106 relations: Alain Poher, Algerian War, Ambassador, Amnesty, Andorra, Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, Élysée Palace, Charles de Gaulle, Chauffeur, Château de Marly, Château de Rambouillet, Co-Princes of Andorra, Cohabitation (government), Commander-in-Chief of the French Armed Forces, Congress of the French Parliament, Conseil d'État (France), Constitution, Constitution of France, Constitutional Council (France), De facto, Departments of France, Electoral college, Emmanuel Macron, Euro, European Council, Ex officio member, Excellency, Executive (government), Félix Faure, Force de dissuasion, Foreign relations of France, Fort de Brégançon, François Hollande, François Mitterrand, France, French Armed Forces, French Civil Service, French constitutional law of 23 July 2008, French constitutional referendum, 2000, French Fifth Republic, French Fourth Republic, French presidential election referendum, 1962, French Revolution of 1848, French Second Republic, French Third Republic, Georges Pompidou, Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, Government of France, Grand Master (order), Hôtel de Marigny, ..., Head of state, Henri Georges Boulay de la Meurthe, Impeachment, Income tax, International Criminal Court, Investiture, Jacques Chirac, Journal officiel de la République française, July Revolution, La Lanterne (Versailles), Le Parisien, Legion of Honour, Life imprisonment, List of French monarchs, List of French non-presidential heads of state by tenure, List of French Presidents by longevity, List of personal coats of arms of Presidents of the French Republic, List of political parties in France, List of Presidents of France, List of Presidents of France by age, List of Presidents of France by tenure, List of Presidents of the Senate of France, Louis Philippe I, Marie François Sadi Carnot, Metro International, Michel Charasse, Mr. President (title), Napoleon III, National Assembly (France), National Order of Merit (France), National security, Nicolas Sarkozy, Ordonnance, Pardon, Paris, Parliamentary system, Patronage, Paul Doumer, Paul Gorguloff, Presses Universitaires de France, Prime Minister of France, Promulgation, Referendum, René Dosière, Rule by decree, Sante Geronimo Caserio, Self-coup, Semi-presidential system, Senate (France), Sovereign immunity, Statute of limitations, Two-round system, Universal suffrage, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, Veto, 1848 in France. Expand index (56 more) » « Shrink index
Alain Émile Louis Marie Poher (17 April 1909 – 9 December 1996) was a French centrist politician, affiliated first with the Popular Republican Movement and later with the Democratic Centre.
An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment.
Amnesty (from the Greek ἀμνηστία amnestia, "forgetfulness, passing over") is defined as: "A pardon extended by the government to a group or class of people, usually for a political offense; the act of a sovereign power officially forgiving certain classes of people who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted." It includes more than pardon, inasmuch as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the offense.
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
The Cathedral of the Most Holy Savior and of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist in the Lateran, (Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano) - also known as the Papal Archbasilica of St.
The Élysée Palace (Palais de l'Élysée) is the official residence of the President of France.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
A chauffeur is a person employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle, especially a luxury vehicle such as a large sedan or limousine.
The Château de Marly was a relatively small French royal residence located in what has become Marly-le-Roi, the commune that existed at the edge of the royal park.
The Château de Rambouillet, also known in English as the Castle of Rambouillet, is a château in the town of Rambouillet, Yvelines department, in the Île-de-France region in northern France, southwest of Paris.
The Co-Princes of Andorra or Co-Monarchs of Andorra are jointly the head of state (Cap de l'Estat) of the Principality of Andorra, a landlocked microstate lying in the Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain.
Cohabitation is a system of divided government that occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as France, when the President is from a different political party than the majority of the members of parliament.
The Commander-in-Chief of the French Armed Forces (French: Commandant en chef des forces armées françaises) is the supreme authority for military matters of the French Armed Forces, a position vested in the President of the Republic.
The Congress of the French Parliament (Congrès du Parlement français) is the name given to the body created when both houses of the present-day French Parliament—the National Assembly and the Senate—meet at the Palace of Versailles to vote on revisions to the Constitution or to listen to an address by the President of the French Republic.
In France, the Council of State (Conseil d'État) is a body of the French national government that acts both as legal adviser of the executive branch and as the supreme court for administrative justice.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958.
The Constitutional Council (Conseil constitutionnel) is the highest constitutional authority in France.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
An electoral college is a set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate to a particular office.
Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (born 21 December 1977) is a French politician serving as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 14 May 2017.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's (EU) overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.
An ex officio member is a member of a body (a board, committee, council, etc.) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office.
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Félix François Faure (30 January 1841 – 16 February 1899) was President of France from 1895 until his death in 1899.
The Force de frappe (French for: strike force), or Force de dissuasion after 1961,Gunston, Bill.
In the 19th century France built a new colonial empire second only to the British Empire.
Aerial view le Fort de Brégançon The Fort de Brégançon is the official retreat of the President of France since 1968.
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017.
François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The French Armed Forces (Forces armées françaises) encompass the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the National Guard and the Gendarmerie of the French Republic.
The French Civil Service (fonction publique française) is the set of civil servants (fonctionnaires) working for the French government.
The Constitutional law on the Modernisation of the Institutions of the Fifth Republic (loi constitutionnelle de modernisation des institutions de la Ve République) was enacted into French constitutional law by the Parliament of France in July 2008, to reform state institutions.
A constitutional referendum was held in France on 24 September 2000.
The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.
The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution.
A referendum on the direct election of the President was held in France on 28 October 1962.
The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe.
The French Second Republic was a short-lived republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte that initiated the Second Empire.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 19112 April 1974) was Prime Minister of France from 1962 to 1968—the longest tenure in the position's history—and later President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974.
Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), in the United States often known simply as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.
Grand Master (Magister generalis; Großmeister) is a title of the supreme head of various orders, including chivalric orders such as military orders and dynastic orders of knighthood.
The Hôtel de Marigny is a town house in Paris, France, on the Avenue Marigny, not far from the Elysée Palace.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Henri Georges Boulay de la Meurthe was the only person to ever have the title of Vice-President of France.
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, "dress" from vestis "robe"), is the formal installation of an incumbent.
Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.
The Journal officiel de la République française (JORF or JO) is the government gazette of the French Republic.
The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution (révolution de Juillet), Third French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French ("Three Glorious "), led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848.
La Lanterne is a hunting lodge in Versailles.
Le Parisien (French for "The Parisian") is a French daily newspaper covering both international and national news, and local news of Paris and its suburbs.
The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.
Life imprisonment (also known as imprisonment for life, life in prison, a life sentence, a life term, lifelong incarceration, life incarceration or simply life) is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
This is a list of Republican French heads of state who have not held the title "President of the Republic" since the final fall of House of Capet in 1848, as sorted by length of service.
This is a list of Presidents of France by age.
Many of the Presidents of the French Republic have borne arms, either through inheritance or via membership in foreign orders of chivalry, particularly the Swedish Royal Order of the Seraphim and the Danish Order of the Elephant.
France has a multi-party political system: one in which the number of competing political parties is sufficiently large as to make it almost inevitable that in order to participate in the exercise of power any single party must be prepared to negotiate with one or more others with a view to forming electoral alliances and/or coalition agreements.
Below is a list of Presidents of France.
* French republic Presidents Presidents de:Liste der Staatsoberhäupter Frankreichs#Zweite Republik.
The following is a list of Presidents of France sorted by length of tenure.
The Senate of France is the upper house of the French Parliament.
Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.
Marie François Sadi Carnot (11 August 1837 – 25 June 1894) was a French statesman, who served as the President of France from 1887 until his assassination in 1894.
Metro International is a Swedish global media company based in Luxembourg that publishes the Metro newspapers. Metro International's advertising sales have grown at a compound annual growth rate of 41 percent since launch of the first newspaper edition in 1995.http://hugin.info/132142/R/1125327/208539.pdf It is a freesheet, meaning that distribution is free, with revenues thus generated entirely through advertising. This newspaper is primarily intended for commuters who move daily in and out of big cities' business areas, mainly during rush hours. The company was founded by Per Andersson and started as a subsidiary of the Modern Times Group along with Viasat Broadcasting. It is now controlled through the Mats Qviberg owned investment company Custos. The first edition of the newspaper was published as Metro Stockholm and distributed in the Stockholm metro., all European editions (except for the Hungarian one) have been sold, reportedly so that Metro International can focus on Latin America, considered the last growth market for free newspapers.
Michel Joseph Charasse (born 8 July 1941) is a former member of the Senate of France.
The title "Mr.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).
The National Order of Merit (Ordre national du Mérite) is a French order of merit with membership awarded by the President of the French Republic, founded on 3 December 1963 by President Charles de Gaulle.
National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.
In French politics, an ordonnance ("order") is a statutory instrument issued by the Council of Ministers in an area of law normally reserved for primary legislation enacted by the French Parliament.
A pardon is a government decision to allow a person to be absolved of guilt for an alleged crime or other legal offense, as if the act never occurred.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
Joseph Athanase Gaston Paul Doumer, commonly known as Paul Doumer (22 March 18577 May 1932) was the President of France from 13 June 1931 until his assassination on 7 May 1932.
Paul Gorguloff, originally Pavel Timofeyevich Gorgulov (Павел Тимофеевич Горгулов; June 29, 1895 – September 14, 1932) was a Russian émigré who assassinated French President Paul Doumer at a book fair at the Hôtel Salomon de Rothschild in Paris on May 6, 1932.
Presses universitaires de France (PUF, English: University Press of France), founded in 1921 by Paul Angoulvent (1899–1976), is the largest French university publishing house.
The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.
Promulgation is the formal proclamation or declaration that a new statutory or administrative law is enacted after its final approval.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
René Dosière (born 3 August 1941) is a French retired politician and activist who served as a member of the National Assembly from 1988 to 1993 and again from 1997 until 2017.
Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick, unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group, and is used primarily by dictators, absolute monarchs and military leaders.
Sante Geronimo Caserio (8 September 187316 August 1894) was an Italian anarchist and the assassin of Marie François Sadi Carnot, President of the French Third Republic.
A self-coup (or autocoup, from the Spanish autogolpe) is a form of putsch or coup d'état in which a nation's leader, despite having come to power through legal means, dissolves or renders powerless the national legislature and unlawfully assumes extraordinary powers not granted under normal circumstances.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The Senate (Sénat; pronunciation) is the upper house of the French Parliament, presided over by a president.
Sovereign immunity, or crown immunity, is a legal doctrine by which the sovereign or state cannot commit a legal wrong and is immune from civil suit or criminal prosecution.
Statutes of limitations are laws passed by legislative bodies in common law systems to set the maximum time after an event within which legal proceedings may be initiated.
The two-round system (also known as the second ballot, runoff voting or ballotage) is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing (born 2 February 1926), also known as Giscard or VGE, is a French author and elder statesman who served as President of France from 1974 to 1981 and is now a member of the Constitutional Council.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
The year 1848 in France, like in other European countries, is mostly remembered as the year of a revolution that deposed king Louis Philippe and brought Napoleon III to power as president of the second republic.
Chief of State of French Polynesia, French President, French President of the Republic, French Presidential elections, French presidency, French president, Office of the President of France, Presidency of France, President (France), President of france, President of the French Republic, President of the Republic (France), President of the french republic, Presidents of French Guiana.