259 relations: Africa, Albania, Alderney, Alexandre Pétion, Anglican Communion, Asia, Asymmetric federalism, Austria, Autonomous communities of Spain, Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union, Bangladesh, Borough president, Boroughs of New York City, Botswana, Brazil, Breakup of Yugoslavia, Cabinet (government), Cabinet of the United Kingdom, Captains Regent, Central America, Chairman, Chancellor (education), Charles de Gaulle, Cohabitation (government), College of Justice, Commander-in-chief, Commonwealth of England, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Constitutional convention (political custom), Constitutional monarchy, Council of State, Court of Cassation (France), Court of Session, Czech Republic, De facto, De jure, Dictator, Dictatorship, Dmitry Medvedev, Dominican Republic, Electoral College (United States), Emperor, England, Estado Novo (Portugal), Estonia, Eternal leaders of Juche Korea, Executive (government), Executive Council (Commonwealth countries), Executive president, Federal Assembly (Russia), ..., Federal Assembly (Switzerland), Federal Council (Switzerland), Federal Electoral Tribunal, Federal subjects of Russia, Ferdinand Marcos, First Portuguese Republic, François Duvalier, France, Francisco Craveiro Lopes, French Fifth Republic, French Fourth Republic, French language, French Revolution, French Third Republic, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Germany, Government, Governor, Governor-general, Governor-General of the Irish Free State, Grand and General Council, Great Officer of State, Greece, Haiti, Harvard University, Head, Head of government, Head of state, Head of State of Estonia, Head of the Chechen Republic, Henri Christophe, Henry Dunster, High Court of Justiciary, House of Commons of Canada, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Hungary, Iceland, Idi Amin, Illinois, India, Iraq, Irish Free State, Isle of Man, Israel, Italian language, Italian Republic (Napoleonic), Italy, Joaquín Balaguer, John Bradshaw (judge), Josip Broz Tito, Judge, Julius Caesar, Junta of National Reconstruction, Kim Il-sung, Latin, Latin America, Leader of the House of Commons, Leader of the House of Lords, Les Liaisons dangereuses, List of current heads of state and government, List of French monarchs, List of heads of state of the Soviet Union, List of leaders of the Soviet Union, List of presidential qualifications by country, List of presidents of the institutions of the European Union, List of presidents of the Royal Society, Lord President of the Council, Louisiana, Magdalene College, Cambridge, Magistrate, Malta, Massachusetts Provincial Congress, Mayor, Mexican general election, 2006, Mexico, Minister-president, Ministry (collective executive), Mobutu Sese Seko, Monarch, Monarchy, Monarchy in the Irish Free State, Monarchy of Spain, Mr. President (title), Municipal president, Municipalities of Mexico, Napoleon, Nation state, National Assembly (France), National Council of Government (Uruguay), New Year's Day, New York City, Nicaragua, Nicolae Ceaușescu, Nobility, Nobles of the Robe, One-party state, Order in Council, Pakistan, Parish, Parish (administrative division), Parlement, Parliament, Parliamentary procedure, Parliamentary republic, Paulette (tax), Philippines, Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, Polish language, Portugal, Portuguese language, Postcolonialism, Premier, Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, President for Life, President of Austria, President of Brazil, President of Finland, President of France, President of Ireland, President of Liberia, President of Mexico, President of Portugal, President of the Board of Trade, President of the Continental Congress, President of the Council of Ministers, President of the European Commission, President of the Executive Council, President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State, President of the Republic of China, President of the States of Alderney, President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, President of the Swiss Confederation, President of the United States, President of Tynwald, Presidential sash, Presidential system, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, Prime minister, Prime Minister of Croatia, Prime Minister of Estonia, Prime Minister of France, Prime Minister of Italy, Prime Minister of Poland, Prime Minister of Russia, Prime Minister of Spain, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Privy council, Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Questia Online Library, Rafael Carrera, Ramzan Kadyrov, Republic, Republic of Ireland, Republics of Russia, Res publica, Roman dictator, Romania, Romanian Revolution, Ruffles and flourishes, Russia, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Saddam Hussein, Salute, San Marino, Scotland, Semi-presidential system, Singapore, Sister republic, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, South Africa, South America, Soviet of Nationalities, Soviet Union, Spain, Speaker (politics), Sri Lanka, State (polity), Sulla, Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, Supreme leader, Suriname, Switzerland, Symmetric federalism, Taiwan, Tatarstan, Title, Two-round system, U.S. state, Uganda, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States, United States Constitution, United States presidential election, 1824, United States presidential election, 1876, United States presidential election, 1888, United States presidential election, 2000, United States presidential election, 2016, University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Veto, Vice president, Vice President of the United States, War, Washington's Birthday, Western world, William Brouncker, 2nd Viscount Brouncker, Yale University, Zaire. 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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alderney (Aurigny; Auregnais: Aoeur'gny) is the northernmost of the inhabited Channel Islands.
Alexandre Sabès Pétion (April 2, 1770 – March 29, 1818) was the first President of the Republic of Haiti from 1807 until his death in 1818.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asymmetric federalism or asymmetrical federalism is found in a federation or confederation in which different constituent states possess different powers: one or more of the states has considerably more autonomy than the other substates, although they have the same constitutional status.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidegoa, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma, comunautat autonòma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.
An Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) of the Soviet Union (автономная советская социалистическая республика, АССР) was a type of administrative unit in the Soviet Union created for certain nations.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Borough president is an elective office in each of the five boroughs of New York City.
New York City encompasses five county-level administrative divisions called boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, The Bronx, and Staten Island.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s.
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.
The Captains Regent (Italian: Capitani reggenti) are the two heads of state of the Republic of San Marino.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The chairman (also chairperson, chairwoman or chair) is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly.
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university, usually either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Cohabitation is a system of divided government that occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as France, when the President is from a different political party than the majority of the members of parliament.
The College of Justice includes the Supreme Courts of Scotland, and its associated bodies.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
A Council of State is the name of a governmental body in a country, or a subdivision of a country, with a function that varies by jurisdiction.
The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation) founded in 1804 is one of France's courts of last resort having jurisdiction over all matters triable in the judicial stream with scope of certifying questions of law and review in determining miscarriages of justice.
The Court of Session (Cùirt an t-Seisein; Coort o Session) is the supreme civil court of Scotland, and constitutes part of the College of Justice; the supreme criminal court of Scotland is the High Court of Justiciary.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power.
A dictatorship is an authoritarian form of government, characterized by a single leader or group of leaders with either no party or a weak party, little mass mobilization, and limited political pluralism.
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The Estado Novo ("New State"), or the Second Republic, was the corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal in 1933, which was considered fascist.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The official designation of Eternal Leaders of Juche Korea (주체조선의 영원한 수령) was established by a line in the preamble to the Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, as amended on 30 June 2016, and in subsequent revisions.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
An Executive Council in Commonwealth constitutional practice based on the Westminster system is a constitutional organ which exercises executive power and (notionally) advises the governor or governor-general.
An executive president is a president who exercises active executive power in certain systems of government.
The Federal Assembly (p) is the national legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation (1993).
The Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung, Assemblée fédérale, Assemblea federale, Assamblea federala) is Switzerland's federal legislature.
The Federal Council is the seven-member executive council which constitutes the federal government of the Swiss Confederation and serves as the collective executive head of government and state of Switzerland.
The Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación, or TEPJF) is a venue within the judiciary of Mexico that specialises in electoral matters.
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat who was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.
The First Portuguese Republic (Primeira República Portuguesa; officially: República Portuguesa, Portuguese Republic) spans a complex 16-year period in the history of Portugal, between the end of the period of constitutional monarchy marked by the 5 October 1910 revolution and the 28 May ''coup d'état'' of 1926.
François Duvalier (14 April 190721 April 1971), also known as PapaDoc, was the President of Haiti from 1957 to 1971.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes, GCTE, ComC, GCA, (12 April 1894 – 2 September 1964) was a Portuguese politician and military man.
The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.
The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm.
The Governor-General (Seanascal) was the official representative of the sovereign of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1936.
The Grand and General Council (Consiglio Grande e Generale) is the parliament of San Marino.
In the United Kingdom the Great Officers of State are traditional ministers of The Crown who either inherit their positions or are appointed to exercise certain largely ceremonial functions or to operate as members of the government.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
A head is the part of an organism which usually includes the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions such as sight, hearing, smell, and taste, respectively.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The Head of State of Estonia or State Elder (Riigivanem) (a literal translation: Elder of State) was the official title of the Estonian head of state from 1920 to 1937.
The Head of the Chechen Republic (formerly President of the Chechen Republic or President of Chechnya) is the highest office within the political system of the Chechen Republic.
Henry Christophe (6 October 1767 – 8 October 1820) was a former slave of Bambara ethnicity in West Africa, and perhaps of Igbo descent, and key leader in the Haitian Revolution, which succeeded in gaining independence from France in 1804.
Henry Dunster (November 26, 1609 (baptized) – February 27, 1658/1659) was an Anglo-American Puritan clergyman and the first president of Harvard College.
The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland.
The House of Commons of Canada (Chambre des communes du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Idi Amin Dada (2816 August 2003) was a Ugandan politician and military officer.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana) was a short-lived (1802–1805) republic located in Northern Italy.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Joaquín Antonio Balaguer Ricardo (1 September 1906 – 14 July 2002) was the President of the Dominican Republic who served three non-consecutive terms for that office from 1960 to 1962, 1966 to 1978, and 1986 to 1996.
John Bradshaw (15 July 1602 – 31 October 1659) was an English judge.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The Junta of National Reconstruction (Junta de Gobierno de Reconstrucción Nacional) officially ruled Nicaragua from July 1979 to January 1985.
Kim Il-sung (or Kim Il Sung) (born Kim Sŏng-ju; 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the first leader of North Korea, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
The Leader of the House of Commons is generally a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons.
The Leader of the House of Lords is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Lords.
Les Liaisons dangereuses (Dangerous Liaisons) is a French epistolary novel by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, first published in four volumes by Durand Neveu from March 23, 1782.
This is a list of current heads of state and heads of government.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
The Constitution of the Soviet Union recognised the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and the earlier Central Executive Committee (CEC) of the Congress of Soviets as the highest organs of state authority in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
Under the 1977 Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), the Chairman of the Council of Ministers was the head of government and the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet was the head of state.
This is a list of qualifications that potential candidates must possess in order to stand for election as president of a country.
This is a list of presidents of the institutions of the European Union (EU).
The President of the Royal Society (PRS) is the elected Head of the Royal Society of London who presides over meetings of the society's council.
The Lord President of the Council is the fourth of the Great Officers of State of the United Kingdom, ranking below the Lord High Treasurer but above the Lord Privy Seal.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Magdalene College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge.
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Massachusetts Provincial Congress (1774–1780) was a provisional government created in the Province of Massachusetts Bay early in the American Revolution.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
General elections were held in Mexico on Sunday, July 2, 2006.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
A minister-president or minister president is the head of government in a number of European countries or subnational governments with a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government where he or she presides over the council of ministers.
In constitutional usage in Commonwealth realms and in some other systems, a ministry (usually preceded by the definite article, i.e., the ministry) is a collective body of government ministers headed by a prime minister or premier, and also referred to as the head of government.
Marshal Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga (born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu; 14 October 1930 – 7 September 1997) was the military dictator and President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (which Mobutu renamed Zaire in 1971) from 1965 to 1997.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
From its foundation on 6 December 1922 until 11 December 1936, the Irish Free State was in accordance with its constitution, governed formally under a form of constitutional monarchy.
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
The title "Mr.
A presidente municipal (English: "municipal president") is the chief of government of municipios in Mexico.
Municipalities (municipios in Spanish) are the second-level administrative divisions of Mexico, where the first-level administrative division is the state (Spanish: estado).
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).
The National Council of Government (Consejo Nacional de Gobierno) was the ruling body in Uruguay between 1952 and 1967.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Nicolae Ceaușescu (26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian Communist politician.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Under the Old Regime of France, the Nobles of the Robe or Nobles of the Gown (Noblesse de robe) were French aristocrats whose rank came from holding certain judicial or administrative posts.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
An Order in Council is a type of legislation in many countries, especially the Commonwealth realms.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
A parish is a church territorial entity constituting a division within a diocese.
A parish is an administrative division used by several countries.
A parlement, in the Ancien Régime of France, was a provincial appellate court.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
Parliamentary procedure is the body of rules, ethics and customs governing meetings and other operations of clubs, organizations, legislative bodies and other deliberative assemblies.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
La Paulette (after the financier Charles Paulet, who proposed it) was the name commonly given to the "annual right" (droit annuel), a special tax levied by the French Crown under the Ancien Régime.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Pierre Ambroise François Choderlos de Laclos (18 October 1741 – 5 September 1803) was a French novelist, official, freemason and army general, best known for writing the epistolary novel Les Liaisons dangereuses (Dangerous Liaisons) (1782).
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonised people and their lands.
Premier is a title for the head of government in some countries, states and sub-national governments.
The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the three-member body which collectively serves as head of state of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
President for Life is a title assumed by or granted to some leaders to remove their term limit irrevocably as a way of removing future challenges to their authority and legitimacy.
The President of Austria, officially the Federal President of the Republic of Austria (Bundespräsident der Republik Österreich) is the head of state of the Austrian Republic.
The President of Brazil, officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil.
The President of the Republic of Finland (Suomen tasavallan presidentti, Republiken Finlands president) is the head of state of Finland.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces.
The President of the Republic of Liberia is the head of state and government of Liberia.
The President of Mexico (Presidente de México), officially known as the President of the United Mexican States (Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is the head of state and government of Mexico.
The President of the Portuguese Republic (Presidente da República Portuguesa) is the executive head of state of Portugal.
The President of the Board of Trade is head of the Board of Trade.
The president of the Continental Congress was the presiding officer of the Continental Congress, the convention of delegates that emerged as the first (transitional) national government of the United States during the American Revolution.
The President of the Council of Ministers or sometimes Chairman (in English, sometimes called informally Prime Minister) is the most senior member of the cabinet in the executive branch of government.
The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the:European Union.
President of the Executive Council may refer to.
The President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State (Uachtarán ar Ard-Chomhairle Shaorstát Éireann) was the head of government or prime minister of the Irish Free State which existed from 1922 to 1937.
The President of Taiwan, officially the President of the Republic of China, is the head of state and the head of government of Taiwan.
The President of the States of Alderney, also known as the President of Alderney, is the elected head of Alderney's legislature, the States of Alderney and the Leader of Alderney.
The President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the head of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.
The President of the Confederation, colloquially known as the President of Switzerland or Federal President, is the head of Switzerland's seven-member Federal Council, the country's executive branch.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The President of Tynwald (Eaghtyrane Tinvaal) is the presiding officer at the sittings of Tynwald Court in Douglas and is elected by the members of Tynwald from amongst their number.
A presidential sash is a cloth sash worn by presidents of many nations in the world.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (Президиум Верховного Совета or Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta) was a Soviet governmental institution – a permanent body of the Supreme Soviets (parliaments).
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
The Prime Minister of Croatia (Premijer/ Premijerka Hrvatske), officially the President of the Government of the Republic of Croatia (Predsjednik/ Predsjednica Vlade Republike Hrvatske), is Croatia's head of government, and is the de facto the most powerful and influential state officeholder in the Croatian system of government.
The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi peaminister, literally translated as Head Minister of Estonia) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia.
The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.
The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica Italiana), commonly referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic.
The President of the Council of Ministers (Polish: Prezes Rady Ministrów), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister of Poland (Polish: Premier Polski), is the leader of the cabinet and the head of government of Poland.
The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (translit), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister (translit) is the head of the Russian government and the second most powerful figure of the Russian Federation.
The Prime Minister of Spain, officially the President of the Government of Spain (Presidente del Gobierno de España), is the head of the government of Spain.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.
José Rafael Carrera Turcios (24 October 1814 – 14 April 1865) was the president of Guatemala from 1844 to 1848 and from 1851 until his death in 1865, after being appointed President for Life in 1854.
Ramzan Akhmadovich Kadyrov (p, Къадар Ахьмат-кIант Рамзан Q̇adar Aẋmat-khant Ramzan; born 5 October 1976) is the Head of the Chechen Republic and a former member of the Chechen independence movement.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
According to the Constitution, the Russian Federation is divided into 85 federal subjects (constituent units), 22 of which are "republics".
Res publica is a Latin phrase, loosely meaning 'public affair'.
A dictator was a magistrate of the Roman Republic, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Romanian Revolution (Revoluția Română) was a period of violent civil unrest in Romania in December 1989 and part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries.
Ruffles and flourishes are preceding fanfare for honors music (ceremonial music for distinguished people).
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
A salute is a gesture or other action used to display respect.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
A sister republic (république sœur) was a republic established by the French army that was catalyzed by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Soviet of Nationalities (Совет Национальностей, Sovyet Natsionalnostey) was the upper chamber of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot in accordance with the principles of Soviet democracy.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.
A supreme leader typically refers to the person among a number of leaders of a state, organization or other such group who has been given or is able to exercise the mostor complete authority over it.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Symmetric federalism refers to a federal system of government in which each constituent state to the federation possess equal powers.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Republic of Tatarstan (p; Татарстан Республикасы), or simply Tatarstan, is a federal subject (a republic) of the Russian Federation, located in the Volga Federal District.
A title is a prefix or suffix added to someone's name in certain contexts.
The two-round system (also known as the second ballot, runoff voting or ballotage) is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States presidential election of 1824 was the tenth quadrennial presidential election, held from Tuesday, October 26, to Thursday, December 2, 1824.
The United States presidential election of 1876 was the 23rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1876.
The United States presidential election of 1888 was the 26th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1888.
The United States presidential election of 2000 was the 54th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2016 was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
A vice president (in British English: vice-president for governments and director for businesses) is an officer in government or business who is below a president (managing director) in rank.
The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, or Veep) is a constitutional officer in the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States as the President of the Senate under Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, as well as the second highest executive branch officer, after the President of the United States.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
Washington's Birthday is a United States federal holiday celebrated on the third Monday of February in honor of George Washington, the first President of the United States, who was born on February 22, 1732.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
William Brouncker, 2nd Viscount Brouncker, PRS (1620 – 5 April 1684) was an English mathematician who introduced Brouncker's formula, and was the first President of the Royal Society.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Zaire, officially the Republic of Zaire (République du Zaïre), was the name for the Democratic Republic of the Congo that existed between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa.
Co-President, Co-president, Collective presidency, Council President, Council president, History of president, Pres., Presidant, President (history of the term), President (title), President of the Assembly, Presidential, Presidents, Presidnt, The presidents.