158 relations: Acting President of Pakistan, Administrative units of Pakistan, Aiwan-e-Sadr, Allah, Asif Ali Zardari, Authority, Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan), Bangladesh, Bangladesh Awami League, Bangladesh Liberation War, Benazir Bhutto, Bengali nationalism, Bicameralism, Chairman, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan, Chief Election Commissioner of Pakistan, Chief Justice of Pakistan, Chief Justice of the Federal Shariat Court, Chief Martial Law Administrator, Chief of Army Staff (Pakistan), Civilian, Civilian control of the military, Commander-in-chief, Conservatism in Pakistan, Constitution of Pakistan, Constitution of Pakistan of 1956, Constitution of Pakistan of 1962, Corruption charges against Benazir Bhutto and Asif Ali Zardari, De jure, Death and state funeral of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, East Pakistan, Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, Eighth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, Elections in Pakistan, Electoral College (Pakistan), Electoral system, Elizabeth II, Excellency, Farooq Leghari, Fatima Jinnah, Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry, Figurehead, First Sharif ministry, Foreign relations of Pakistan, George VI, Ghulam Ishaq Khan, Gillani ministry, Government of Pakistan, Governor-General of Pakistan, ..., Head of state, History of Bangladesh, History of Pakistan, Impeachment, India, Indirect election, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Iskander Mirza, Islam in Pakistan, Islamabad, Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic republic, Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, Judiciary of Pakistan, Last Judgment, Law and order (politics), Lawyers' Movement, Legal Framework Order, 1970, Line of succession to the President of Pakistan, List of Justices of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, List of Presidents of Pakistan, Mamnoon Hussain, Minister of Defence (Pakistan), Minister of Finance (Pakistan), Minister of Foreign Affairs (Pakistan), Ministry of Interior (Pakistan), Mohammad Shariff, Movement to impeach Pervez Musharraf, Mr. President (title), Muhammad, Muhammad Khan Junejo, Muhammad Rafiq Tarar, Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, Murtaza Bhutto, Muslim, National Assembly of Pakistan, National Security Council (Pakistan), Nawaz Sharif, Nurul Amin, Official residence, Operation Chengiz Khan, Operation Fair Play, Operation Searchlight, Pakistan, Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction, Pakistan Armed Forces, Pakistan Muslim League, Pakistan Muslim League (N), Pakistan Muslim League (Q), Pakistan National Alliance, Pakistan Peoples Party, Pakistani general election, 1970, Pakistani general election, 1977, Pakistani general election, 1985, Pakistani general election, 1988, Pakistani general election, 1993, Pakistani general election, 1997, Pakistani Instrument of Surrender, Pakistani Islamisation programme referendum, 1984, Pakistani nationality law, Pakistani presidential election, 1965, Pakistani presidential election, 2004, Pakistani presidential election, 2007, Pakistani presidential election, 2008, Pakistani state of emergency, 2007, Pakistanis, Paralysis, Pardon, Parliament of Pakistan, Parliamentary republic, Parliamentary system, Peace be upon him, People of the Book, Pervez Musharraf, Policy studies, Power (social and political), Power politics, President, Presidential palace, Presidential Standard of Pakistan, Presidential system, Prime Minister of Pakistan, Prime Minister's Office (Pakistan), Principal Secretary to the President of Pakistan, Privatisation in Pakistan, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Quran, Representative democracy, Senate of Pakistan, Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, Shamim Alam Khan, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Socialism in Pakistan, Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan, State of the Union, Sunnah, Supreme Court of Pakistan, Syed Sajjad Ali Shah, Tawhid, The Honourable, Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, Two-third rule, Yahya Khan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, 1958 Pakistani coup d'état, 1960 U-2 incident, 1999 Pakistani coup d'état. Expand index (108 more) » « Shrink index
The Acting President of Pakistan (نگران صدر پاکستان) is a temporary post provided for by the Constitution of Pakistan.
The administrative units of Pakistan (انتظامی اکائیاں) consist of five provinces (Balochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh), one autonomous territory (Azad Jammu and Kashmir) and one federal territory (Islamabad Capital Territory).
The Aiwan-e-Sadr or Presidency Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of Pakistan.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
Asif Ali Zardari (آصف علی زرداری; آصف علي زرداري; born 26 July 1955) is a Pakistani politician and the former co-chairperson of Pakistan People's Party.
Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).
Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bangladesh Awami League (BAL) (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ; translated from Urdu: Bangladesh People's League), often simply called the Awami League or AL, is one of the two major political parties of Bangladesh.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
Benazir Bhutto (بينظير ڀُٽو; 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani politician who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1988 to 1990 and again from 1993 to 1996.
Bengali nationalism is one of the four fundamental principles according to the original Constitution of Bangladesh.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
The chairman (also chairperson, chairwoman or chair) is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly.
The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (CJCSC) is, in principle, the highest-ranking and senior most military officer, typically at four-star rank, in the Pakistan Armed Forces who serves as a principal military adviser to the civilian government led by elected Prime minister of Pakistan and his/her National Security Council.
The Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan (صدر ایوانِ بالا), is the president-chair of the Senate of Pakistan.
The Chief Election Commissioner is the authority and the appointed chair of the Election Commission of Pakistan— an institution constitutionally empowered to conduct free and fair elections to the national and provincial legislatures.
The Chief Justice of Pakistan (initials as CJP) is the head of the court system of Pakistan (the judicature branch of government) and the chief judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan.
The Chief Justice heads the Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan.
The office of the Chief Martial Law Administrator was a senior government authoritative post created in countries such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia that gave considerable executive authority and powers to the holder of the post to enforce martial law in the country in an events to ensure the continuity of government.
The Chief of Army Staff (سربراہ پاک فوج) (reporting name: COAS), is a military appointment and statutory office held by the four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.
A civilian is "a person who is not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force".
Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a country's strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Conservatism in Pakistan (پاكستانی قدامت پسندی), generally relates to the traditional, social, and religious identities in the politics of Pakistan.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu), also known as the 1973 Constitution is the supreme law of Pakistan.
The Constitution of 1956 was the fundamental law of Pakistan from March 1956 until the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état.
The Constitution of 1962 was the fundamental law of Pakistan from June 1962 until martial law was declared in March 1969.
After the dismissal of Benazir Bhutto's first government on 6 August 1990 by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan on grounds of corruption, the government of Pakistan issued directives to its intelligence agencies to investigate the allegations.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
The state funeral of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq was held on 19 August 1988 in Shah Faisal Mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
The Eighteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Pakistan (Urdu: آئین پاکستان میں اٹھارہویں ترمیم) was passed by the National Assembly of Pakistan on April 8, 2010, removing the power of the President of Pakistan to dissolve the Parliament unilaterally, turning Pakistan from a semi-presidential to a parliamentary republic, and renaming North-West Frontier Province to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
The Eighth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan (Urdu: آئین پاکستان میں آٹھویں ترمیم) allowed the President to unilaterally dissolve the National Assembly and elected governments.
Since its establishment in 1947, Pakistan has had an asymmetric federal government and is a federal parliamentary democratic republic.
The President of Pakistan is chosen by an electoral college, in Pakistan.
An electoral system is a set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy.
Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari (English IPA: fɑrukʰ æɦmæd ləɡhərɪ̈) (Balochi, Saraiki, سردار فاروق احمد خان لغاری; 29 May 1940 – 20 October 2010), was a Pakistani politician who served as the 8th President of Pakistan from 14 November 1993 until resigning on 2 December 1997.
Fatima Jinnah English IPA: fətɪ̈mɑ d͡ʒinnəɦ, (فاطمہ جناح; 31 July 1893 – 9 July 1967) was a Pakistani dental surgeon, biographer, stateswoman and one of the leading founders of Pakistan.
Fazal Elahi Chaudhry English IPA: fəzɛl ɪllɑɦi t͡ʃɒɪdɾɪ (Punjabi, فضل الہی چودہری; 1 January 1904 – 2 June 1982), was the 5th President of Pakistan, serving from 1973 until 1978, prior to the martial law led by Chief of Army Staff General Zia-ul-Haq.
In politics, a figurehead is a person who holds de jure (in name or by law) an important title or office (often supremely powerful), yet de facto (in reality) executes little actual power.
The first Sharif ministry under prime minister Nawaz Sharif was sworn into office on 9 November 1990, after the nine-party Islami Jamhoori Ittehad (IJI) unanimously nominated him the government head.
Pakistan is the second largest Muslim-majority country in terms of population (after Indonesia) and its status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Muslim majority nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
Ghulam Ishaq Khan (غلام اسحاق خان.; January 20, 1915 – 27 October 2006), was a Pakistani bureaucrat who served as the 7th President of Pakistan, elected in 1988 until his resignation in 1993.
The Gilani ministry began its operation into office on 31 March 2008 after Yousaf Raza Gillani was elected as Prime minister of Pakistan by the National Assembly on 25 March 2008.
The Government of Pakistan (حکومتِ پاکستان) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
The Governor-General of Pakistan (گورنر جنرل پاکستان), was the representative in Pakistan of the British monarch, from the country's independence in 1947.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Modern Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation in 1971 after breaking away and achieving independence from Pakistan in the Bangladesh Liberation War.
The history of Pakistan encompasses the history of the region constituting modern-day Pakistan.
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An indirect election is an election in which voters do not choose between candidates for an office, but elect people who then choose.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971.
Sahibzada Iskander Ali Mirza (اسکندر مرزا, ইস্কান্দার মির্জা); 13 November 1899 – 13 November 1969),, was the first President of Pakistan, elected in this capacity in 1956 until being dismissed by his appointed army commander General Ayub Khan in 1958. Mirza was educated at the University of Mumbai before attending the military academy in Sandhurst in the United Kingdom. After a brief military service in the British Indian Army, he joined the Indian Political Service and spent the majority of his career as a political agent in the Western region of the British India until elevated as joint secretary at the Ministry of Defence in 1946. After the independence of Pakistan as result of the Partition of India, Mirza was appointed as first Defence Secretary by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan, only to oversee the military efforts in first war with India in 1947, followed by failed secessionism in Balochistan in 1948. In 1954, he was appointed as Governor of his home province of East Bengal by Prime Minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra to control the law and order sparked as a result of the popular language movement in 1952, but later elevated as Interior Minister in Bogra administration in 1955. Playing a crucial role in ousting of Governor-General Sir Malik Ghulam, Mirza assumed his position in 1955 and was elected as the first President of Pakistan when the first set of Constitution was promulgated in 1956. His presidency, however, marked with political instability which saw his unconstitutional interferences in the civilian administration that led to the dismissal of four prime ministers in a mere two years. Facing challenges in getting the political endorsements and reelection for the presidency, Mirza surprisingly suspended the writ of the Constitution by having imposed martial law against his own party's administration governed by Prime Minister Feroze Khan on 8 October 1958, enforcing it through his army commander General Ayub Khan who dismissed him when the situation between them escalated, also in 1958. Mirza lived in the United Kingdom for the remainder of his life and was buried in Iran in 1969. His legacy and image is viewed negatively by some Pakistani historians who believe that Mirza was responsible for political instability in the country.
Islam is the largest and the state religion of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.
An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (جوانٹ چيفس ﺁف اسٹاف كميٹى; JCSC), is an administrative body of senior high-ranking uniformed military leaders of the unified Pakistan Armed Forces who advises the civilian Government of Pakistan, National Security Council, Defence Minister, President and Prime minister of Pakistan on important military and non-military strategic matters.
The judiciary of Pakistan (پاکستان کا عدلیہ) is a hierarchical system with two classes of courts: the superior (or higher) judiciary and the subordinate (or lower) judiciary.
The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.
In politics, law and order (also known as tough on crime and the War on Crime) refers to demands for a strict criminal justice system, especially in relation to violent and property crime, through stricter criminal penalties.
The Lawyers' Movement, also known as the Movement for the Restoration of Judiciary or the Black Coat Protests, was the popular mass protest movement initiated by the lawyers of Pakistan in response to the former president and army chief Pervez Musharraf's actions of 9 March 2007 when he unconstitutionally suspended Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry as the chief justice of Pakistan's Supreme Court.
The Legal Framework Order, 1970 (LFO) was a decree issued by then-President of Pakistan Gen.
Line of succession to the President of Pakistan: Pakistan, by law, has a parliamentary democratic system of government that has been modified several times since its inception.
The Supreme Court of Pakistan is the highest and apex court in the judicial hierarchy in Pakistan.
The President of Pakistan is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Mamnoon Hussain (ممنون حسین; born 23 December 1940) is a Pakistani businessman and conservative politician who is the 12th President of Pakistan, in office since 2013.
The Minister of Defence heads the Ministry of Defence and who Pakistan Army, Pakistan Air Force, and Pakistan Navy.
The Minister of Finance is Cabinet member who is leads the Ministry of Finance.
The following is the list of all the previous foreign ministers of Pakistan to date.
The Ministry of Interior and Narcotics Control (وزارت داخلہ, abbreviated as MoI) is a Cabinet-level ministry of the Government of Pakistan, tasked and primarily responsible for implementing the internal policies, state security, administration of internal affairs involving the state, and assisting the government on territorial affairs of Federally Administered Tribal Areas (Fata), and insular areas of Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA).
Admiral Mohammad Shariff Khan (Urdu: ايڈمرل محمد شريف; b.1920–7 July 2015,, was a four-star rank admiral and a memoirist who was at the center of all the major decisions made in Pakistan in the events involving the war with India in 1971, the enforcement of martial law in the country in 1977, and the decision in covertly intervening against Soviet Union in Afghanistan. Gaining commission in the Royal Indian Navy, he participated in the World War II on behalf of Great Britain before joining the Pakistan Navy in 1947 as one of the senior staff officer. In 1969, he was appointed Flag Officer Commanding of the Eastern Command of the Pakistan military in the East-Pakistan and led by the Eastern Naval Command during the civil war in East, followed by the foreign intervention by India in 1971. After the war, he was taken as war prisoner alongside with Lieutenant-General A.A.K Niazi after conceding of the surrender of Eastern Command to the Indian Army. He resumed his active military service in the Navy after his repatriation from India and was appointed the Chief of Naval Staff in 1975 after the sudden death of Vice-Admiral Hasan Ahmed. He has the distinction of being the first four-star admiral in the navy and was the first admiral to be appointed as Chairman joint chiefs committee in 1978 until 1980. As the Chairman Joint Chiefs Committee, he continued to advocate for an aggressive foreign policy and a strong nuclear deterrent against the foreign intervention. After retiring from the military in 1980, Shariff was appointed as chairman of Federal Public Service Commission while he continued his role as military adviser to President Zia-ul-Haq until 1988 when he retired from public service. After living a quiet life in Islamabad, he announced to publish his memoirs, "Admiral's Diary", on providing further accounts, causes, and failure of military crackdown in East Pakistan.
The movement to impeach Pervez Musharraf was an August 2008 attempt by opposition parties comprising the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), Pakistan Muslim League (N) (PML-N), Awami National Party (ANP), and Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam to force Pakistan's President Pervez Musharraf out of office.
The title "Mr.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Mohammad Khan Junejo (Urdu:; Sindhi: محمد خان جوڻيجو; August 18, 1932 – March 18, 1993) was a Pakistani politician and an agriculturist who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan, having elected in this capacity in 1985 until being dismissed in 1988.
Muhammad Rafiq Tarar (محمد رفیق تارڑ; born 2 November 1929) is a retired senior justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan who served as the 9th President of Pakistan from 20 January 1998 until resigning the office on 20 June 2001.
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (12 August 1924 – 17 August 1988) was a Pakistani four-star general who served as the 6th President of Pakistan from 1978 until his death in 1988, after declaring martial law in 1977.
Mir Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto (18 September 1954 – 20 September 1996), was a Pakistani politician.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Qaumi Assembly Pakistan (قومی اسمبلئ پاکستان or National Assembly of Pakistan (ایوانِ زیریں پاکستان) is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the President of Pakistan and Aiwan-e Bala (upper house). The Qaumi Assembly and the Aiwan-e Bala both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body consisting of a total of 342 members who are referred to as Members of the National Assembly (MNAs), of which 272 are directly elected members and 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities. A political party must secure 172 seats to obtain and preserve a majority. Members are elected through the first-past-the-post system under universal adult suffrage, representing electoral districts known as National Assembly constituencies. According to the constitution, the 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities are allocated to the political parties according to their proportional representation. Each National Assembly is formed for a five-year term, commencing from the date of the first sitting, after which it is automatically dissolved. Currently the National Assembly can not be dissolved by the President of Pakistan, it is dissolved by the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Election for 13th National Assembly was held on 18 February 2008. On March 17, 2013 13th National Assembly was dissolved on completion of its five-year term under Article 52 of the Constitution. Pakistani general election, 2013 (for the 14th National Assembly) was held on May 11, 2013. Members of 14th National Assembly took oath on June 1, 2013. The 14th National Assembly dissolved on 31 May 2018 after completing its 5 year term.
The National Security Council (شورا قومی حفاظتی) (reporting name: NSC) is a federal institutional and consultative body chaired by the Prime Minister of Pakistan as its chairman.
Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu/میاں محمد نواز شریف, born 25 December 1949) is a Pakistani business magnate and former politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Pakistan for three non-consecutive terms, all of the three terms were unsuccessful.
Nurul Amin (English IPA:nʊɾul əmin, নূরুল আমীন, نورالامین; 1893–1974), referred to as the Patriot of Pakistan, was a prominent Pakistani leader, and a jurist.
An official residence is the residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor or other senior figure officially resides.
Operation Chengiz Khan was the code name assigned to the preemptive strikes carried out by the Pakistani Air Force (PAF) on the forward airbases and radar installations of the Indian Air Force (IAF) on the evening of 3 December 1971, and marked the formal initiation of hostilities of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
Operation Fair Play was the code name for the 5 July 1977 coup by Pakistan Chief of Army Staff General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, overthrowing the government of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
Operation Searchlight was a planned military operation carried out by the Pakistan Army to curb the Bengali nationalist movement in the erstwhile East Pakistan in March 1971, which the Pakistani state justified on the basis of anti-Bihari violence by Bengalis in early March.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pakistan is one of nine states to possess nuclear weapons. Pakistan began development of nuclear weapons in January 1972 under Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan with a commitment to having the bomb ready by the end of 1976. Since PAEC, consisting of over twenty laboratories and projects under nuclear engineer Munir Ahmad Khan, was falling behind schedule and having considerable difficulty producing fissile material, Abdul Qadeer Khan was brought from Europe by Bhutto at the end of 1974. As pointed out by Houston Wood, Professor of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, in his article on gas centrifuges, "The most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is the production of fissile material"; as such, this work in producing fissile material as head of the Kahuta Project was pivotal to Pakistan developing the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb by the end of 1984.Levy, Adrian and Catherine Scott-Clark, Deception: Pakistan, the United States, and the Secret Trade in Nuclear Weapons. New York. Walker Publishing Company. 1977: page 112. Print. The Kahuta Project started under the supervision of a coordination board that oversaw the activities of KRL and PAEC. The Board consisted of A G N Kazi (secretary general, finance), Ghulam Ishaq Khan (secretary general, defence), and Agha Shahi (secretary general, foreign affairs), and reported directly to Bhutto. Ghulam Ishaq Khan and General Tikka Khan appointed military engineer Major General Ali Nawab to the program. Eventually, the supervision passed to Lt General Zahid Ali Akbar Khan in President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's Administration. Moderate uranium enrichment for the production of fissile material was achieved at KRL by April 1978. Pakistan's nuclear weapons development was in response to the loss of East Pakistan in 1971's Bangladesh Liberation War. Bhutto called a meeting of senior scientists and engineers on 20 January 1972, in Multan, which came to known as "Multan meeting". Bhutto was the main architect of this programme, and it was here that Bhutto orchestrated nuclear weapons programme and rallied Pakistan's academic scientists to build the atomic bomb in three years for national survival. At the Multan meeting, Bhutto also appointed Munir Ahmad Khan as chairman of PAEC, who, until then, had been working as director at the nuclear power and Reactor Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in Vienna, Austria. In December 1972, Abdus Salam led the establishment of Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) as he called scientists working at ICTP to report to Munir Ahmad Khan. This marked the beginning of Pakistan's pursuit of nuclear deterrence capability. Following India's surprise nuclear test, codenamed Smiling Buddha in 1974, the first confirmed nuclear test by a nation outside the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council, the goal to develop nuclear weapons received considerable impetus. Finally, on 28 May 1998, a few weeks after India's second nuclear test (Operation Shakti), Pakistan detonated five nuclear devices in the Ras Koh Hills in the Chagai district, Balochistan. This operation was named Chagai-I by Pakistan, the underground iron-steel tunnel having been long-constructed by provincial martial law administrator General Rahimuddin Khan during the 1980s. The last test of Pakistan was conducted at the sandy Kharan Desert under the codename Chagai-II, also in Balochistan, on 30 May 1998. Pakistan's fissile material production takes place at Nilore, Kahuta, and Khushab Nuclear Complex, where weapons-grade plutonium is refined. Pakistan thus became the seventh country in the world to successfully develop and test nuclear weapons. Although, according to a letter sent by A.Q. Khan to General Zia, the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb using highly enriched uranium as fissile material produced at KRL had been achieved by KRL in 1984.
The Pakistan Armed Forces (پاکستان مُسَلّح افواج, Pākistān Musallah Afwāj) are the military forces of Pakistan.
The Pakistan Muslim League (پاکستان مسلم لیگ; known as PML), is the name of several Pakistani political parties that have dominated the Right-wing platform since the 1960s.
The Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) (پاکستان مسلم لیگ (ن) PML-N) is a centre-right conservative party in Pakistan.
The Pakistan Muslim League (Quaid e Azam Group) پاکستان مسلم لیگ (ق); Acronyms: PML(Q), PML-Q, PMLQ) is a centre-nationalist political party in Pakistan. As of the 2013 Parliamentary election, it has a representation of 2 seats. It previously served as an ally of former Prime minister Raja Pervez Ashraf's then government, and led a joint election campaign in 2013 alongside Pakistan Peoples Party in Punjab and Balochistan provinces against its rival Pakistan Muslim League (N), a fiscal conservative and centre-right force. Its leadership and members were once part of the Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) presided by former prime minister Nawaz Sharif. After the 1997 general elections, political differences arose that ultimately led to the creation of a faction inside the party. The dissidents, led by Shujaat Hussain, called for strong and vocal support for the 1999 military coup d'état staged and led by then-Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Pervez Musharaff. In 2002, dissident leaders launched the party, focused on President Pervez Musharraf’s government. It later became an integral part of Musharraf's government and appointed their own Prime minister, Shaukat Aziz. Dissident leader Shujaat Hussain was named party president, while the party began the annihilation of PML(N)'s structure. Full advantage was taken by Musharraf, who granted opportunities to the party with a goal of exclusive support of the government and to diminish the public support of Sharif. National security adviser Tarik Aziz had played a pivotal role who "had engineered the idea in advance of the elections of 2002 of converting the PML(N)'s centre-right ideology back to centrism, PML(Q), the Q standing for "Quaid-e-Azam". However the idea collapsed when PML (N) emerged as the largest conservative front and the largest opposition party. The party suffered many setbacks thereafter when its membership began to disintegrate after forming a separate bloc with close association with the PML-N, including the Like-Minded and Avami League blocs and second, the former president's bloc. Senior members joined PML-N, while the junior leadership defected to the PTI. In September 2010, PML (Q) joined its similar ideological faction, PML-F, forming the Pakistan Muslim League (Pir Pagara), but this was short-lived when in May 2011 the party joined the Yousaf Raza Gillani led-government to fulfill the gap left by its rival PML-N. However, the party announced its resignation from the Parliament, citing the failure of the Pakistan Peoples Party to resolve the energy crisis as the reason, which had direct impact on the federal government. The situation become better by giving relief in fuel prices on 15th June 2012.
The Pakistan National Alliance (Urdu: پاکستان قومی اتحاد, Acronym: PNA), was a populist and consolidated right-wing political alliance, consisting of nine political parties of the country.
The Pakistan Peoples Party (پاکِستان پیپلز پارٹی, commonly referred to as the PPP) is a left-wing, socialist-progressive political party of Pakistan.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 7 December 1970.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 7 March 1977 to elect the 200 parliamentarians to both houses (Senate and National Assembly) of the Parliament of Pakistan.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 28 February 1985.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 16 November 1988, electing the 336 members of the National Assembly and 100 members of the Senate.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 6 October 1993.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 3 February 1997 to elect the National Assembly of Pakistan and the four provincial assemblies.
The Pakistani Instrument of Surrender (পাকিস্তানের আত্মসমর্পণের দলিল, Pākistānēr Atmasamarpaṇēr Dalil) was a written agreement that enabled the surrender of the Pakistan Armed Forces on 16 December 1971 at the Ramna Race Course garden in Dhaka, thereby ending the Bangladesh Liberation War.
A referendum on the Islamisation policy of President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq was held in Pakistan on 19 December 1984.
The Pakistani nationality law governs citizenship of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Pakistan's first ever Presidential Elections were held on January 2, 1965.
Presidential elections were held by the Electoral College of Pakistan on 1 January 2004.
An indirect presidential election was held in Pakistan on 6 October 2007.
An indirect presidential election was held on 6 September 2008 in Pakistan.
A state of emergency was declared by President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf on 3 November 2007, and lasted until 15 December 2007, during which time the constitution of Pakistan was suspended.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
A pardon is a government decision to allow a person to be absolved of guilt for an alleged crime or other legal offense, as if the act never occurred.
The Parliament of Pakistan (مجلس شوریٰ پاکستان —) is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Arabic phrase ʿalayhi s-salām (عليه السلام), which translates as "peace be upon him" is a conventionally complimentary phrase or durood attached to the names of the prophets in Islam.
People of the Book/Scripture (أهل الكتاب ′Ahl al-Kitāb) is an Islamic term referring to Jews, Christians, and Sabians and sometimes applied to members of other religions such as Zoroastrians.
Pervez Musharraf (پرویز مشرف; born 11 August 1943) is a Pakistani politician and a retired four-star army general who was the tenth President of Pakistan from 2001 until tendering resignation, to avoid impeachment, in 2008.
Policy studies emerged in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s as a subdisicipline of political science.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
Power politics (or, in German, Machtpolitik) is a form of international relations in which sovereign entities protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic or political aggression.
The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics.
A presidential palace is the official residence of the president in some countries.
The Presidential Standard of Pakistan is the official flag of the President of Pakistan.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".
The Prime Minister's Office (also referred to as PMO) is the official residence and principle workplace of the Prime Minister of Pakistan, located at 44000 Constitution Avenue, Islamabad, Pakistan.
The Principal Secretary to the President of Pakistan is the senior most bureaucratic aide to the President of Pakistan.
The Privatization process in Pakistan (sometimes referred to as Denationalization programme or simply the Privatization in Pakistan) was a policy measure programme in the economic period of Pakistan.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Aiwan-e Bala (ایوانِ بالا) or Senate of Pakistan is the upper legislative chamber of the bicameral legislature of Pakistan, and together with the Qaumi Assembly makes up the Majlis-e-Shoora.
The Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan (Urdu: آئین پاکستان میں سترہویں ترمیم) was an amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan passed in December 2003, after over a year of political wrangling between supporters and opponents of Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf.
General Shamim Allam Khan Urdu: شميم ىالم; b. 18 August 1937),, is a retired four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who served as the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, appointed in this capacity in 1991 until retiring on 1994.
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান);; (17 March 1920 – 15 August 1975), shortened as Sheikh Mujib or just Mujib, was a Bengali politician and statesman.
The influences of socialism and socialist movements in Pakistan have taken many different forms as a counterpart to political conservatism, from the groups like Lal Salam which is the Pakistani section of the International Marxist Tendency, The Struggle, to the Stalinist group like Communist Party through to the reformist electoral project enshrined in the birth of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) While capitalism has always held its sway, the prevalence of the socialist ideology has nevertheless continued to be found in a number of instances in Pakistan's political past and prominent personalities.
The Speaker of the National Assembly (Urdu: اسﭘيكر نيشنل اسمبلى); informally as Speaker National assembly, is the presiding official of the National Assembly of Pakistan– a lower house of the Parliament of Pakistan.
The State of the Union Address is an annual message presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, except in the first year of a new president's term.
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
The Supreme Court of Pakistan (عدالت عظمیٰ پاکستان; Adālat-e-Uzma Pākistān) is the apex court in the judicial hierarchy of Pakistan.
Syed Sajjad Ali Shah (سید سجاد علی شاہ) was the Chief Justice of Pakistan from 4 June 1994 to 2 December 1997.
Tawhid (توحيد, meaning "oneness " also romanized as tawheed, touheed, or tevhid) is the indivisible oneness concept of monotheism in Islam.
The prefix The Honourable or The Honorable (abbreviated to The Hon., Hon. or formerly The Hon'ble—the latter term is still used in South Asia) is a style that is used before the names of certain classes of people.
The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan (Urdu: آئین پاکستان میں تیرہویں ترمیم) was a short-time amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, adopted by the elected Parliament of Pakistan in 1997 by the government of people elected Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.
Two-third rule is British railway safety rule.
Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (آغا محمد یحییٰ خان; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), widely known as Yahya Khan,, was the third President of Pakistan, serving in this post from 25 March 1969 until turning over his presidency in December 1971.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.
The 1958 Pakistani coup d'état refers to the events between October 7, when the President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution of Pakistan and declared martial law, and October 27, when Mirza himself was deposed by Gen.
On 1 May 1960, a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down by the Soviet Air Defence Forces while performing photographic aerial reconnaissance deep into Soviet territory.
The 1999 Pakistani coup d'état was a bloodless coup d'état in which the Pakistan Army and then-Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Pervez Musharraf, seized the control of the civilian government of publicly elected Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on 12 October 1999.
Head of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Head of Pakistani state, Head of State of Pakistan, Head of state of Pakistan, Islamabad presidency, Pakistan President, Pakistani President, Pakistani presidency, Pakistani president, Presidency of Pakistan, President Of Pakistan, President of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, President of pakistan, President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Presidents of Pakistan, Sadar-e-Pakistan, Sadr-e-Pakistan, Supreme Commander of the Pakistan Armed Forces, صدر مملکت پاکستان.