382 relations: Abortion in the United States, Acting President of the United States, Adjustable-rate mortgage, Affirmative action in the United States, Afghanistan, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Airstrike, Al-Qaeda, Alan Greenspan, Alan Simpson (American politician), Alexander Haig, Alzheimer's disease, American exceptionalism, American Political Science Association, Andrew L. Lewis Jr., Andrew Mellon, Ann McLaughlin Korologos, Anne Gorsuch Burford, Anthony Kennedy, Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, Anti-communism, Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988, Antonin Scalia, Apartheid, Arms control, Arms embargo, Arthur Laffer, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, Beirut, Berlin Wall, Bill Brock, Bill Clinton, Black Monday (1987), Blowback (intelligence), Bob Dole, Boland Amendment, Brezhnev Doctrine, Brian Mulroney, Broadcasting, Budget sequestration, Calvin Coolidge, Canada, Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement, Capital punishment, Caribbean Basin Initiative, Caribbean Sea, Caspar Weinberger, Central America, Chair, ..., Chief Justice of the United States, Christian right, Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987, Clayton Yeutter, Colin Powell, Collectivization in the Soviet Union, Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act, Comprehensive Employment and Training Act, Conservatism in the United States, Constructive engagement, Continent, Contras, Corporate tax in the United States, Counselor to the President, Counterintelligence, Crédit Mobilier of America scandal, Cruise missile, Cuba, Culture war, Daniel Ortega, David Stockman, Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, Democratic Party (United States), Desegregation busing, Dick Thornburgh, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Disinvestment from South Africa, Donald P. Hodel, Donald Regan, Douglas H. Ginsburg, Early 1980s recession, Earned income tax credit, Eastern Time Zone, Economic inequality, Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Economy of the Soviet Union, Edward Douglass White, Edwin Meese, El Salvador, Elizabeth Dole, Elizabeth II, Employment and Training Administration, Equal Rights Amendment, Estate tax in the United States, Evil Empire speech, Executive Order 12333, F. W. de Klerk, Fast track (trade), FCC fairness doctrine, Federal Communications Commission, Federal judiciary of the United States, Federal Reserve System, Federalist Society, Fidel Castro, First 100 days of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency, First Lady of the United States, Foreign Affairs, Foreign policy of the Ronald Reagan administration, Frank Carlucci, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Garn–St. Germain Depository Institutions Act, Geneva, Geneva Summit (1985), George H. W. Bush, George P. Shultz, George Will, Gerald Ford, Glasnost, Gramm–Rudman–Hollings Balanced Budget Act, Great power, Great Society, Greenspan Commission, Grenada, Gross domestic product, Gross national product, Guerrilla warfare, Gulf of Sidra incident (1981), Hezbollah, Historical rankings of presidents of the United States, History of the United States (1980–91), HIV/AIDS, Homelessness, Homosexuality, Howard Baker, Hugh Heclo, Illegal immigration to the United States, Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, Income tax in the United States, Incumbent, Inflation, Intelligence assessment, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Intermediate-range ballistic missile, Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, International law, Iran, Iran hostage crisis, Iran–Contra affair, Iran–Iraq War, Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen, Israel, Israel–United States Free Trade Agreement, Jack F. Matlock Jr., James B. Edwards, James Baker, James Brady, James C. Miller III, James G. Watt, James H. Burnley IV, James Watt, Jesse Helms, Jimmy Carter, John B. Anderson, John Hinckley Jr., John Kenneth Galbraith, John Poindexter, John Rusling Block, John S. Herrington, John Tower, Joseph Robert Wright Jr., Just Say No, Kenneth Duberstein, Keynesian economics, Korean Air Lines Flight 007, Laissez-faire, Large intestine, Lauro Cavazos, Lawrence Walsh, Lebanese Civil War, Lebanon, Lee M. Thomas, Leonid Brezhnev, Lesley Stahl, Lewis F. Powell Jr., LGM-118 Peacekeeper, List of leaders of the Soviet Union, List of Presidents of the United States, List of Presidents of the United States by judicial appointments, Louis Uchitelle, Malcolm Baldrige Jr., Malta Summit, Margaret Heckler, Margaret Thatcher, Market economy, Martial law in Poland, Martin Mayer, Medicaid, Medicare (United States), Mexico, Mexico–United States border, MGM-31 Pershing, Michael Deaver, Michael Dukakis, Michigan, Mikhail Gorbachev, Modern liberalism in the United States, Moscow State University, MSNBC, Muammar Gaddafi, Multinational Force in Lebanon, Namibia, Nancy Reagan, National Association of Evangelicals, National debt of the United States, National security, National Security Advisor (United States), NATO, Naval mine, New Deal, New Federalism, New Left, Nicaragua, Nicholas F. Brady, Normandy landings, North American Free Trade Agreement, Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit, Office of Economic Opportunity, Office of Management and Budget, Office of National Drug Control Policy, Oliver North, Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, Otis Bowen, Oval Office, Palestine Liberation Organization, Pat Buchanan, Paul Kennedy, Paul Volcker, Perestroika, Philip Habib, Planned economy, Poland, Polyp (medicine), Potter Stewart, Powell Doctrine, Premiership of Margaret Thatcher, Premise, Presidency of George H. W. Bush, Presidency of Jimmy Carter, President of the United States, Presidential directive, Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (1968), Prostate cancer, Proxy war, Raymond J. Donovan, Reagan Doctrine, Reagan Era, Reaganomics, Republican Party (United States), Republican Party presidential primaries, 1976, Republican Party presidential primaries, 1980, Republican Party presidential primaries, 1988, Reykjavík, Reykjavík Summit, Richard Edmund Lyng, Richard Nixon, Richard Pipes, Richard Schweiker, Robert Bork, Robert Bork Supreme Court nomination, Robert McFarlane, Rockwell B-1 Lancer, Rollback, Romano Mazzoli, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, RSD-10 Pioneer, Samuel Pierce, Sandinista National Liberation Front, Sandra Day O'Connor, Saudi Arabia, Savings and loan association, Savings and loan crisis, School prayer, Shia Islam, Single market, Social Security (United States), Solidarity (Polish trade union), South Africa, Southern Lebanon, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Special Activities Division, Stagflation, Standard deduction, Star Wars, START I, States' rights, Statue of Liberty, Steve Biko, Steven F. Hayward, Stock market crash, Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, Strategic Defense Initiative, Strike action, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Supplemental Security Income, Supply-side economics, Supreme Court of the United States, Surface mining, Surveillance, Syria, Taliban, Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, Tax Reform Act of 1986, Teapot Dome scandal, Tear down this wall!, Ted Kennedy, Terrel Bell, The Journal of American History, The Nation, The New York Times, Third rail of politics, Thomas Delahanty, Tim McCarthy, Time (magazine), Tip O'Neill, Tower Commission, Trade and Tariff Act of 1984, Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, United Nations Charter, United Nations General Assembly, United States and state-sponsored terrorism, United States Armed Forces, United States courts of appeals, United States Department of Justice Office of Special Counsel, United States district court, United States elections, 1980, United States elections, 1982, United States elections, 1986, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States free-trade agreements, United States Intelligence Community, United States invasion of Grenada, United States Marine Corps, United States presidential election, 1924, United States presidential election, 1976, United States presidential election, 1980, United States presidential election, 1988, United States presidential inauguration, Vietnam War, Voting Rights Act of 1965, Walter Mondale, War on drugs, Warren E. Burger, Washington Hilton, Washington, D.C., Watergate scandal, Wealth inequality in the United States, Welfare state, West Berlin, White House, White House Chief of Staff, White House Communications Director, White House Deputy Chief of Staff, William Bennett, William French Smith, William J. Casey, William Leuchtenburg, William P. Clark Jr., William Rehnquist, William Ruckelshaus, William Verity Jr., Willie Horton, Woodrow Wilson, 1980 Republican National Convention, 1982 Lebanon War, 1983 Beirut barracks bombings, 1986 West Berlin discotheque bombing, 1988 Democratic National Convention, 1988 Republican National Convention, 600-ship Navy. Expand index (332 more) » « Shrink index
Abortion in the United States has been, and remains, a controversial issue in United States culture and politics.
The Acting President of the United States is a post that was created after the adoption of the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution on January 23, 1933, but it was further defined by the Twenty-fifth Amendment on February 10, 1967.
A variable-rate mortgage, adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM), or tracker mortgage is a mortgage loan with the interest rate on the note periodically adjusted based on an index which reflects the cost to the lender of borrowing on the credit markets.
Affirmative action in the United States is a set of laws, policies, guidelines, and administrative practices "intended to end and correct the effects of a specific form of discrimination." These include government-mandated, government-sanctioned, and voluntary private programs that tend to focus on access to education and employment, granting special consideration to historically excluded groups, specifically racial minorities or women.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was a federal assistance program in effect from 1935 to 1996 created by the Social Security Act (SSA) and administered by the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provided financial assistance to children whose families had low or no income.
An airstrike or air strike is an offensive operation carried out by attack aircraft.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist who served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006.
Alan Kooi Simpson (born September 2, 1931) is an American politician and member of the Republican Party, who represented Wyoming in the United States Senate (1979–97).
Alexander Meigs "Al" Haig Jr. (December 2, 1924February 20, 2010) was the United States secretary of state under President Ronald Reagan and the White House chief of staff under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
American exceptionalism is an ideology holding the United States as unique among nations in positive or negative connotations, with respect to its ideas of democracy and personal freedom.
The American Political Science Association (APSA) is a professional association of political science students and scholars in the United States.
Andrew Lindsay "Drew" Lewis Jr. (November 3, 1931 – February 10, 2016) was an American businessman and politician from the state of Pennsylvania.
Andrew William Mellon (March 24, 1855 – August 26, 1937), sometimes A.W., was an American banker, businessman, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector, and politician.
Ann McLaughlin Korologos (born Ann Marie Lauenstein; November 16, 1941), formerly known as Ann Dore McLaughlin, was the United States Secretary of Labor from 1987 to 1989.
Anne Irene McGill Gorsuch Burford (April 21, 1942 – July 18, 2004), also known as Anne M. Gorsuch (/ˈɡɔːrsətʃ/), was an American attorney and politician.
Anthony McLeod Kennedy (born July 23, 1936) is the senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty or ABMT) (1972—2002) was an arms control treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against ballistic missile-delivered nuclear weapons.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 was a law of the War on Drugs passed by the U.S. Congress.
The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 is a major law of the so-called "War on Drugs" passed by the U.S. Congress which did two significant things.
Antonin Gregory Scalia (March 11, 1936 – February 13, 2016) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Arms control is a term for international restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation and usage of small arms, conventional weapons, and weapons of mass destruction.
An arms embargo is an embargo that applies solely to weaponry, and may also apply to "dual-use technology".
Arthur Betz Laffer (born August 14, 1940) is an American economist who first gained prominence during the Reagan administration as a member of Reagan's Economic Policy Advisory Board (1981–89).
Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are the members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the Chief Justice of the United States.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
William Emerson Brock III (born November 23, 1930) is a former Republican United States senator from Tennessee, having served from 1971 to 1977.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
In finance, Black Monday refers to Monday, October 19, 1987, when stock markets around the world crashed.
Blowback is a term originating from within the American Intelligence community, denoting the unintended consequences, unwanted side-effects, or suffered repercussions of a covert operation that fall back on those responsible for the aforementioned operations.
Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) is a retired American politician and attorney who represented Kansas in Congress from 1961 to 1996 and served as the Republican Leader of the United States Senate from 1985 until 1996.
The Boland Amendment is a term describing three U.S. legislative amendments between 1982 and 1984, all aimed at limiting U.S. government assistance to the Contras in Nicaragua.
The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet foreign policy, first and most clearly outlined by Sergei Kovalev in a September 26, 1968 Pravda article entitled Sovereignty and the International Obligations of Socialist Countries.
Martin Brian Mulroney (born March 20, 1939) is a Canadian politician who served as the 18th Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993.
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
Budget sequestration is a procedure in United States law that limits the size of the federal budget.
John Calvin Coolidge Jr. (July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933) was an American politician and the 30th President of the United States (1923–1929).
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement (CUSFTA; French: Accord de libre-échange, ALE) is a trade agreement reached by negotiators for Canada and the United States on October 4, 1987 and signed by the leaders of both countries on January 2, 1988.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
The Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) was a unilateral and temporary United States program initiated by the 1983 Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA).
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
Caspar Willard "Cap" Weinberger (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006) was an American politician and businessman.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
A chair is a piece of furniture with a raised surface supported by legs, commonly used to seat a single person.
The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and thus the head of the United States federal court system, which functions as the judicial branch of the nation's federal government.
Christian right or religious right is a term used mainly in the United States to label conservative Christian political factions that are characterized by their strong support of socially conservative policies.
The Civil Rights Restoration Act, or Grove City Bill, was a US legislative act that specified that recipients of federal funds must comply with civil rights laws in all areas, not just in the particular program or activity that received federal funding.
Clayton Keith "Clay" Yeutter, ONZM (December 10, 1930 – March 4, 2017) served as United States Secretary of Agriculture under President George H. W. Bush from 1989 to 1991 before serving as Counselor to the President in 1992.
Colin Luther Powell (born April 5, 1937) is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.
The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization (Коллективизация) of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 (in West - between 1948 and 1952) during the ascendancy of Joseph Stalin.
The Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 was a law enacted by the United States Congress.
The Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) was a United States federal law enacted by the Congress, and signed into law by President Richard Nixon December 28, 1973 to train workers and provide them with jobs in the public service.
American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral absolutism, free markets and free trade, anti-communism, individualism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism.
Constructive engagement was the name given to the policy of the Reagan administration towards the apartheid regime in South Africa in the early 1980s.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
The Contras were the various U.S.-backed and funded right-wing rebel groups that were active from 1979 to the early 1990s in opposition to the socialist Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction government in Nicaragua.
Corporate tax is imposed in the United States at the federal, most state, and some local levels on the income of entities treated for tax purposes as corporations.
Counselor to the President is a title used by high-ranking assistants to the President of the United States and senior members of the Executive Office of the President.
Counterintelligence is "an activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program against an opposition's intelligence service." It likewise refers to information gathered and activities conducted to counter espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, international terrorist activities, sometimes including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs.
The Crédit Mobilier scandal of 1867, which came to public attention in 1872, involved the Union Pacific Rail Road and the Crédit Mobilier of America construction company in the building of the eastern portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad.
A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The culture war or culture conflict adopts different meanings depending on the time and place where it is used (as it relates to conflicts relevant to a specific area and era).
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born November 11, 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician serving as President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction (1979–1985) and then as President (1985–1990).
David Alan Stockman (born November 10, 1946) is an American politician and former businessman who served as a Republican U.S. Representative from the state of Michigan (1977–1981) and as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (1981–1985) under President Ronald Reagan.
The Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, also known as the DEFRA, was a federal law enacted in the United States in 1984.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Desegregation busing in the United States (also known as forced busing or simply busing) is the practice of assigning and transporting students to schools so as to redress prior racial segregation of schools, or to overcome the effects of residential segregation on local school demographics.
Richard Lewis Thornburgh (born July 16, 1932) is an American lawyer, author and Republican politician who served as the 41st Governor of Pennsylvania from 1979 to 1987, and then as the U.S. Attorney General from 1988 to 1991.
The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) is a statutory office that functions as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency, which in turn is a part of the United States Intelligence Community.
Disinvestment (or divestment) from South Africa was first advocated in the 1960s, in protest of South Africa's system of apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant scale until the mid-1980s.
Donald Paul Hodel (born May 23, 1935) is an American former politician, who served as United States Secretary of Energy and Secretary of the Interior, and Chairman of the company FreeEats.com/ccAdvertising, which has disseminated push polls for the Economic Freedom Fund.
Donald Thomas "Don" Regan (December 21, 1918 – June 10, 2003) was the 66th United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1981 to 1985 and the White House Chief of Staff from 1985 to 1987 in the Ronald Reagan Administration.
Douglas Howard Ginsburg (born May 25, 1946) is a Senior United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
The early 1980s recession was a severe global economic recession that affected much of the developed world in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
The United States federal earned income tax credit or earned income credit (EITC or EIC) is a refundable tax credit for low- to moderate-income working individuals and couples, particularly those with children.
The Eastern Time Zone (ET) is a time zone encompassing 17 U.S. states in the eastern part of the contiguous United States, parts of eastern Canada, the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico, Panama in Central America, and the Caribbean Islands.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, also known as the ERTA or "Kemp–Roth Tax Cut", was a federal law enacted in the United States in 1981.
The economy of the Soviet Union (экономика Советского Союза) was based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, industrial manufacturing and centralized administrative planning.
Edward Douglass White Jr. (November 3, 1845 – May 19, 1921), American politician and jurist, was a United States Senator and the ninth Chief Justice of the United States.
Edwin Meese III (born December 2, 1931) is an American attorney, law professor, author and member of the Republican Party who served in official capacities within the Ronald Reagan Gubernatorial Administration (1967–1974), the Reagan Presidential Transition Team (1980) and the Reagan White House (1981–1985), eventually rising to hold the position of the 75th Attorney General of the United States (1985–1988).
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
Mary Elizabeth Alexander Hanford "Liddy" Dole (born July 29, 1936)Mary Ella Cathey Hanford, "Asbury and Hanford Families: Newly Discovered Genealogical Information" The Historical Trail 33 (1996), pp.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
The Employment and Training Administration (ETA) is part of the U.S. Department of Labor.
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal legal rights for all American citizens regardless of sex; it seeks to end the legal distinctions between men and women in terms of divorce, property, employment, and other matters.
The estate tax in the United States is a tax on the transfer of the estate of a deceased person.
The phrase "evil empire" was first applied to the Soviet Union in 1983 by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who took an aggressive, hard-line stance that favored matching and exceeding the Soviet Union's strategic and global military capabilities, in calling for a rollback strategy that would, in his words, "write the final pages of the history of the Soviet Union".
Executive Order 12333, signed on December 4, 1981 by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, was an Executive Order intended to extend powers and responsibilities of U.S. intelligence agencies and direct the leaders of U.S. federal agencies to co-operate fully with CIA requests for information.
Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936) is a South African politician who served as State President of South Africa from 1989 to 1994 and as Deputy President from 1994 to 1996.
The fast track authority for brokering trade agreements is the authority of the President of the United States to negotiate international agreements that Congress can approve or deny but cannot amend or filibuster.
The fairness doctrine of the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC), introduced in 1949, was a policy that required the holders of broadcast licenses both to present controversial issues of public importance and to do so in a manner that was—in the FCC's view—honest, equitable, and balanced.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.
The federal judiciary of the United States is one of the three co-equal branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.
The Federalist Society for Law and Public Policy Studies, most frequently called the Federalist Society, is an organization of conservatives and libertarians seeking reform of the current American legal system in accordance with a textualist or originalist interpretation of the U.S. Constitution.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
The first 100 days of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency began on March 4, 1933, the day Franklin D. Roosevelt was inaugurated as the 32nd President of the United States.
The First Lady of the United States (FLOTUS) is the title held by the hostess of the White House, usually the wife of the President of the United States, concurrent with the President's term in office.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
The foreign policy of the Ronald Reagan administration was the foreign policy of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Frank Charles Carlucci III (October 18, 1930 – June 3, 2018) was an American politician and diplomat who served as the United States Secretary of Defense from 1987 to 1989 in the administration of President Ronald Reagan.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The Garn–St Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982 (enacted October 15, 1982) is an Act of Congress that deregulated savings and loan associations and allowed banks to provide adjustable-rate mortgage loans.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
The Geneva Summit of 1985 was a Cold War-era meeting in Geneva, Switzerland.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George Pratt Shultz (born December 13, 1920) is an American economist, elder statesman, and businessman.
George Frederick Will (born May 4, 1941) is an American political commentator.
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
The Gramm–Rudman–Hollings Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 and the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Reaffirmation Act of 1987 (both often known as Gramm–Rudman) were the first binding spending constraints on the federal budget.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65.
The National Commission on Social Security Reform, also known as the Greenspan Commission due to its chairmanship by Alan Greenspan, was a commission that was appointed by the United States Congress and President Ronald Reagan in 1981 to study and make recommendations regarding the short-term financing crisis that Social Security faced at that time.
Grenada is a sovereign state in the southeastern Caribbean Sea consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
In the first Gulf of Sidra incident, 19 August 1981, two Russian made Libyan Su-22 Fitter fired upon and were subsequently shot down by two U.S. F-14 Tomcats off the Libyan coast.
Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.
In political studies, surveys have been conducted in order to construct historical rankings of the success of individuals who have served as President of the United States.
The history of the United States from 1980 until 1991 includes the last year of the Jimmy Carter presidency, eight years of the Ronald Reagan administration, and the first three years of the George H. W. Bush presidency, up to the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Homelessness is the circumstance when people are without a permanent dwelling, such as a house or apartment.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
Howard Henry Baker Jr. (November 15, 1925 June 26, 2014) was an American politician and diplomat who served as a Republican United States Senator from Tennessee, Senate Minority Leader, then Senate Majority Leader.
Hugh Heclo (10 March 1943 – 6 August 2017) was a Clarence J. Robinson Professor of Public Affairs at George Mason University, in the United States.
Illegal immigration to the United States is the entry into the United States of foreign nationals in violation of United States immigration laws and also the remaining in the country of foreign nationals after their visa, or other authority to be in the country, has expired.
The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA),, also known as the Simpson–Mazzoli Act or the Reagan Amnesty, signed into law by Ronald Reagan on November 6, 1986, is an Act of Congress which reformed United States immigration law.
Income taxes in the United States are imposed by the federal, most state, and many local governments.
The incumbent is the current holder of a political office.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Intelligence assessment is the development of behavior forecasts or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organisation, based on wide ranges of available overt and covert information.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
An intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) is a ballistic missile with a range of 3,000–5,500 km (1,864–3,418 miles), between a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) and an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty) is the abbreviated name of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles, a 1987 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union (and later its successor states, in particular the Russian Federation).
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States of America.
The Iran–Contra affair (ماجرای ایران-کنترا, caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as Irangate, Contragate or the Iran–Contra scandal, was a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
The Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen, also known as the Seven Party Mujahideen Alliance or Peshawar Seven, was an Afghan alliance formed in either 1981 or 1985 (see Alliance Formation below) by the seven Afghan mujahideen parties fighting against the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan forces in the Soviet-Afghan War.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The United States–Israel Free Trade Agreement (FTA) is a trade pact between the State of Israel and the United States established in 1985 to lower trade barriers in some goods.
Jack Foust Matlock Jr. (born October 1, 1929) is a former American ambassador, career Foreign Service Officer, a teacher, a historian, and a linguist.
James Burrows Edwards (June 24, 1927 – December 26, 2014) was an American politician and administrator from South Carolina.
James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930) is an American attorney and political figure.
James Scott Brady (August 29, 1940 – August 4, 2014) was an assistant to the U.S. President and White House Press Secretary under President Ronald Reagan.
James Clifford "Jim" Miller III (born June 25, 1942, in Atlanta, Georgia) is a former U.S. government official and economist who served as chairman of the Federal Trade Commission between 1981 and 1985 and as Budget Director for President Ronald Reagan between 1985 and 1988.
James Gaius Watt (born January 31, 1938) served as U.S. Secretary of the Interior from 1981 to 1983.
James Horace Burnley IV (born July 30, 1948) is an American politician and lawyer.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
Jesse Alexander Helms Jr. (October 18, 1921 – July 4, 2008) was an American politician and a leader in the conservative movement.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
John Bayard Anderson (February 15, 1922 – December 3, 2017) was a United States Congressman and presidential candidate from Illinois.
John Warnock Hinckley Jr. (born May 29, 1955) is an American man who, on March 30, 1981, attempted to assassinate U.S. President Ronald Reagan in Washington, D.C. He wounded Reagan with a bullet that ricocheted and hit him in the chest.
John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908 - April 29, 2006), also known as Ken Galbraith, was a Canadian-born economist, public official, and diplomat, and a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalism.
John Marlan Poindexter (born August 12, 1936) is a retired United States naval officer and Department of Defense official.
John Rusling Block (born February 15, 1935) is a former U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, during the Reagan administration.
John Stewart Herrington (born May 31, 1939) is an American Republican politician.
John Goodwin Tower (September 29, 1925 – April 5, 1991) was the first Republican United States Senator from Texas since Reconstruction.
Joseph R. "Joe" Wright Jr. (born 1938) works in business and used to work in the United States government.
"Just Say No" was an advertising campaign, part of the U.S. "War on Drugs", prevalent during the 1980s and early 1990s, to discourage children from engaging in illegal recreational drug use by offering various ways of saying no.
Kenneth M. "Ken" Duberstein (born April 21, 1944) served as U.S. President Ronald Reagan's White House Chief of Staff from 1988 to 1989.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
Korean Air Lines Flight 007 (also known as KAL007 and KE007)KAL 007 was used by air traffic control, while the public flight booking system used KE 007 was a scheduled Korean Air Lines flight from New York City to Seoul via Anchorage, Alaska.
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
Lauro Fred Cavazos Jr. (born January 4, 1927) is a U.S. educator and politician.
Lawrence Edward Walsh (January 8, 1912 – March 19, 2014) was an American lawyer and former U.S. District Court judge and Deputy Attorney General who was appointed Independent Counsel in December 1986 to investigate the Iran–Contra affair during the Reagan Administration.
The Lebanese Civil War (الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية – Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Lee Muller Thomas (born June 13, 1944) was Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency from 1985 to 1989 under President Ronald Reagan.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Lesley Rene Stahl (born December 16, 1941) is an American television journalist.
Lewis Franklin Powell Jr. (September 19, 1907 – August 25, 1998) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from 1971 to 1987.
The LGM-118 Peacekeeper, also known as the MX missile (for Missile-eXperimental), was a land-based ICBM deployed by the United States starting in 1986.
Under the 1977 Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), the Chairman of the Council of Ministers was the head of government and the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet was the head of state.
The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
Following is a list indicating the number of Article III federal judicial appointments made by each President of the United States.
Louis Uchitelle (born March 21, 1932) is a journalist and author.
Howard Malcolm "Mac" Baldrige Jr. (October 4, 1922July 25, 1987) was an American businessman.
The Malta Summit comprised a meeting between US President George H. W. Bush and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, taking place on December 2–3, 1989, just a few weeks after the fall of the Berlin Wall.
Margaret Mary Heckler (née O'Shaughnessy; born June 21, 1931) is a Republican politician from Massachusetts who served in the United States House of Representatives for eight terms, from 1967–83 and was later the Secretary of Health and Human Services and Ambassador to Ireland under President Ronald Reagan.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Martial law in Poland (Stan wojenny w Polsce) refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983, when the authoritarian communist government of the Polish People's Republic drastically restricted normal life by introducing martial law in an attempt to crush political opposition.
Martin Prager Mayer (born January 14, 1928, New York City) is the writer of 35 non-fiction books, including Madison Avenue, U.S.A. (1958), The Schools (1961), The Lawyers (1967), About Television (1972), The Bankers (1975), The Builders (1978), Risky Business: The Collapse of Lloyd's of London (1995), The Bankers: The Next Generation (1997), The Fed (2001), and The Judges (2005).
Medicaid in the United States is a joint federal and state program that helps with medical costs for some people with limited income and resources.
In the United States, Medicare is a national health insurance program, now administered by the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services of the U.S. federal government but begun in 1966 under the Social Security Administration.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean to the west and Gulf of Mexico to the east.
The MGM-31A Pershing was the missile used in the Pershing 1 and Pershing 1a field artillery missile systems.
Michael Keith Deaver (April 11, 1938 – August 18, 2007) was a member of President Ronald Reagan's White House staff serving as White House Deputy Chief of Staff under James Baker III and Donald Regan from January 1981 until May 1985.
Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is a retired American politician who served as the 65th Governor of Massachusetts, from 1975 to 1979 and again from 1983 to 1991.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States.
Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
The Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF) was an international peacekeeping force created in August 1982 following the 1981 U.S.-brokered ceasefire between the PLO and Israel to end their involvement in the conflict between Lebanon's pro-government and pro-Syrian factions.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins; July 6, 1921 – March 6, 2016) was an American film actress and the wife of Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States.
The National Association of Evangelicals (NAE) is an association of evangelical denominations, organizations, schools, churches and individuals.
The national debt of the United States is the public debt carried by the federal government of the United States, which is measured as the face value of the currently outstanding Treasury securities that have been issued by the Treasury and other federal government agencies.
National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.
The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (NSA) or at times informally termed the NSC Advisor,The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 1.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
New Federalism is a political philosophy of devolution, or the transfer of certain powers from the United States federal government back to the states.
The New Left was a broad political movement mainly in the 1960s and 1970s consisting of activists in the Western world who campaigned for a broad range of social issues such as civil and political rights, feminism, gay rights, abortion rights, gender roles and drug policy reforms.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Nicholas Frederick Brady (born April 11, 1930) is an American politician from the state of New Jersey, who was the United States Secretary of the Treasury under Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush, and is also known for articulating the Brady Plan in March 1989.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
The Northrop (later Northrop Grumman) B-2 Spirit, also known as the Stealth Bomber, is an American heavy penetration strategic bomber, featuring low observable stealth technology designed for penetrating dense anti-aircraft defenses; it is a flying wing design with a crew of two.
The Office of Economic Opportunity was the agency responsible for administering most of the War on Poverty programs created as part of United States President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society legislative agenda.
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP).
The Office of National Drug Control Policy is a component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States.
Oliver Laurence North (born October 7, 1943) is an American political commentator, television host, military historian, author, and retired United States Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel.
The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (OBRA-90) is a United States statute enacted pursuant to the budget reconciliation process to reduce the United States federal budget deficit.
Otis Ray Bowen (February 26, 1918 – May 4, 2013) was an American politician and physician who served as the 44th Governor of Indiana from 1973 to 1981 and as Secretary of Health and Human Services from 1985 to 1989.
The Oval Office is the working office space of the President of the United States located in the West Wing of the White House, Washington, DC.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938) is an American paleoconservative political commentator, author, syndicated columnist, politician, and broadcaster.
Paul Michael Kennedy (born 17 June 1945) is a British historian specialising in the history of international relations, economic power and grand strategy.
Paul Adolph Volcker Jr. (born September 5, 1927) is an American economist.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Philip Charles Habib (February 25, 1920 – May 25, 1992) was an American career diplomat.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane.
Potter Stewart (January 23, 1915December 7, 1985) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from 1958 to 1981.
The "Powell Doctrine" is a journalist-created term, named after General Colin Powell in the run-up to the 1990–91 Gulf War.
Margaret Thatcher served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1979 to November 1990.
A premise or premiss is a statement that an argument claims will induce or justify a conclusion.
The presidency of George H. W. Bush began at noon EST on January 20, 1989, when George H. W. Bush was inaugurated as 41st President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1993.
The presidency of Jimmy Carter began at noon EST on January 20, 1977, when Jimmy Carter was inaugurated as 39th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1981.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
A Presidential directive, or executive action, is a written or oral instruction or declaration issued by the President of the United States, which may draw upon the powers vested in the president by the U.S. Constitution, statutory law, or, in certain cases, congressional and judicial acquiescence.
The Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization or PATCO was a United States trade union that operated from 1968 until its decertification in 1981 following a strike that was declared illegal and broken by the Reagan Administration.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.
Raymond James "Ray" Donovan (born August 31, 1930) is an American businessman and former politician.
The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States under the Reagan Administration to overwhelm the global influence of the Soviet Union in an attempt to end the Cold War.
The Reagan Era or Age of Reagan is a periodization of recent American history used by historians and political observers to emphasize that the conservative "Reagan Revolution" led by President Ronald Reagan in domestic and foreign policy had a lasting impact.
Reaganomics (a portmanteau of Reagan and economics attributed to Paul Harvey) refers to the economic policies promoted by U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the 1980s.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
The 1976 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1976 U.S. presidential election.
The 1980 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1980 U.S. presidential election.
The 1988 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process that Republican voters used to choose their nominee for President of the United States in the 1988 U.S. presidential election.
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.
The Reykjavík Summit was a summit meeting between U.S. President Ronald Reagan and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev, held in Höfði in Reykjavík, on 11–12 October 1986.
Richard Edmund Lyng (June 29, 1918 – February 1, 2003) was a U.S. administrator.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Richard Edgar Pipes (Ryszard Pipes; July 11, 1923 – May 17, 2018) was a Polish American academic who specialized in Russian history, particularly with respect to the Soviet Union, who espoused a strong anti-communist point of view throughout his career.
Richard Schultz Schweiker (June 1, 1926 – July 31, 2015) was an American businessman and politician.
Robert Heron Bork (March 1, 1927 – December 19, 2012) was an American judge, government official, and legal scholar who advocated the judicial philosophy of originalism.
President Ronald Reagan nominated Judge Robert Bork to serve as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court on July 1, 1987.
Robert Carl "Bud" McFarlane (born July 12, 1937) is a retired Marine Corps officer who served as National Security Advisor to President of the United States Ronald Reagan from 1983 through 1985.
The Rockwell B-1 LancerThe name "Lancer" is only applied to the B-1B version, after the program was revived.
In political science, rollback is the strategy of forcing a change in the major policies of a state, usually by replacing its ruling regime.
Romano Louis Mazzoli (born November 2, 1932) represented Kentucky's Third Congressional District (Louisville, Kentucky and other parts of Jefferson County, Kentucky) in the United States House of Representatives from 1971 through 1995 as a Democrat.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Center for Public Affairs is the presidential library and final resting place of Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989), and his wife Nancy Reagan.
The RSD-10 Pioneer (ракета средней дальности (РСД) «Пионер» tr.: Raketa Sredney Dalnosti (RSD) "Pioneer"; Medium-Range Missile "Pioneer") was an intermediate-range ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead, deployed by the Soviet Union from 1976 to 1988.
Samuel Riley Pierce Jr. (September 8, 1922October 31, 2000) was Ronald Reagan's Secretary of Housing and Urban Development from January 23, 1981 until January 20, 1989.
The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) is a democratic socialist political party in Nicaragua.
Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, having served from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan until 2006.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
A savings and loan association (S&L), or thrift institution, is a financial institution that specializes in accepting savings, deposits, and making mortgage and other loans.
The savings and loan crisis of the 1980s and 1990s (commonly dubbed the S&L crisis) was the failure of 1,043 out of the 3,234 savings and loan associations in the United States from 1986 to 1995: the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC) closed or otherwise resolved 296 institutions from 1986 to 1989 and the Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC) closed or otherwise resolved 747 institutions from 1989 to 1995.
School prayer, in the context of religious liberty, is state-sanctioned or mandatory prayer by students in public schools.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
A single market is a type of trade bloc in which most trade barriers have been removed (for goods) with some common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of the factors of production (capital and labour) and of enterprise and services.
In the United States, Social Security is the commonly used term for the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program and is administered by the Social Security Administration.
Solidarity (Solidarność, pronounced; full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"—Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność”) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Southern Lebanon (Lebanese Arabic: Jnoub, meaning "south") is the area of Lebanon comprising the South Governorate and the Nabatiye Governorate.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
The Speaker of the House is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives.
The Special Activities Division (SAD) is a division of the United States Central Intelligence Agency responsible for covert operations.
In economics, stagflation, a portmanteau of stagnation and inflation, is a situation in which the inflation rate is high, the economic growth rate slows, and unemployment remains steadily high.
Under United States tax law, the standard deduction is a dollar amount that non-itemizers may subtract from their income before income tax is applied.
Star Wars is an American epic space opera media franchise, centered on a film series created by George Lucas.
START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) was a bilateral treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms.
In American political discourse, states' rights are political powers held for the state governments rather than the federal government according to the United States Constitution, reflecting especially the enumerated powers of Congress and the Tenth Amendment.
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States.
Bantu Stephen Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a South African anti-apartheid activist.
Steven F. Hayward is an American author, political commentator, and policy scholar, who argues for libertarian and conservative viewpoints in his writings.
A stock market crash is a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices across a significant cross-section of a stock market, resulting in a significant loss of paper wealth.
The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) were two rounds of bilateral conferences and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of arms control.
The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposed missile defense system intended to protect the United States from attack by ballistic strategic nuclear weapons (intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles).
Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly known as the Food Stamp Program, provides food-purchasing assistance for low- and no-income people living in the United States.
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is a United States government means-tested welfare program that provides cash assistance and health care coverage (i.e., Medicaid) to people with low-income and limited assets who are either aged 65 or older, blind, or disabled (children included).
Supply-side economics is a macroeconomic theory arguing that economic growth can be most effectively created by lowering taxes and decreasing regulation.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.
Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
The Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, also known as TEFRA, is a United States federal law that rescinded some of the effects of the Kemp-Roth Act passed the year before.
The U.S. Congress passed the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA) to simplify the income tax code, broaden the tax base and eliminate many tax shelters.
The "Teapot Dome Scandal" was a bribery scandal involving the administration of United States President Warren G. Harding from 19211923.
"Tear down this wall!" is a line from a speech made by US President Ronald Reagan in West Berlin on June 12, 1987, calling for the leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, to open up the barrier which had divided West and East Berlin since 1961.
Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (February 22, 1932 – August 25, 2009) was an American politician who served in the United States Senate from Massachusetts for almost 47 years, from 1962 until his death in 2009.
Terrel Howard Bell (November 11, 1921June 22, 1996) was the Secretary of Education in the Cabinet of President Ronald Reagan.
The Journal of American History is the official academic journal of the Organization of American Historians.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The third rail of a nation's politics is a metaphor for any issue so controversial that it is "charged" and "untouchable" to the extent that any politician or public official who dares to broach the subject will invariably suffer politically.
Thomas K. Delahanty (born c. 1935) is a former District of Columbia policeman, who was wounded during the assassination attempt on U.S. President Ronald Reagan on Monday, March 30, 1981, in Washington, D.C.
Timothy J. McCarthy (born June 20, 1949) is a former United States Secret Service agent who served under five U.S presidents; from Richard Nixon to Bill Clinton.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Thomas Phillip "Tip" O'Neill Jr.
The Tower Commission was commissioned on December 1, 1986 by United States president Ronald Reagan in response to the Iran–Contra affair, in which senior administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran, which was the subject of an arms embargo.
The Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 (P.L. 98-573) clarified the conditions under which unfair trade cases under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-618) can be pursued.
The Twenty-fifth Amendment (Amendment XXV) to the United States Constitution deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United States has at various times in recent history provided support to terrorist and paramilitary organizations around the world.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system.
The Office of Special Counsel is an office of the United States Department of Justice.
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.
The 1980 United States elections was held on November 4.
The 1982 United States elections were held on November 2.
The 1986 United States elections were held on November 4, and elected the members of the 100th United States Congress.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States is party to many free-trade agreements (FTAs) worldwide.
The United States Intelligence Community (IC) is a federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities to support the foreign policy and national security of the United States.
The United States invasion of Grenada was a 1983 invasion led by the United States of the Caribbean island nation of Grenada, which has a population of about 91,000 and is located north of Venezuela, that resulted in a U.S. victory within a matter of weeks.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The United States presidential election of 1924 was the 35th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 1924.
The United States presidential election of 1976 was the 48th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1976.
The United States presidential election of 1980 was the 49th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1988 was the 51st quadrennial United States presidential election.
The inauguration of the President of the United States is a ceremony to mark the commencement of a new four-year term of the President of the United States.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.
Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician, diplomat, and lawyer who served as the 42nd Vice President of the United States from 1977 to 1981, and as a United States Senator from Minnesota (1964–76).
War on Drugs is an American term usually applied to the U.S. federal government's campaign of prohibition of drugs, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade.
Warren Earl Burger (September 17, 1907 – June 25, 1995) was the 15th Chief Justice of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1986.
The Washington Hilton, which was officially known as the Hilton Washington for a period in the early 21st century and is sometimes referred to colloquially as the Hinckley Hilton by locals, is a hotel in Washington, D.C. It is located at 1919 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., roughly at the boundaries of the Kalorama, Dupont Circle, and Adams Morgan neighborhoods.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States during the early 1970s, following a break-in by five men at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972, and President Richard Nixon's administration's subsequent attempt to cover up its involvement.
Wealth inequality in the United States (also known as the wealth gap) is the unequal distribution of assets among residents of the United States.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The White House Chief of Staff has traditionally been the highest-ranking non-elected employee of the White House.
The White House Communications Director or White House Director of Communications, also known officially as Assistant to the President for Communications, is part of the senior staff of the President of the United States, and is responsible for developing and promoting the agenda of the President and leading its media campaign.
The White House Deputy Chief of Staff is officially the top aide to the White House Chief of Staff, who is the senior aide to the President of the United States.
William John Bennett (born July 31, 1943) is an American conservative pundit, politician, and political theorist, who served as Secretary of Education from 1985 to 1988 under President Ronald Reagan.
William French Smith II (August 26, 1917 – October 29, 1990) was an American lawyer.
William Joseph "Bill" Casey (March 13, 1913 – May 6, 1987) was the Director of Central Intelligence from 1981 to 1987.
William Edward Leuchtenburg (born September 28, 1922 in Ridgewood, New York) is William Rand Kenan Jr.
William Patrick Clark Jr. (October 23, 1931August 10, 2013) was an American rancher, judge, and public servant who served under President Ronald Reagan as the Deputy Secretary of State from 1981 to 1982, United States National Security Advisor from 1982 to 1983, and the Secretary of the Interior from 1983 to 1985.
William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States for 33 years, first as an Associate Justice from 1972 to 1986, and then as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2005.
William Doyle Ruckelshaus (born July 24, 1932) is an American attorney and former U.S. government official.
Calvin William Verity Jr. (January 26, 1917 – January 3, 2007) was a U.S. administrator and steel industrialist.
William R. Horton (born August 12, 1951) is an American convicted felon who, while serving a life sentence for murder (without the possibility of parole), was the beneficiary of a Massachusetts weekend furlough program.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The 1980 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States convened at Joe Louis Arena in Detroit, Michigan, from July 14 to July 17, 1980.
The 1982 Lebanon War, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, or מבצע של"ג Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil or Mivtsa Sheleg) by the Israeli government, later known in Israel as the Lebanon War or the First Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון הראשונה, Milhemet Levanon Harishona), and known in Lebanon as "the invasion" (الاجتياح, Al-ijtiyāḥ), began on 6 June 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) invaded southern Lebanon, after repeated attacks and counter-attacks between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) operating in southern Lebanon and the IDF that had caused civilian casualties on both sides of the border.
The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a suicide attack that occurred on October 23, 1983, in Beirut, Lebanon, during the Lebanese Civil War.
On 5 April 1986, three people were killed and 229 injured when La Belle discothèque was bombed in the Friedenau district of West Berlin.
The 1988 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at The Omni in Atlanta, Georgia, from July 18–July 21, 1988, to select candidates for the 1988 presidential election.
The 1988 Republican National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held in the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans, Louisiana from August 15 to August 18, 1988.
The 600-ship Navy was a strategic plan of the United States Navy during the 1980s to rebuild its fleet after cutbacks that followed the end of the Vietnam War.
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