Japan from 7 July 1972 to 9 December 1974 (his two terms being divided by the 1972 general election).

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Kennedy family

The Kennedy family is an American political family that has long been prominent in American politics, public service, and business.

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Kent State shootings

The Kent State shootings (also known as the May 4 massacre or the Kent State massacre)"These would be the first of many probes into what soon became known as the Kent State Massacre.

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Kent State University

Kent State University (KSU) is a large, primarily residential, public research university in Kent, Ohio, United States.

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Khmer Rouge

The Khmer Rouge ("Red Khmers"; ខ្មែរក្រហម Khmer Kror-Horm) was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979.

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Kiev

Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.

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Kristján Eldjárn

Dr.

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Lahore

Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.

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Lajes Field

Lajes Field or Lajes Air Base (Base Aérea das Lajes), officially designated Air Base No.

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Landslide victory

A landslide victory is an electoral victory in a political system, when one candidate or party receives an overwhelming supermajority of the votes or seats in the elected body, thus utterly eliminating the opponents.

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Laos

Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.

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Latin America

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.

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Leo Tindemans

Leonard Clemence "Leo" Tindemans (16 April 1922 – 26 December 2014) was a Belgian politician.

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Leon Jaworski

Leonidas "Leon" Jaworski (September 19, 1905 – December 9, 1982) was an American attorney and law professor who served as the second special prosecutor during the Watergate Scandal.

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Leonid Brezhnev

Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.

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Lewis F. Powell Jr.

Lewis Franklin Powell Jr. (September 19, 1907 – August 25, 1998) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from 1971 to 1987.

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Libya

Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Lin Biao

Lin Biao (December 5, 1907 – September 13, 1971) was a Marshal of the People's Republic of China who was pivotal in the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeast China.

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List of Presidents of the United States

The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.

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List of United States presidential elections by popular vote margin

In United States presidential elections, the national popular vote is the sum of all votes cast in every state and the District of Columbia.

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Lists of protests against the Vietnam War

Protests against the Vietnam War took place in the 1960s and 1970s.

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Lon Nol

Marshal Lon Nol (លន់ នល់, also លន់ ណុល; November 13, 1913 – November 17, 1985) was a Cambodian politician and general who served as Prime Minister of Cambodia twice (1966–67; 1969–71), as well as serving repeatedly as Defense Minister.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Louis Wolfson

Louis Elwood Wolfson (January 28, 1912 – December 30, 2007) was a Wall Street financier and one of the first modern corporate raiders, labeled by Time Magazine as such in a 1956 article.

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Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.

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Madman theory

The madman theory is a political theory commonly associated with U.S. President Richard Nixon's foreign policy.

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Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.

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Marcelo Caetano

Marcello José das Neves Alves Caetano (GCTE, GCC; 17 August 1906 – 26 October 1980) was a Portuguese politician and scholar, who was the last prime minister of the Estado Novo regime, from 1968 until his overthrow in the Carnation Revolution of 1974.

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Mariano Rumor

Mariano Rumor (16 June 1915 – 22 January 1990) was an Italian politician.

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Martha Griffiths

Martha Wright Griffiths (January 29, 1912 – April 22, 2003) was an American lawyer and judge before being elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1954.

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Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.

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Maryland

Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.

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Maurice Stans

Maurice Hubert Stans (March 22, 1908April 14, 1998) was an American accountant, high-ranking civil servant, Cabinet member, and political organizer.

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McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II

The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II is a tandem two-seat, twin-engine, all-weather, long-range supersonic jet interceptor and fighter-bomber originally developed for the United States Navy by McDonnell Aircraft.

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Medicaid

Medicaid in the United States is a joint federal and state program that helps with medical costs for some people with limited income and resources.

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Medical research

Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.

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Medicare (United States)

In the United States, Medicare is a national health insurance program, now administered by the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services of the U.S. federal government but begun in 1966 under the Social Security Administration.

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Melvin Laird

Melvin Robert "Bom" Laird (September 1, 1922 – November 16, 2016) was an American politician, writer and statesman.

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Melvin Small

Melvin Small (born March 14, 1939 in New York City) is a distinguished professor of history emeritus at Wayne State University in Detroit, MI.

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Mental health

Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.

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Miami Beach, Florida

Miami Beach is a coastal resort city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States.

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Mike Mansfield

Michael Joseph Mansfield (March 16, 1903 – October 5, 2001) was an American politician and diplomat.

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Miller Center of Public Affairs

The Miller Center is a nonpartisan affiliate of the University of Virginia that specializes in United States presidential scholarship, public policy, and political history and strives to apply the lessons of history to the nation’s most pressing contemporary governance challenges.

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Milliken v. Bradley

Milliken v. Bradley, 418 U.S. 717 (1974), was a significant United States Supreme Court case dealing with the planned desegregation busing of public school students across district lines among 53 school districts in metropolitan Detroit.

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Ming tombs

The Ming tombs are a collection of mausoleums built by the emperors of the Ming dynasty of China.

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Minority Business Development Agency

The Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that promotes growth and competitiveness of the United States' minority-owned businesses, including Hispanic and Latino American, Asian Pacific American, African American, and Native American businesses.

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Minsk

Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.

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Model Cities Program

The Model Cities Program was an element of U.S. President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society and War on Poverty.

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Mohammad Hidayatullah

Mohammad Hidayatullah OBE (17 December 1905 – 18 September 1992) was the 11th Chief Justice of India serving from 25 February 1968 to 16 December 1970, and the sixth Vice President of India, serving from 31 August 1979 to 30 August 1984.

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Moon

The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam

The Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam was a massive demonstration and teach-in across the United States against the United States involvement in the Vietnam War.

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Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Moscow Summit (1972)

The Moscow Summit of 1972 was a summit meeting between President Richard M. Nixon of the United States and General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

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Most favoured nation

In international economic relations and international politics, "most favoured nation" (MFN) is a status or level of treatment accorded by one state to another in international trade.

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Muammar Gaddafi

Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle

A multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) is a ballistic missile payload containing several thermonuclear warheads, each capable of being aimed to hit a different target.

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Cancer Institute

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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National Environmental Policy Act

The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is a United States environmental law that promotes the enhancement of the environment and established the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ).

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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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National Security Advisor (United States)

The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (NSA) or at times informally termed the NSC Advisor,The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 1.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Negative income tax

In economics, a negative income tax (NIT) is a progressive income tax system where people earning below a certain amount receive supplemental pay from the government instead of paying taxes to the government.

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Neil Armstrong

Neil Alden Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut and aeronautical engineer who was the first person to walk on the Moon.

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Nelson Rockefeller

Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American businessman and politician who served as the 41st Vice President of the United States from 1974 to 1977, and previously as the 49th Governor of New York (1959–1973).

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New Federalism

New Federalism is a political philosophy of devolution, or the transfer of certain powers from the United States federal government back to the states.

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New York Times Co. v. United States

New York Times Co.

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News leak

A news leak is the unsanctioned release of confidential information to news media.

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Nguyễn Văn Thiệu

Nguyễn Văn Thiệu (5 April 1923 – 29 September 2001) was the president of South Vietnam from 1965 to 1975.

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Nicolae Ceaușescu

Nicolae Ceaușescu (26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian Communist politician.

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Nikolai Podgorny

Nikolai Viktorovich Podgorny (p, Микола Вікторович Підгорний; – 12 January 1983) was a Soviet Ukrainian statesman during the Cold War.

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Nixon Doctrine

The Nixon Doctrine (also known as the Guam Doctrine) was put forth during a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by US President Richard Nixon and later formalized in his speech on Vietnamization on November 3, 1969.

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Nixonland

Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America is a work of history written by Rick Perlstein, released in May 2008.

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No-knock warrant

In the United States, a no-knock warrant is a warrant issued by a judge that allows law enforcement officers to enter a property without immediate prior notification of the residents, such as by knocking or ringing a doorbell.

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Noise Control Act

The Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972 is a statute of the United States initiating a federal program of regulating noise pollution with the intent of protecting human health and minimizing annoyance of noise to the general public.

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Noise pollution

Sound pollution, also known as environmental noise or noise pollution, is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life.

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Nolo contendere

Nolo contendere is a legal term that comes from the Latin phrase for "I do not wish to contend" and it is also referred to as a plea of no contest.

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Norodom Sihanouk

Norodom Sihanouk (នរោត្តម សីហនុ; 31 October 192215 October 2012) was a Cambodian royal politician and the King of Cambodia.

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North Vietnam

North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.

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Nuclear weapons and Israel

Israel is widely believed to possess nuclear weapons, with an estimated arsenal of up to 400 warheads; which would make it the world's third biggest arsenal.

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Obstruction of justice

Obstruction of justice, in United States jurisdictions, is the crime of obstructing prosecutors or other (usually government) officials.

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Occupational Safety and Health Act (United States)

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 is a US labor law governing the federal law of occupational health and safety in the private sector and federal government in the United States.

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Occupational Safety and Health Administration

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.

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Office of Economic Opportunity

The Office of Economic Opportunity was the agency responsible for administering most of the War on Poverty programs created as part of United States President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society legislative agenda.

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Office of Management and Budget

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP).

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Ogg

Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.

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Ohio Army National Guard

The Ohio Army National Guard is a part of the Ohio National Guard and the Army National Guard of the United States Army.

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OPEC

The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.

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Operation Freedom Deal

Operation Freedom Deal was a United States Seventh Air Force interdiction and close air support campaign waged in Cambodia between 19 May 1970 and 15 August 1973, as an expansion of the Vietnam War, as well as the Cambodian Civil War.

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Operation Lam Son 719

Operation Lam Son 719 or 9th Route - Southern Laos Campaign (Chiến dịch Lam Sơn 719 or Chiến dịch đường 9 – Nam Lào) was a limited-objective offensive campaign conducted in the southeastern portion of the Kingdom of Laos.

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Operation Linebacker

Operation Linebacker was the codename of a U.S. Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 air interdiction campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 9 May to 23 October 1972, during the Vietnam War.

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Operation Linebacker II

Operation Linebacker II was a US Seventh Air Force and US Navy Task Force 77 aerial bombing campaign, conducted against targets in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) during the final period of US involvement in the Vietnam War.

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Operation Menu

Operation Menu was the codename of a covert United States Strategic Air Command (SAC) bombing campaign conducted in eastern Cambodia from 18 March 1969 until 26 May 1970 as part of both the Vietnam War and the Cambodian Civil War.

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Oreanda

Oreanda (Ukrainian and Russian: Ореанда; Oreanda) is an urban-type settlement in the Yalta Municipality of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.

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Oregon v. Mitchell

Oregon v. Mitchell, was a Supreme Court case which held that the United States Congress could set voting age requirements for federal elections but not for local or state elections.

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Ostpolitik

Neue Ostpolitik (German for "new eastern policy"), or Ostpolitik for short, was the normalization of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, or West Germany) and Eastern Europe, particularly the German Democratic Republic (GDR, or East Germany) beginning in 1969.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Pardon of Richard Nixon

A presidential pardon of Richard Nixon was issued on September 8, 1974, by President Gerald Ford, which granted his predecessor Richard Nixon a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes he might have committed against the United States while president.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Paris Peace Accords

The Paris Peace Accords, officially titled the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam, was a peace treaty signed on January 27, 1973, to establish peace in Vietnam and end the Vietnam War.

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Party switching in the United States

In the United States politics, party switching is any change in party affiliation of a partisan public figure, usually one who is currently holding elected office.

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PBS

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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Peace with Honor

"Peace with Honor" was a phrase U.S. President Richard M. Nixon used in a speech on January 23, 1973 to describe the Paris Peace Accord to end the Vietnam War.

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Pentagon Papers

The Pentagon Papers, officially titled Report of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Vietnam Task Force, is a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political and military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967.

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People's Army of Vietnam

The People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN; Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam), also known as the Vietnamese People's Army (VPA), is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

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Pete McCloskey

Paul Norton "Pete" McCloskey Jr. (born September 29, 1927) is a former Republican politician from the U.S. state of California who served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1967 to 1983.

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Peter George Peterson

Peter George Peterson (born Peter Petropoulos; June 5, 1926 – March 20, 2018) was an American investment banker who served as United States Secretary of Commerce from February 29, 1972 to February 1, 1973 under the Richard Nixon administration.

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Peter J. Brennan

Peter Joseph Brennan (May 24, 1918 – October 2, 1996) was United States Secretary of Labor under Presidents Nixon and Ford.

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Philadelphia

Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.

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Pierre Trudeau

Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau (October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000), often referred to by the initials PET, was a Canadian statesman who served as the 15th Prime Minister of Canada (1968–1979 and 1980–1984).

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Ping-pong diplomacy

Ping-pong diplomacy (Pīngpāng wàijiāo) refers to the exchange of table tennis (ping-pong) players between the United States and People's Republic of China (PRC) in the early 1970s.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Political Research Quarterly

Political Research Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the field of political science.

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Political status of Taiwan

The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan, sometimes referred to as the Taiwan Issue or Taiwan Strait Issue, or from a Taiwanese perspective as the Mainland Issue, is a result of the Chinese Civil War and the subsequent split of China into the two present-day self-governing entities of the People's Republic of China (PRC; commonly known as China) and the Republic of China (ROC; commonly known as Taiwan).

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Politico

Politico, known earlier as The Politico, is an American political journalism company based in Arlington County, Virginia, that covers politics and policy in the United States and internationally.

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Pope Paul VI

Pope Paul VI (Paulus VI; Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini; 26 September 1897 – 6 August 1978) reigned from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978.

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Postal Reorganization Act

The Postal Reorganization Act of 1970 was a law passed by the United States Congress that abolished the then United States Post Office Department, which was a part of the cabinet, and created the United States Postal Service, a corporation-like independent agency with an official monopoly on the delivery of mail in the United States.

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Postal worker

A postal worker is one who works for a post office, such as a mail carrier.

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Poul Hartling

Poul Hartling (14 August 1914 – 30 April 2000) was a Danish diplomat and politician.

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Poverty in the United States

Poverty is a state of deprivation, lacking the usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions.

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Premier of the People's Republic of China

The Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, sometimes also referred to informally as the "Prime Minister", is the Leader of the State Council of China (constitutionally synonymous with the "Central People's Government" since 1954), who is the head of government and holds the highest rank (Level 1) in the Civil Service.

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Presidency of Gerald Ford

The presidency of Gerald Ford began on August 9, 1974, when Gerald Ford became President of the United States upon the resignation of Richard Nixon from office, and ended on January 20, 1977, a period of days.

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Presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson

The presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson began on November 22, 1963, when Johnson became the 36th President of the United States upon the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, and ended on January 20, 1969.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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Presidential Succession Act

A Presidential Succession Act is a federal statute establishing who shall exercise the powers and duties of the office of President of the United States in the event that neither a President nor Vice President is able to do so.

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Price controls

Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.

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Prime time

The prime time or the peak time is the block of broadcast programming taking place during the middle of the evening for television programming.

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Private healthcare

Private healthcare or private medicine is healthcare and medicine provided by entities other than the government.

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Promise

A promise is a commitment by someone to do or not do something.

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Puerto Vallarta

Puerto Vallarta is a Mexican beach resort city situated on the Pacific Ocean's Bahía de Banderas.

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Queen Fabiola of Belgium

Queen Fabiola of Belgium (born '''Doña''' Fabiola de Mora y Aragón on 11 June 1928 – 5 December 2014) was Queen of the Belgians from her marriage to King Baudouin in 1960 until his death in 1993.

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Racial integration

Racial integration, or simply integration, includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation).

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Racial segregation in the United States

Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, includes the segregation or separation of access to facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines.

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Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act

The Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, commonly referred to as the RICO Act or simply RICO, is a United States federal law that provides for extended criminal penalties and a civil cause of action for acts performed as part of an ongoing criminal organization.

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RAF Mildenhall

Royal Air Force Mildenhall, more commonly known as RAF Mildenhall, is a Royal Air Force (RAF) station located near Mildenhall in Suffolk, England. Despite its status as a Royal Air Force station, it primarily supports United States Air Force (USAF) operations, and is currently the home of the 100th Air Refueling Wing (100 ARW). On 8 January 2015, the United States Department of Defense announced that operations at RAF Mildenhall would end (along with those at RAF Molesworth and RAF Alconbury), and be relocated to Germany (Spangdahlem Air Base) and also elsewhere within the UK. On 18 January 2016, the British Ministry of Defence announced that the site is to be sold.

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Ratification

Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent that lacked the authority to bind the principal legally.

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Republican National Committee

The Republican National Committee (RNC) is a U.S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States.

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Republican Party (United States)

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

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Republican Party presidential primaries, 1968

The 1968 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1968 U.S. presidential election.

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Republican Party presidential primaries, 1972

The 1972 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1972 U.S. presidential election.

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Revised Philadelphia Plan

The Revised Philadelphia Plan, often called the Philadelphia Plan, required government contractors in Philadelphia to hire minority workers, under the authority of Executive Order 11246.

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Reykjavík

Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.

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Richard Kleindienst

Richard Gordon Kleindienst (August 5, 1923 – February 3, 2000) was an American lawyer, politician, and a U.S. Attorney General during the Watergate political scandal.

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Richard Nixon

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.

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Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China

U.S. President Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China (officially the People's Republic of China or PRC) was an important strategic and diplomatic overture that marked the culmination of the Nixon administration's resumption of harmonious relations between the United States and China.

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Richard Nixon's resignation speech

Richard Nixon's resignation speech was an address made on August 8, 1974, by President of the United States Richard Nixon to the American public.

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Robert Bork

Robert Heron Bork (March 1, 1927 – December 19, 2012) was an American judge, government official, and legal scholar who advocated the judicial philosophy of originalism.

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Robert F. Kennedy

Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 64th United States Attorney General from January 1961 to September 1964, and as a U.S. Senator for New York from January 1965 until his assassination in June 1968.

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Robert Finch (American politician)

Robert Hutchinson Finch (October 9, 1925 – October 10, 1995) was a Republican politician from La Canada Flintridge, California.

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Robert Mayo

Robert P. "Bob" Mayo (March 15, 1916 – January 25, 2003) was a director of the United States' Office of Management and Budget from January 22, 1969 until June 30, 1970.

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Rockefeller Republican

The Rockefeller Republicans, also called Moderate or Liberal Republicans, were members of the Republican Party (GOP) in the 1930s–1970s who held moderate to liberal views on domestic issues, similar to those of Nelson Rockefeller, Governor of New York (1959–1973) and Vice President of the United States (1974–1977).

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Roger Mudd

Roger Harrison Mudd (born February 9, 1928) is a retired American broadcast journalist who was a correspondent and anchor for CBS News and NBC News.

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Rogers Morton

Rogers Clark Ballard Morton (September 19, 1914 – April 19, 1979) was an American politician who served as the U.S. Secretary of the Interior and Secretary of Commerce during the administrations of Presidents Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford, Jr., respectively.

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Rogers Plan

The Rogers Plan (also known as Deep Strike) was a framework proposed by United States Secretary of State William P. Rogers to achieve an end to belligerence in the Arab–Israeli conflict following the Six-Day War and the continuing War of Attrition.

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Role of the United States in the Vietnam War

The role of the United States in the Vietnam War began after World War II and escalated into full commitment during the Vietnam War from 1955 to 1975.

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Romania

Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Rome

Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

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Rose Mary Woods

Rose Mary Woods (December 26, 1917 – January 22, 2005) was Richard Nixon's secretary from his days in Congress in 1951, through the end of his political career.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Roy Ash

Roy Lawrence Ash (October 20, 1918December 14, 2011) was the co-founder and president of the American company Litton Industries and director of the Office of Management and Budget from February 2, 1973 until February 3, 1975, during the administrations of the President's Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford.

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Russell B. Long

Russell Billiu Long (November 3, 1918 – May 9, 2003) was an American Democratic politician and United States Senator from Louisiana from 1948 until 1987, and chairman of the Senate Finance Committee for fifteen years from 1966 to 1981.

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Russell E. Train

Russell Errol Train (June 4, 1920 – September 17, 2012) was the second administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), from September 1973 to January 1977 and the founder chairman emeritus of World Wildlife Fund (WWF).

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Salvador Allende

Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.

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Salzburg

Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.

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Sam Ervin

Samuel James "Sam" Ervin Jr. (September 27, 1896April 23, 1985) was an American politician.

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Sargent Shriver

Robert Sargent Shriver Jr. (November 9, 1915 – January 18, 2011) was an American diplomat, politician and activist.

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Saturday Night Massacre

The Saturday Night Massacre was a series of events on the evening of Saturday, October 20, 1973, during the Watergate scandal in the United States.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Second World

The Second World is the former industrial socialist states (formally the Eastern Bloc) largely encompassing territories under the influence of the Soviet Union.

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Selective Service System

The Selective Service System is an independent agency of the United States government that maintains information on those potentially subject to military conscription.

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Shanghai

Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.

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Shortage

In economics, a shortage or excess demand is a situation in which the demand for a product or service exceeds its supply in a market.

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Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.

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Silent majority

The silent majority is an unspecified large group of people in a country or group who do not express their opinions publicly.

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Silent Spring

Silent Spring is an environmental science book by Rachel Carson.

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Single-payer healthcare

Single-payer healthcare is a healthcare system financed by taxes that covers the costs of essential healthcare for all residents, with costs covered by a single public system (hence 'single-payer').

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Sino-Soviet border conflict

The Sino-Soviet border conflict was a seven-month undeclared military conflict between the Soviet Union and China at the height of the Sino-Soviet split in 1969.

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Sino-Soviet split

The Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each of the two powers' different interpretation of Marxism–Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War.

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Sirhan Sirhan

Sirhan Bishara Sirhan (سرحان بشارة سرحان, born March 19, 1944) is a Palestinian with Jordanian citizenship who shot and mortally wounded Senator Robert F. Kennedy on June 5, 1968; Kennedy died the following day.

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Six-Day War

The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.

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Social conservatism

Social conservatism is the belief that society is built upon a fragile network of relationships which need to be upheld through duty, traditional values and established institutions.

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Social programs in the United States

Social programs in the United States are welfare subsidies designed to meet needs of the American population.

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Social Security (United States)

In the United States, Social Security is the commonly used term for the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program and is administered by the Social Security Administration.

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South Vietnam

South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 and comprised the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

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Soviet space program

The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Soyuz programme

The Soyuz programme (Союз, meaning "Union") is a human spaceflight programme that was initiated by the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, originally part of a Moon landing project intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon.

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Speaker of the United States House of Representatives

The Speaker of the House is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives.

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Special prosecutor

In the United States, a special prosecutor (or special counsel or independent counsel or independent prosecutor) is a lawyer appointed to investigate, and potentially prosecute, a particular case of suspected wrongdoing for which a conflict of interest exists for the usual prosecuting authority.

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Spiro Agnew

Spiro Theodore "Ted" Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the 39th Vice President of the United States, serving from 1969 to his resignation in 1973.

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Stagflation

In economics, stagflation, a portmanteau of stagnation and inflation, is a situation in which the inflation rate is high, the economic growth rate slows, and unemployment remains steadily high.

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Stephen E. Ambrose

Stephen Edward Ambrose (January 10, 1936 – October 13, 2002) was an American historian and biographer of U.S. Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard Nixon.

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Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) were two rounds of bilateral conferences and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of arms control.

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Suharto

Muhammad Suharto (also written Soeharto;, or Muhammad Soeharto; 8 June 1921 – 27 January 2008) was an Indonesian military leader and politician who served as the second President of Indonesia, holding the office for 31 years from the ousting of Sukarno in 1967 until his resignation in 1998.

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Supersonic transport

A supersonic transport (SST) is a civilian supersonic aircraft designed to transport passengers at speeds greater than the speed of sound.

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Supplemental Security Income

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is a United States government means-tested welfare program that provides cash assistance and health care coverage (i.e., Medicaid) to people with low-income and limited assets who are either aged 65 or older, blind, or disabled (children included).

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case dealing with the busing of students to promote integration in public schools.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Table tennis

Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using small bats.

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Taiwan

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Tax evasion

Tax evasion is the illegal evasion of taxes by individuals, corporations, and trusts.

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Tax Reform Act of 1969

The Tax Reform Act of 1969 was a United States federal tax law signed by President Richard Nixon in 1969.

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Ted Kennedy

Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (February 22, 1932 – August 25, 2009) was an American politician who served in the United States Senate from Massachusetts for almost 47 years, from 1962 until his death in 2009.

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Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.

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Terceira Island

Terceira is an island in the Azores archipelago, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.

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Thomas Eagleton

Thomas Francis "Tom" Eagleton (September 4, 1929 – March 4, 2007) was a United States Senator from Missouri, serving from 1968 to 1987.

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Thomas O. Paine

Thomas Otten Paine (November 9, 1921 – May 4, 1992), an American scientist and advocate of Space exploration, was the third Administrator of NASA, serving from March 21, 1969 to September 15, 1970.

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Threshold Test Ban Treaty

The Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests, also known as the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), was signed in July 1974 by the United States and Soviet Union.

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Timahoe

Timahoe ('House of Mochua') is a village in County Laois, Ireland, 12 km south of Portlaoise on the R426 regional road.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Tip O'Neill

Thomas Phillip "Tip" O'Neill Jr.

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Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Twenty-fifth Amendment (Amendment XXV) to the United States Constitution deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.

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Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Twenty-sixth Amendment (Amendment XXVI) to the United States Constitution prohibits the states and the federal government from using age as a reason for denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States who are at least eighteen years old.

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U.S. state

A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.

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Unindicted co-conspirator

An unindicted co-conspirator, or unindicted conspirator, is a person or entity that is alleged in an indictment to have engaged in conspiracy, but who is not charged in the same indictment.

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United Automobile Workers

The International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, better known as the United Automobile Workers (UAW), is an American labor union that represents workers in the United States (including Puerto Rico) and Canada.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758

The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 was passed in response to the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1668 that required any change in China's representation in the UN be determined by a two-thirds vote referring to Article 18 of the UN Charter.

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United Press International

United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century.

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United States courts of appeals

The United States courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system.

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United States Department of Defense

The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Department of Justice

The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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United States Department of the Treasury

The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.

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United States district court

The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.

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United States Domestic Policy Council

The Domestic Policy Council (DPC) of the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering domestic policy matters, excluding economic matters, which are the domain of the National Economic Council.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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United States House Committee on the Judiciary

The U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, also called the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives.

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United States House Committee on Ways and Means

The Committee on Ways and Means is the chief tax-writing committee of the United States House of Representatives.

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United States House of Representatives

The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.

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United States National Security Council

The White House National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for consideration of national security, military matters, and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the executive office of the president of the United States.

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United States non-interventionism

Non-interventionism, the diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations in order to avoid being drawn into wars not related to direct territorial self-defense, has had a long history of popularity in the government and among the people of the United States at various periods in time.

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United States Post Office Department

The Post Office Department (1792–1971) was the predecessor of the United States Postal Service, in the form of a Cabinet department officially from 1872 to 1971.

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United States Postal Service

The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states.

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United States presidential election, 1960

The United States presidential election of 1960 was the 44th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1960.

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United States presidential election, 1968

The United States presidential election of 1968 was the 46th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1968.

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United States presidential election, 1972

The United States presidential election of 1972, the 47th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 7, 1972.

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United States presidential inauguration

The inauguration of the President of the United States is a ceremony to mark the commencement of a new four-year term of the President of the United States.

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United States presidential line of succession

The United States presidential line of succession is the order in which officials of the United States federal government discharge the powers and duties of the office of President of the United States if the incumbent president becomes incapacitated, dies, resigns, or is removed from office (by impeachment by the House of Representatives and subsequent conviction by the Senate) during their four-year term of office.

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United States presidential transition

United States presidential transition is the transfer of federal executive branch power from the incumbent President of the United States to the president-elect, during the period of time between election day in November (on the first Tuesday after November 1), and inauguration day on the following January 20.

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United States Senate

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.

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United States Senate Committee on Finance

The United States Senate Committee on Finance (or, less formally, Senate Finance Committee) is a standing committee of the United States Senate.

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United States Senate Watergate Committee

The Senate Watergate Committee, known officially as the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, was a special committee established by the United States Senate,, in 1973, to investigate the Watergate scandal, with the power to investigate the break-in at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C., and any subsequent cover-up of criminal activity, as well as "all other illegal, improper, or unethical conduct occurring during the presidential election of 1972, including political espionage and campaign finance practices".

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United States v. Nixon

United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case which resulted in a unanimous decision against President Richard Nixon, ordering him to deliver tape recordings and other subpoenaed materials to a federal district court.

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Universal health care

Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.

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University of Virginia Center for Politics

The University of Virginia Center for Politics was founded in 1998 by professor and political analyst Larry J. Sabato to put into practice his belief that "Politics is a good thing!" The Center for Politics is a nonpartisan organization based in Charlottesville, Virginia, which seeks to increase civic knowledge and involvement among all citizens.

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Veto

A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.

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Vice President of the United States

The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, or Veep) is a constitutional officer in the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States as the President of the Senate under Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, as well as the second highest executive branch officer, after the President of the United States.

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Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Voting Rights Act of 1965

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.

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Wage

A wage is monetary compensation (or remuneration, personnel expenses, labor) paid by an employer to an employee in exchange for work done.

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Wally Hickel

Walter Joseph "Wally" Hickel (August 18, 1919 – May 7, 2010) was an American businessman and politician.

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War on Cancer

The War on Cancer refers to the effort to find a cure for cancer by increased research to improve the understanding of cancer biology and the development of more effective cancer treatments, such as targeted drug therapies.

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War Powers Resolution

The War Powers Resolution (also known as the War Powers Resolution of 1973 or the War Powers Act) (50 U.S.C. 1541–1548) is a federal law intended to check the president's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of the U.S. Congress.

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Warren Court

The Warren Court was the period in the history of the Supreme Court of the United States during which Earl Warren served as Chief Justice.

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Warren E. Burger

Warren Earl Burger (September 17, 1907 – June 25, 1995) was the 15th Chief Justice of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1986.

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Warsaw

Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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Watergate complex

The Watergate complex is a group of six buildings in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C., in the United States, known particularly for the infamous 1972 burglary of the Democratic National Committee, which ultimately led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.

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Watergate scandal

The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States during the early 1970s, following a break-in by five men at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972, and President Richard Nixon's administration's subsequent attempt to cover up its involvement.

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Watergate Seven

The Watergate Seven has come to refer to two different groups of people, but both fall in the context of the Watergate scandal.

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Welfare queen

"Welfare queen" is a derogatory term used in the U.S. to refer to women who allegedly misuse or collect excessive welfare payments through fraud, child endangerment, or manipulation.

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Welfare trap

The welfare trap (or unemployment trap or poverty trap in British English) theory asserts that taxation and welfare systems can jointly contribute to keep people on social insurance because the withdrawal of means-tested benefits that comes with entering low-paid work causes there to be no significant increase in total income.

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West Berlin

West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.

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West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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White ethnic

White ethnic is a term used to refer to White Americans who are not Old Stock or White Anglo-Saxon Protestant.

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White House

The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.

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White House Counsel

The White House Counsel is a staff appointee of the President of the United States whose role is to advise the President on all legal issues concerning the President and his Administration.

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Whitney Young

Whitney Moore Young Jr. (July 31, 1921 – March 11, 1971) was an American civil rights leader.

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Wilbur Mills

Wilbur Daigh Mills (May 24, 1909 – May 2, 1992) was an American politician in the Democratic Party who represented in the United States House of Representatives from 1939 to 1977.

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William B. Saxbe

William Bart "Bill" Saxbe (June 24, 1916 – August 24, 2010) was an American politician affiliated with the Republican Party, who served as a U.S. Senator for Ohio, and was the Attorney General for Presidents Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford, and as the U.S. Ambassador to India.

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William Denman Eberle

William Denman Eberle (June 5, 1923April 3, 2008) was an American politician and businessman from Idaho who held the office of Trade Representative from 1971 to 1974 under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.

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William E. Simon

William Edward Simon (November 27, 1927 – June 3, 2000) was an American businessman, a Secretary of Treasury of the U.S. for three years, and a philanthropist.

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William P. Rogers

William Pierce Rogers (June 23, 1913 – January 2, 2001) was an American politician, diplomat, and lawyer.

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William Rehnquist

William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States for 33 years, first as an Associate Justice from 1972 to 1986, and then as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2005.

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William Ruckelshaus

William Doyle Ruckelshaus (born July 24, 1932) is an American attorney and former U.S. government official.

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Willy Brandt

Willy Brandt (born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm; 18 December 1913 – 8 October 1992) was a German statesman who was leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1964 to 1987 and served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1969 to 1974.

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Winton M. Blount

Winton Malcolm Blount, Jr., known as Red Blount (February 1, 1921 – October 24, 2002), was the United States Postmaster General from January 22, 1969 to January 1, 1972.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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Yahya Khan

Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (آغا محمد یحییٰ خان; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), widely known as Yahya Khan,, was the third President of Pakistan, serving in this post from 25 March 1969 until turning over his presidency in December 1971.

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Yalta

Yalta (Yalta; Я́лта; Я́лта) is a resort city on the south coast of the Crimean Peninsula surrounded by the Black Sea.

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Yitzhak Rabin

Yitzhak Rabin (יצחק רבין,; 1 March 1922 – 4 November 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman and general.

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Yom Kippur War

The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.

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Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.

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Zagreb

Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.

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Zhou Enlai

Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.

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1968 Democratic National Convention

The 1968 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held August 26–29 at the International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois.

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1968 Democratic National Convention protest activity

Protest activity against the Vietnam War took place prior to and during the 1968 Democratic National Convention.

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1968 Republican National Convention

The 1968 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held at the Miami Beach Convention Center in Miami Beach, Dade County, Florida, from August 5 to August 8, 1968.

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1971 World Table Tennis Championships

The 1971 World Table Tennis Championships (31st) were held in Nagoya from March 28 to April 7, 1971.

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1972 Democratic National Convention

The 1972 Democratic National Convention was the presidential nominating convention of the Democratic Party for the 1972 presidential election.

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1972 Republican National Convention

The 1972 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held from August 21 to August 23, 1972, at the Miami Beach Convention Center in Miami Beach, Florida.

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1973 Chilean coup d'état

The 1973 Chilean coup d'état was a watershed moment in both the history of Chile and the Cold War.

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1973 oil crisis

The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.

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1973–74 stock market crash

The 1973–74 stock market crash caused a bear market between January 1973 and December 1974.

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1974 Brussels summit

The 1974 Brussels summit was the second NATO summit bringing the leaders of member nations together at the same time.

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Redirects here:

First Nixon administration, List of international presidential trips made by Richard Nixon, Nixon Administration, Nixon White House, Nixon administration, Nixon cabinet, Nixon cabinet and appointments, Nixon era, Nixon government, Nixon presidency, Nixon's presidency, Nixon-era, Policies of Nixon, Presidency of Richard M. Nixon, Richard Nixon administration, Richard Nixon presidency, Richard Nixon's administration, United States under Richard Nixon.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presidency_of_Richard_Nixon

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